JavaScript must be enabled to use the Mbay language sound dictionary. If you do not have or wish to enable javascript, please view the Mbay PDF dictionary.

The Sound Dictionary is loading...


loading image

Dictionary Mbay

John M. Keegan


The Sara-Bagirmi Language Project

Morkeg Books
Cuenca

Information sur
le Projet des Langues Sara-Baguirmiènne
est disponible à

http://morkegbooks.com/Services/World/Languages/SaraBagirmi

Introduction

Ce travail a été rendu possible par des dons de National Endowment to the Humanities (FN-5007410, FN-5010412 et FN50134-14).


Abréviations

Aux. - verbe auxiliaire
Av. - adverbe
Cmp. - « complementizer »
Cnj. - conjonction
Exp. - expr. idiomatique
fréq. - fréquentatif
Id. - idéophone
Inf. - infinitif
Inj. - interjection
Int. - interrogatif
Loc. - locatif
N. - nom
Nin. - nom inaliénable
NP. - nom propre
Pr. - pronom
PrA - affixe pronominal
qqc - quelque chose
qqn - quelqu’un
Spc. - « specifier »  (article ou démonstratif)
NPl - marque le pluriel d’un nom
Num. - numéro
V. - verbe
VN - nom verbal
VPl - marque le pluriel du verbe
VT - verbe transitif
v. - voir

1
à VAU will {future marker}. à ɗèē lòo-tīi. He will come tomorrow. VAU {habitual marker}. à ɗāa-n̄ tá̰a̰-kúl̄ kɨ̀ gúm. 'Long sauce' is made with the plant called "gum".
à (Syn: è) INT particle marking an interrogative sentence (alternate to ). Bà̰ý à? How goes it? ī-tò kàrī à? How are you?
à (Syn: ànḛ̄) CNJ general connector of two independant clauses; then; and so, and then, and. Ngōn-í ì ɓògɨ̀ kàá à ì ngè-yòo àĺ. Even if your child is a thief, at least he's not a sorcerer. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ nā̰a̰ tá̰a̰ nèl̄ tà-á péléng à nīńg túu-bè. The woman tasted the sauce and she liked it so much she ate it all. Expr: à ké -or ī-gèe mbùr̄ kə̀ tá̰a̰ à ké kə́ kàrī wà.Do you want 'boule' with sauce or without.
ā Aux will (future marker, 1/2 pers. of à).
AF in, at {locative suffix} (follows stems containing 'a'; see also -é,-í,-ó,-ɔ́,-ú). bāa-á/ɓāl-á/ɓàr-á at the river/in the dry season/in the rainy season
PRA him, her, it {obj. of verb}. Ngè-kɔ́l òō kèdɨ̄ ànḛ̄ ndà tɔ̄l-á. The hunter saw the elephant and shot and killed it. PRA him, her, it {obl.}. m̄-gèe kɨ̀ m-ó̰o̰ mbùr̄ sì-á. I want to eat 'boule' with him. PRA his, her, its. Ngōn-á ì mò̰y. His child is sick. Yír-kɨ́-ndàa à ndīr-n̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́. Tá̰a̰-á màjɨ̀ ngá̰y. White hibiscus is used to make sauce; its sauce is very good.
-áa (Syn: =-óo) VOA oh good (man, woman, etc.) (suffixed to stems containing a or a). Nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ-áa! Oh good woman! {said to young woman; can also be vocative for 'my wife'} Nān-ḿ-áa! Oh good gentleman! {said to fairly young man; can also be vocative for 'my uncle'} Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ-áa! Ngōn-ḿ-áa. Oh my father! Oh my child!
àā VI go (see àw̄). M-āa sáā bìsɨ̄ kàsɨ̀ tɨ́ kɨ̀ m-ādɨ̄ bòr̄-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ sà-n̄. I went to look for beer scum to give to my pigs to eat. VT go in search of.
àbàsúl Arabic NI skunk, winning in cards so that opponent has no points. I skunked you, since you didn't take a single trick.
àbḭ̀yō̰o̰,àbḭ̀yó̰ò̰ French NI airplane. àbḭ̀yō̰o̰ tɔ̀ӯ dò̰ó̰ kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ làā. An airplane flew overhead this morning. àbḭ̀yō̰o̰ ùdɨ̀ bèŕ/ɓày dò̰ó̰. The airplane landed/took off. My son came by airplane and came and met me here at home. Expr: lòo-kùdɨ̀-àbḭ̀yō̰o̰ -airport Lòo-kùdɨ̀-àbḭ̀yō̰o̰ kɨ́ Njàménà tɨ́ àbḭ̀yō̰o̰-gɨ̄ bà̰y-n̄ tɨ́ ngá̰y.At the airport in N'djamena there are a lot of airplanes.
àbɨ̀lày (Syn: =hàbɨ̀lày) NI whip made of leather {traditionally hippopotamus skin}. Dèē-gɨ̄ ndà-n̄ ngōn ndíl-í kɨ̀ àbɨ̀lày. The people hit the boy at the place of judgement with a whip.
àbríl̀ French NP April. Lòo nìngā àbríl̀ tɨ́ ngá̰y. It's very hot in April.
àbtàlátà Arabic NI queen (cards). Expr: àbtàlátà lò sùbátà/kúbì/jɨ̀nárì/sɨ̀nékɨ̀ -queen of spades/hearts/diamonds/clubs
àbtìnéǹ,àbɨ̀tìnéǹ Arabic NI jack (cards). Expr: àbtìnéǹ lò sùbátà/kúbì/jɨ̀nárì/sɨ̀nékɨ̀ -jack of spades/hearts/diamonds/clubs
àdɨ̄ VT2 give. ādɨ̄-m̄ sɨ́ndá-gá̰à̰ tɨ́ lò-í m-āw-ň mbāa. Please give me your bicycle so I can travel with it. VT allow, permit, let. ādɨ̄ m-āw sè-í. Let me go with you. Súu gèe kàdɨ̄ Ngāró àdɨ̄-ǹ n-àw̄ sì-á. Suu wants Ngaro to let him go with him. VT have, oblige. ādɨ̄ ndà ndɔ̄ɔ̄ dɔ̀-á tɨ́. Have him pay a fine. VT leave for, leave to. Kó̰o̰-í sà dā̰a̰ túu-bè nà̰ àdɨ̄-jɨ̀ kɨ̄ngā tā̰á̰. Your mother ate all the meat and left us only the bones. Expr: álà àdɨ̄ [dèē] -God to save [s.o.] álà àdɨ̄-á ngá̰y àdɨ̄ bɔ̀ɔ̄-á ɗèē àĺ.God saved him so that his father didn't come.
2
àdɨ̄ CNJ so that, and as a result (takes subj. prefixes: thus, m-ādɨ̄ 'so that (for 1st person subj.)'). Ndīi èdɨ̀ ngá̰y àdɨ̄ màn̄ bāa bùr̄. It rained a lot and as a result the river water was muddy. m̄-nàjɨ̀ kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ kàdɨ̀-á m-ādɨ̄-á àӯ. I stretched my clothes out in the sun so that they could dry. CNJ so. àdɨ̄ lòo-tīi lā ā ī-tɔ̀ӯ yóō? So tomorrow you're leaving? àdɨ̄ ī-gèe ɓògɨ̀-m̄ wà? So you want to steal from me, eh?
àdɨ̄ PRP for (takes subj. affixes like a verb: thus m-ādɨ̄ is used with 1st per.subj., etc.). ún bíkɨ̀ nò ādɨ̄-m̄. Grab that pen for me. PRP to. m̄-lá kɨ̀ létɨ̀r m-ādɨ̄ nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ. I sent a letter to my wife.
ādɨ̄ VI may, let it be that (derived from second person of àdɨ̄ 'to give'). ādɨ̄ álà ndì sè-sɨ́. May God be with you.
àgɨ̀ VI crawl. Ngōn-ḿ àgɨ̀ wòy, ɓétɨ́ à ɓày ndīyā ngɔ̀r. My child is already crawling, soon he'll be walking. Snakes crawl on the ground. VT creep up to, stalk. The lion crept up to the gazelle to catch it.
àgɨ̄ VI increase in volume (grain). The beans I was cooking got bigger and filled the pot. Ngōn ń-ɗàn ùn mùnjò hòr-ó ànḛ̄ à àgɨ̄ ngá̰y àdɨ̄ kɨ̀ sà-n̄. That boy there puts the beans on the fire and they increase in volume so we can eat them. VI be big (eyes). Kùm-á àgɨ̄ ɓìtɨ̀tɨ̀. His eyes are big and ugly. VI stand on end (body hair), stick up. Bḭ̀ḭ̄-ḿ àgɨ̄ mùgɨ̀gɨ̀. My hair stood on end. Expr: kùm [dèē] àgɨ̄ ɗɔ́l -[s.o.'s] eyes have bump on them Kùm-á àgɨ̄ ɗɔ́l.His eye has bumps on it.
àhá̰à̰ (Syn: à̰a̰a̰) INJ now you see!. àhá̰à̰, ngóo ń ī-tɔ̄ɔ̄ nò m-ā m-él kíyā-á. Now you'll see, that gourd you broke, I'm going to tell its owner.
àjɨ̀ VT cure, heal. Kḭ̄ḭ ń m̄-túr̄ dá àjɨ̀-m̄ wòy. The medicine I took has cured me. VI be cured, get better. ī-dám̄ ngōn-ḿ ādɨ̄-á àjɨ̀ ādɨ̄-m̄ nà yá̰a̰ ń ā ī-gèe nò m-ā m-ādɨ̄-ī. If you treat my child so that he gets better, I'll give you anything you want. [lit: you-cure child-my he-gets-better for-me and thing that AUX you-want EC I-AUX I-give you. VI take root (plant). Mángò-gɨ̄ ń m̄-hɔ́ dá àjɨ̀-n̄ pétɨ́. The mangoes I transplanted have all taken root. VT save. Tò à̰ӯ màn̄ bāa-á lā m-ájɨ́-á yé. He was drowning in the river and I saved him. Expr: tò àjɨ̀ -be alive still Kèdɨ̄ ń ḿ-ndá kɨ̀ búndɨ́ njà mɨ̀tá ń-há̰ m-ōo m-áǹ òy nò tò àjɨ̀.The elephant I shot three times with a rifle, and which I thought was dead, was still alive.
ájɨ́bà Arabic NI prostitute. m̄-gèe sòr̄ ájɨ́bà-gɨ̄ àĺ nà̰ wétɨ́ m-ún bájàl. I don't want to sleep with prostitutes lest later I contract gonorrhea. NI prostitution. Expr: ɗāa ájɨ́bà -perform prostitution, be a prostitute Ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ ngè ɗāa ájɨ́bà ì dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ tújɨ́.A girl who performs prostitution is a ruined woman.
àjɨ̀là Arabic CNJ may, may God grant that. àjɨ̀là nān-í ngà yá̰a̰-kōo ngá̰y. May your uncle find a lot of millet.
àkúu Sango (Syn: kókòwārī) NI parrot. The parrot is a bird which imitates people's voices.
àl VI grow on [ground] (plant) (normally followed by bèŕ 'on the ground'). ì dḭ̀ḭ kɨ́ à àl bèŕ. It's a plant that grows on the ground. Yā̰ŕ ì kám kɨ́ à àl. à tɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ kɨ̀lā-á hétɨ̄-n̄-nèé ndògɨ̄. à kúl̄-n̄-nèé tá̰a̰ hō. 'Yar' is a bush that grows on the ground. Its bark is made into rope and woven into grass fencing. Its fruit is used for sauce.
àl VT swim (complement is màn̄ 'water'). ā ál màn̄ àĺ ànḛ̄ ōtɨ́ kàā bāa-á nà̰ wétɨ́ ī-nà̰y. If you don't know how to swim then don't go in the river lest you be lost {i.e. drown}. Expr: àl gāng -swim across Ngè-ɓògɨ̀ àl gāng kɨ̀ sákɨ̀ gìdɨ̀-ǹ tɨ́.The thief swam across with his bag on his back.
3
àl̄ VI climb, climb up; go up. Ngōn-kó̰o̰-á àl̄ gìdɨ̀-á tɨ́. His brother climbed on his back. Ngúl̄ ɓà à m-údɨ́ kāgɨ̄ m-ādɨ̄-á àl̄ tɨ́. When the yams begin to grow I put a stick in the ground so they can grow up it. VI get on/in. Náw àl̄ kàm tòo tɨ́. The fisherman got into the pirogue. VT be too big for. Màrkóbɨ̀ dá àl̄ njà-ḿ. These shoes are too big for my feet. VI run {over} (followed by dɔ̀). Kàmyō̰o̰ àl̄ dɔ̀ ngóo tɨ́ tɔ̄ɔ̄ rém-rém. The truck ran over the gourd and broke it into pieces with a cracking noise. Expr: kùm [dèē] àl̄ [dèē màdɨ̄] dɔ̀ yá̰a̰ tɨ́ -[s.o.] to refuse [s.o. else] {out of disdain} Kùm-ḿ àl̄-á dɔ̀ yá̰a̰ tɨ́ lò-á.I scorned him and refused to give him his things. Expr: kùm [dèē] àl̄ [dèē màdɨ̄] -[s.o.] to disdain [s.o. else], despise M-ōo kàdɨ̄ kùm-í àl̄-m̄ nà̰ m-ā m-ādɨ̄-ī àĺ.I know you despise me, so I'm not giving it to you. Expr: àl̄ ngàndɨ̄ -be intolerable, incredibly bad Tàa lò-á àl̄ ngàndɨ̄.What he says is intolerable. Expr: kɨ́ [yá̰a̰] àl̄ dèē -with too much of [s.t.] Ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ gèe sáӯ kɨ́ sɨ́kɨ̀r àl̄-á.My brother likes tea with too much sugar.
àĺ AV not. J-ḭ̀ḭ̄ ɓògɨ̀-gɨ̄ àĺ. We're not thieves. m̄-gèe dā̰a̰ kɨ́ mból-á ì ngá̰y àĺ. I don't want meat with a lot of fat. ī-ɓáy-n̄ àĺ, ī-ndì bèŕ,ādɨ̄ nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ ɗāa yá̰a̰-kɨ́-sà tɨ́ kɨ̀-sà-n̄. Don't get up, stay seated so my wife can make something for us to eat. Expr: àĺ à, àĺ ànē -or, or else à-ɗèē ɓó-nḛ̀ḛ̄ àĺ-à lòo-tīi.He'll come today or else tomorrow. Expr: àĺ à, àĺ ànē -otherwise, if not ḭ̄ḭ àĺ-à ī-ndá yòo.If it's not you then swear to it.
ālā INT isn't that so? (derived from àĺ-ā; see also àĺ-ā). ɔ́dɨ́ yá̰a̰ lò-ḿ ālā? You touched my things, didn't you?
álà Arabic NP God. M-ún kɔ́ɔ́-ḿ m-ādɨ̄ álà. I've become a Christian. [lit: I've promised myself to God] álà ndā ndɔ̄ĺ dɔ̀-á tɨ́ àdɨ̄ kɨ̀ ɗāa kɨ̀là kúlù kɨ̀ ngà yá̰a̰ àĺ. God placed a curse upon him so in spite of his work he gains nothing. Expr: álà ɗāa màjɨ̀ à̰nḛ̄ -if things go well ɓó-làā kàn álà ɗāa màjɨ̀ ànḛ̄ m-ā m-āw mbāa.Today if things go well I am going to take a trip. Expr: álà ndā jī-ǹ dɔ̀-í tɨ́. -may God protect you (or anyone) Ngōn-ḿ ɗāa kɨ̀là ngá̰y àdɨ̄ álà ndā jī-ǹ dɔ̀-á tɨ́ kɨ̀ ǹ-ngà dɔ̀-ǹ.My son works hard, may God help him so that he succeeds.
álàpō Sango NI fried millet dough. álàpō ì bènyéè yá̰a̰-kōo kɨ́ tátɨ́ kɨ́ à ɗāa-n̄ kɨ̀ ndùjɨ̄ tā̰y. ____ is a wide millet donut (fried dough) made with 'small millet' flour.
àlē INT isn't so, is it? {expects a negative answer} (see also ālā). ɔ́dɨ́ yá̰a̰ lò-ḿ àlē? You didn't touch my things, did you?
àlgétɨ̀ Arabic NI flute. Ngán-gɨ̄ ɗà tóo-n̄ àlgétɨ̀. The children are playing flutes.
àlìbóỳ NI two (cards).
ālmā̰ French NP german. Nàsár̀-gɨ̄ tètɨ̀-n̄ ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ālmā̰-gɨ̄. The French defeated the Germans in battle.
àlmbétɨ̀, àlmétɨ̀ French NI match. Expr: gà àlmbétɨ̀ -light a match ī-gá àlmbétɨ̀ ādɨ̄-m̄.Light a match for me. Expr: kùm-àlmbétɨ̀ -unlit match stick Màn̄ à ɔ̀dɨ̀ kùm-àlmbétɨ̀ ànḛ̄ à ùnjɨ̄ àĺ.If water touches a matchstick it won't light. Expr: kāgɨ̄-àlmbétɨ̀ -used match stick ādɨ̄-m̄ kāgɨ̄-àlmbétɨ̀ kɨ́rā m̄-ɗāa-ň mbī-ḿ.Give me a used matchstick so I can clean my ear out with it.
àmáǹ Arabic NI confidence, trust. Nōjɨ̄ àmáǹ màjɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ nōjɨ̄ kòjɨ̀. Loyal friends [lit: relationship of confidence] are better than blood relatives. Expr: àdɨ̄ [dèē] àmáǹ -have confidence in [s.o.] M-ādɨ̄-ī àmáǹ máràwày lā m̄-lá-ī kɨ̀ gúsɨ̀ yé.I have complete confidence in you which is why I sent you with the money.
àmèríkɨ̀ NP America.
ámpɨ̀rmē [ámpɨ̀rmḛ́ḛ̀, ámpɨ̀rmḛ̄] French NI nurse; hospital aide. ámpɨ̀rmē ɔ̀sɨ̀-á kɨ̀ kḭ̄ḭ. The nurse gave him a shot.
àmpúl̀ Arabic NI dried split fish (normally dōĺ [Alestes baremoze]). àmpúl̀ ì kānjɨ̄ dōĺ kɨ́ káӯ nà̰ nàjɨ̀ kàdɨ̀-á. ____ is ^^ fish split and dried in the sun. NI chest disease. àmpúl̀ ì mò̰y kɨ́ à ɗāa-ī à à ndā-n̄ gàjɨ̀ kàdɨ̀-í tɨ́ ɔ̀r̄-n̄-nèé mósɨ́ kɨ́ kìl. ____ is a disease which if it strikes you, they will bleed you with a horn to take out the black blood.
4
àmsétɨ̀ Arabic NI hernia of groin. àmsétɨ̀ à ɗāa-ī ànḛ̄ rō-í à tíī. If you get this type of hernia your body will swell up.
àmsótɨ̀n Arabic NI type of cyst. àmsótɨ̀n ì mò̰y kɨ́ à tíī dà ngónjɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ gír kɔ́ɔ́-dɨ́. ____ is a disease that causes swelling in the pubic area or in the armpit.
àmtáwàjɨ̀ Arabic NI non-alcoholic millet drink ( àmtábàjɨ̀ also possible). Kùndɨ́ lā Dùm-gɨ̄ à kɔ́r̄-n̄-á àmtáwàjɨ̀. The non-alcoholic millet drink is called 'amtawaje' by the Arabs.
àn [à̰n] VI say, tell (becomes áǹ in 2nd person and 1st person sing.). èl-m̄ àn n-à ǹ-ɗèē lòo-tīi. He told me he would come tomorrow. Kāgɨ̄ kàá m-áǹ ī-ɗìsɨ̀ tɨ́ nò lā ī-sō tɨ́ tā àĺ-à. That tree I told you to get down from, you fell from it, didn't you. COM that, if. M-gɔ̀r̄ ngōn-ḿ m-áǹ àw̄ rō-á-tɨ́ àĺ. I counseled my son not to go to near him. [lit: I counseled my son I-said he-go body-him loc. not] Kɨ́rā̰-m̄ nà̰ àn m̄-ɓògɨ̀ yá̰a̰-kōo lò-n kɔ̄ŕ. He accused me of stealing his millet in the field. [lit: he denounced me and said I-stole millet of-him in-field] VI ask. Expr: mājɨ̄ àn -doubt that m̄-mājɨ̄ m-áǹ ì ḭ̀ḭ̄ àĺ.I doubt that it's him. Expr: ndìjè/ndìgɨ̀/èl/mājɨ̄ àn -ask/answer/say/doubt that/if Expr: èl [dèē] àn -to tell [s.o.] to Bɔ̀ɔ̄-á èl-á àn kɨ̀ n-āw ɓēe-é.His father told him to go home. Expr: kɨ́rā̰ [dèē] nà àn [ɗāa yá̰a̰] -to accuse [s.o.] of [doing s.t.] Kɨ̀làmàjɨ̀ kɨ́rā̰ ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ nà ɓògɨ̀-ǹ.Kelamaje accused my brother of stealing from him.
áǹ [á̰ǹ] VI say (irregular 1st and 2nd pers. s. of àn).
ànḛ̄ [à̰nḛ̄] (Syn: à) CNJ then, and then, and so (derived from à-nḛ̄ḛ). M-ā m-ɔ́dɨ́ yá̰a̰ lò-í ànḛ̄ kàá m-óy! If I touch any of your things then may I die! CNJ when; and when. Ndì bèŕ ndì nō̰o̰ ànḛ̄ ɓòn̄g tèē kɨ̄ rō-á tɨ́. He was sitting there crying when Hyena came upon him.
ànóò French NI metal circle of yoke through which pole holding oxcart or plow is attached (see also júgɨ̀). à là-n̄ kāgɨ̄ púsɨ̄ màn̄g ànóò tɨ́. The pole supporting the oxcart is placed in the metal circle of the yoke.
àndɨ̄ [à̰ndɨ̄] (Syn: ùdɨ̀) VI enter, come or go in. āndɨ̄ kɨ̄ kújɨ́-ú sōó ādɨ̄ kɨ̀-dà-n̄ tàa. Come on into the house here so we can chat.
àndɨ̄ [à̰ndɨ̄] VI bear fruit. Kò̰nḭ̄-nḛ̀ḛ̄ kāgɨ̄ mángò àndɨ̄ ngá̰y. This year the mango trees are bearing a lot of fruit. VI ripen, be ready to harvest. Wàā-kɨ̀lā à àndɨ̄ kō-gō nām-ǹ-gɨ̄ tɨ́. 'String' millet ripens after the other types of millet. Kāgɨ̄ ń m̄-hɔ́ tàgɨ́-bè ɗàn lā àndɨ̄ wòy yóō? Is a tree I just planted yesterday going to bear fruit already? Expr: àndɨ̄ gír-ǹ tɨ́ -to have an edible root or tuber Wúl̄ à hútɨ̄ mbī-ǹ tɨ́ nà à àndɨ̄ gír-ǹ tɨ́.Peanuts flower with their leaves, but they give fruit with their roots.
ángàl Arabic NT character, personality. Nèl̄-m̄ sè-í àĺ, ángàl-í màjàĺ. I don't like you, you have a bad character. NT attention (in expression ndā à-ǹ 'pay attention'). ī-ndā ángàl-í dɔ̀ tɨ́. Pay attention to what you're doing. m̄-ndā ángàl-ḿ dɔ̀-í tɨ́ àĺ. I didn't pay any attention to you. NT common sense. ḭ̄ḭ dá ángàl-í gòtóo tɨ́ wà? Don't you have any common sense? Dèē kɨ́ ángàl-á òy someone with no common sense
àngérì [àngə́rì] Arabic NI caution, care. ī-ɗāa àngérì nà̰ wétɨ́ ī-sō hólēe tɨ́ nò. Be careful lest you fall into the hole. ī-ɗāa àngérì dɔ̀ ɗóbɨ́ tɨ́ nò. Be careful on that road. Expr: ɗāa àngérì [dèē] -point one's finger at [s.o.] as warning Ngōn kɨ́ dūú à ɗāa àngérì dèē-kɨ́-bòo àĺ.A small child shouldn't point his finger at an adult.
àngɨ̀répɨ̀ Arabic NI bed made of sticks tied together with leather (see also kāgɨ̄-tɨ̄rá). àngɨ̀répɨ̀ ì kāgɨ̄-tɨ̄rá kɨ́ ɗāa kɨ̀ kāgɨ̄ jìngā. ____ is a stick bed made from ^^ wood.
àngléè,ànglē French NP English ( tàa àngléè 'english language', taught in high schools). tàa àngléè the English language m̄-gèr̄ tàa àngléè àĺ. I don't know English.
5
àr̄ VIA be clear. Màn̄ bāa ń-tèń àr̄ yáng. The water of this river is perfectly clear. Tàa lò-í àr̄ yáng. Your words are crystal clear. VIA be clean. ī-ndì-n̄ kàm-ndògɨ̄ tɨ́ ànḛ̄ ī-ɗāa-n̄ ādɨ̄-n̄-á àr̄. If you live in a compound then do your part to keep it clean. Expr: kùm [dèē] àr̄ -be intelligent, open Ngōn màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ kùm-á àr̄ ngá̰y, à kídɨ̄ dèē àĺ.My neighbor's son is open and intelligent, he never scorns anybody. Expr: lòo àr̄ -it's daybreak Lòo àr̄ wòy j-àw̄-n̄ tā.It's daybreak, let's go.
àrábɨ̀ French NP Arab, Arabic (see also dùm). àrábɨ̀-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ ngé-ngōm-màn̄g-gɨ̄. Arabs are cattle raisers. Expr: tàa àrábɨ̀ -Arabic language
árgɨ̀ (Syn: ==yérgɨ̀) NI strong alcoholic drink made of manioc. árgɨ̀ ì kàsɨ̀ ngàrì. ____ is a drink made of cassava.
ásà Arabic (Syn: hásà) AV now, immediately. ī-ngóō-m̄, m-ā m̄-ɗèē ásà. Wait for me, I'll be right there. ásà dá ī-gèe kɨ̀ ī-ɗāa ɗí sì-á wà? Now what do you want to do with him? Expr: ásà nḛ̀ḛ̄ -just now, a few moments ago Ngōn ń ɓògɨ̀-ī ásà nḛ̀ḛ̄ nò hɔ̀-n̄-á.They caught the boy who just stole from you.
àsétɨ̀ French NI plate, dish, bowl (enamel plates ( sàmbé) are manufactured in Nigeria; tin plates are from Cameroon). ún àsétɨ̀ ādɨ̄ m̄-lā mbùr̄ tɨ́. Get a plate for me to put the 'boule' on.
àsɨ̀ VT be enough for/to. Mbùr̄ àsɨ̀-m̄ tā. I've had enough 'boule'. VI be enough. VT be able (followed by infinitive or clause introduced by kàdɨ̄). àsɨ̀ kùn màn̄g kɨ̀ kɨ́rā-ǹ. (=àsɨ̀ kàdɨ̄ ùn màn̄g kɨ̀ kɨ́rā-ǹ.) He can lift a cow all by himself. J-à j-òō ké j-à j-àsɨ̀ kàdɨ̄ kɨ̀-ɗāa kɨ̀là sḭ́ḭ wà. We'll see if we can work a little. VT fit (see also hɔ̀). Kūbɨ̄ lò-í àsɨ̀-ī màjɨ̀. Your clothes fit you well. Sāa lò-ḿ àsɨ̀ njà-í àĺ. My shoes are not big enough for your feet. VI arrive (time for s.t.). Ndɔ̄ɔ̄ kòjɨ̀ ngōn-á àsɨ̀. The day of her giving birth to her child arrived. Nà̰y ngɔ̀r kàdɨ̄ kàdɨ̀ tènɨ̀-mɨ̀tá àsɨ̀. It's almost seven o'clock. [lit: it-is-remaining soon that seven o'clock arrive] VI pass, go by (period of time). Ndɔ̄ɔ̄ mḭ́ḭ àsɨ̀. Five days went by. Ndɔ̄ɔ̄ kɨ̀lá àsɨ̀ ànḛ̄ m-ā m-ādɨ̄-ī kɔ̀sɨ̀ kɨ́rā. In ten days I will give you a hoe. [Lit: days ten pass then I-will I-giv-you hoe one] Expr: (tàa) àsɨ̀ mbī [dèē] -[s.o.] to have had enough (of s.o.'s words) m̄-gèe kòō dɔ̀ kɨ́ dɔ̀ nà̰ā̰ tɨ́ àĺ nà̰ tàa lò-í àsɨ̀ mbī-ḿ.I don't want to hear any more, I've had enough (of your words). Expr: àsɨ̀ nà̰ā̰ -be the same; be equal; be right amount/number Gúsɨ̀ ń m-ādɨ̄-sɨ̀ dá kɨ́ ī-kā̰y-n̄ nà̰ā̰ àdɨ̄ àsɨ̀ nà̰ā̰.Divide up the money I gave you in equal amounts. Expr: àsɨ̀ [dèē] nákɨ́ (=àsɨ̀ [dèē] njúr) -force [s.o.] M-ásɨ́ nām-ḿ nákɨ́ m-ādɨ̄ àw̄ tɨ̄nā gúsɨ̀ àdɨ̄-m̄.I forced my friend to go and borrow money for me. Expr: àsɨ̀ kàdɨ̄ òō àĺ (=àsɨ̀ kòō rō tɨ́ àĺ) -know nothing about it M-ḭ̄ḭ m-ásɨ́ kàdɨ̄ m-ōo dɔ̀ tàa lò-á àĺ.I can't know anything about his problem. Expr: àsɨ̀ kùm [dèē] -greatly please or interest Kó̰o̰ nān-ḿ ɗāa mbùr̄ kɨ́ àsɨ̀ kùm-ḿ ɓó-làā tā.My uncle's mother made a 'boule' today that pleased me greatly. Expr: àsɨ̀ tà rō-ǹ -be self-reliant M-ásɨ́ tà rō-ḿ, m-ā m̄-ngóō jī dèē àĺ.I'm self-reliant, I don't depend on anyone.
àsɨ̀ PRP ago (temporal expression follows à). Kété dá m̄-ndì Mā̰ysālāá nèē àsɨ̀ ɓāl kɨ̀lá. I lived here in Moissala ten years ago.
ásɨ́ VT can, be able ((1st pers. s., 2nd pers. of àsɨ̀)).
àsɨ̀-tà-tɨ́ AVE enough. Lòo-ń dūu ngár̄ àsɨ̀-tà-tɨ́ dá, ā ī-yā gír lɔ́ӯ bɔ̀r. When the pile of sand is {big} enough, you begin mixing the mud. AVE considerably. Your work is considerably difficult. AVE seriously. Her child is seriously ill.
ásɨ̀gàr Arabic NI soldier; police. ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ ndīyā-n̄ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ kɨ̄ gérgèré. The soldiers walk towards the camp.
àsɨ̀yām Arabic NI Ramadan, Arabic month of fasting (although Arabic loan, lit: àsɨ̀ yām 'enough to become thin'). àsɨ̀yām tɨ́ dá Dùm-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ yá̰a̰ ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́ kòo-ń. During Ramadan the Muslims eat only at night. Nā̰a̰ kùn àsɨ̀yām lò Dùm-gɨ̄ àsɨ̀ wòy. The Muslim month of fasting is over now. Expr: ùn àsɨ̀yām -do Ramadan, fast Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ álē ùn àsɨ̀yām tàgɨ́-bè.My father Ali started fasting yesterday.
àspèríǹ French NI aspirin. àspèríǹ ì kḭ̄ḭ dɔ̀-tōo. Aspirin is medicine for headaches.
6
àtɨ̀ VIA be sharp, be pointed. Ndò̰o̰ kìyā lò-ḿ àtɨ̀ ngá̰y. The blade of my knife is very sharp. Expr: jī [dèē] àtɨ̀ -be a good shot; be skilled hunter àn-n̄ jī gèl-gɨ̄ àtɨ̀ ngá̰y.They say that left-handers are good shots. Expr: kùm [dèē] àtɨ̀ -have sharp eyesight Kùm ngōn àtɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ kùm ngà-tɔ́gɨ́.A child has sharper eyesight than an adult. Expr: mbī [dèē] àtɨ̀ -have sharp hearing A blind person has sharp hearing. Expr: tà [dèē] àtɨ̀ -[s.o.] to speak nonsense or lies Ngōn kɨ́ ngè tà kàtɨ̀ à nàl ɗāa ndɔ̄ɔ̄ kɨ̄ dɔ̀ ngé-ǹ-gɨ̄ tɨ́ àĺ.A lying, deceitful child won't fail to create problems for his parents.
àtɨ̄ VIA be bitter, sour. Górō àtɨ̄ ngá̰y. The kola nut is very bitter. Ngán-gɨ̄ gèe-n̄ kìníǹ kɨ́ àtɨ̄ àĺ. Children don't like bitter medicine. VIA be sour (see also màsɨ̄). Mbàa lò-ḿ àtɨ̄. My milk is sour. VIA strange, funny (tasting). Màn̄-tà-ḿ àtɨ̄ ɓáw. I have a bad taste in my mouth. Expr: rō [dèē] àtɨ̄ -be invulnerable to sorcery m̄-ɓōĺ kɨ̀mā àĺ; rō-ḿ àtɨ̄.I'm not afraid of a sorcerer; I'm invulnerable to sorcery. Expr: rō [dèē] àtɨ̄-á -[s.o.] be upset, agitated; angry Rō bà̰r̄-ḿ àtɨ̄ ɓáw kɨ̀tɔ̄ lā gúsɨ̀ kɔ̄ɔ́.My paternal aunt is terribly upset because she lost money. Expr: tà [dèē] àtɨ̄ ɓáw -[s.o.] be uneasy; have a bitter taste in mouth Tà-ḿ àtɨ̄ ɓáw.There's a bitter taste in my mouth. Expr: rō [dèē] àtɨ̄-á dɔ̀ [yá̰a̰] tɨ́ -[s.o.] be made upset by [s.o.]; be made nauseous by [food] Rō-ḿ àtɨ̄-m̄ dɔ̀ tàa tɨ́ lò-á.Her words made me upset. Expr: wùr [dèē] àtɨ̄-á dɔ̀ [dèē màdɨ̄] tɨ́ -[s.o.] be angry with [s.o.] Wùr dèē-kɨ́-dìngá àtɨ̄-á dɔ̀ nḛ̄ḛ́-á tɨ́ ń-há̰ ɗāa ngàw nò.The man was very angry with his wife who was running around with other men.
átɨ̀bàr Arabic NI horse species, very large with white forehead and reddish hair. átɨ̀bàr ì sɨ́ndá kɨ́ à à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ ngá̰y. ____ is a horse that runs very quickly.
àw̄ VI go. Kó̰o̰-ḿ àw̄ súkɨ̄-ú kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ làā. My mother went to the market this morning. VT go for, go to find/get. m̄-gāng ndɔ̄ɔ̄ ɓàtɨ̀ m-āw mùnjò. I left very early in the morning and went to get beans. Expr: àw̄ yā̰-ǹ -depart, leave Kɨ̀là lò-í tɨ̄gā àdɨ̄ āw yā̰-í tā.Your work is done so leave. Expr: àw̄ kété -go ahead of Ngār̀ àw̄ kété nò̰ dèē-gɨ̄ tɨ́ lò-ǹ.The king went ahead of his people. Expr: àw̄ mùndō -go blind, become blind Pɨ̀lér̀ ɗāa kɨ̀ màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ àdɨ̄ àw̄ mùndō.Fileria struck my neighbor and he went blind. Expr: àw̄ dò̰ó̰ -get loose, be loose Bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ à àw̄-n̄ dò̰ó̰ ɓàr-á ànḛ̄ à tújɨ́-n̄ ndɔ̀ɔ̄-gɨ̄.If goats get loose in the rainy season they'll destroy the crops. Expr: àw̄ gèw -put the money in the pot {betting} Ngé ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ mbàrà-gɨ̄ àw̄-n̄ gèw.The card players put the money in the pot. Expr: àw̄ dāy-gɨ̄ -not realize Expr: àw̄ tà-háàӯ -to run wild Dèē à òy ànḛ̄ ngán-á-gɨ̄ à àw̄-n̄ tà-háàӯ.When somebody dies, his children run wild. Expr: àw̄ kùӯ -to go fishing Ngán-gɨ̄ àw̄ kùӯ bāa-bòo tɨ́ kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ-làā.The children went fishing early this morning. Expr: àw̄ kɨ̄ kété -advance, progress ī-ɗèē kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ ādɨ̄ kɨ̀-ɗāa kɨ̀là lò-jɨ́ àdɨ̄ àw̄ àw̄ kɨ̄ kété.Come early so we do our work so it progresses.
àw̄ VI grow; grow to maturity (tuber). Ngàrì kɨ́ hɔ̀ sèptámbɨ̀r tɨ́ à àw̄ ngá̰y àĺ. Manioc planted in September doesn't grow well.
àӯ VIA be dry. Kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ-gɨ̄ àӯ-n̄ àĺ tɔ̀ɔ̄. (=Kūbɨ̄-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ àӯ-n̄ àĺ tɔ̀ɔ̄.) My clothes aren't dry yet. VI become dry. Ndīi èdɨ̀ nà̰ sḭ́ḭ bè ànḛ̄ dà-nàng àӯ. The rain falls and then shortly after the ground dries. VI be/become clear. Dà-rā̰a̰ àӯ. The sky is clear. Expr: kùm [dèē] àӯ -be open, wise to the world, mature Nḛ̄ḛ́ ngōn kó̰o̰-ḿ dūú ngá̰y kàm-á àӯ àĺ tɔ̀ɔ̄.My brother's wife is very young, she's not yet wise to the ways of the world. Expr: wúl̄ kɨ́ àӯ -partially dried peanuts used in making màndàwá
à̰a̰ VT wait for (only in expression à káa [dèē] sétɨ́ 'await news of [s.o.] in vain'). M-ōo m-áǹ ā ī-ɗèē lā m-á̰a̰ káa-í sétɨ́ yé. I thought you were going to come but I waited for you in vain.
á̰ INJ what!?. á̰? Ná̰ā̰ èl-ī nà̰ àn ī-sá? What? Who said you could eat?
à̰ā̰ (Syn: ḿm̄) AV yes. à̰ā̰, ɗèē tàgɨ́-bè. Yes, he came yesterday.
á̰-à̰ AV no. ā ī-gèe màndàwá-ā? á̰-à̰, m̄-gèe àĺ. Do you want any grilled peanuts? No, I don't want any.
à̰ā̰-má̰ INJ of course; that's it, that's right.
7
ā̰a̰a̰ INJ that's it, that's right!. Tɔ̄ɔ̄-á ìgɨ̀-m̄; ì Ngābà wà? ā̰a̰a̰. His name escapes me; is it Ngaba? Yes, that's it.
à̰a̰a̰ (Syn: àhá̰à̰) INJ now you see!.
á̰à̰a̰ AV no. á̰à̰a̰, àsɨ̀-m̄ tā. No, that's enough for me now!
à̰á̰a̰ AV yes, what {response to being called}.
à̰ӯ VT drink; eat [s.t. soupy]. ādɨ̄-m̄ màn̄ tɨ́ m-ā̰y. Please give me some water to drink. [lit: give me water please I-drink] Kɨ́lá-dà-màn̄ lò-jɨ́ tɔ̄ɔ̄ àdɨ̄ j-à̰ӯ màn̄ kɨ́ ngóo. Our water gourd broke so we drink water with a regular gourd. VI flow (liquid). Nām-á ndà kɔ́n-á àdɨ̄ mósɨ́-á à̰ӯ ngá̰y. His friend hit him in the nose and it's bleeding. [lit: friend-his hit nose-his so-that blood-his flows a lot] VT smoke [cigarettes, etc.]. Sùmbā kàdɨ̄ à̰ӯ máng àĺ. He shouldn't smoke. Expr: à̰ӯ màn̄ òy (=à̰ӯ màn̄ òy-ň) -drown [lit: drink water die from it] Tàgɨ́-bè tòo ndùy àdɨ̄ ngōn à̰ӯ màn̄ òy.Yesterday a pirogue capsized and a child drowned. Expr: à̰ӯ ndīi -to leak (from the rain) Dɔ̀-kújɨ́ lò-ḿ à à̰ӯ ndīi ɗèng-ɗèng.My roof leaks in drops. Expr: rō [dèē] à̰ӯ mósɨ́ (=mósɨ́ rō [dèē] à̰ӯ) -[s.o.] to be bleeding Tà-á à̰ӯ mósɨ́. (=Mósɨ́ tà-á à̰ӯ ngá̰y.)His mouth is bleeding.
à̰ӯ VI flee. Bísɨ́ sùmbā dɔ̀-ḿ sèw kɨ̀ ǹ-dò̰o̰-m̄ lā m-ā̰y yé. The dog headed straight towards me to bite me so I fled. VT move quickly; dart about; run (in expression à ngɔ̄dɨ̄). Dúndō ì ngōn kùr̄ kɨ́ à à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ dò̰ó̰. The dragonfly is an insect that darts about in the air. Káy-káy à à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ ngá̰y. The swallow flies about very quickly. Dùl ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́ mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ tītɨ̄ bḭ̄yā̰ bè nà̰ à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ ngá̰y. The duiker is a wild animal similar to the goat but it runs fast. Expr: à̰ӯ ɓīi léwww -spin smoothly and quickly Sōrō à̰ӯ ɓīi léwww.The top spun smoothly. Expr: à̰ӯ bàdɨ̀ -run badly, slowly; spin unevenly (top) Sɨ́ndá lò-í à̰ӯ bàdɨ̀.Your horse doesn't run well. Expr: à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ -to run Sɨ́ndá-gɨ̄ à̰ӯ-n̄ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ lòo-kà̰ӯ-ngɔ̄dɨ̄ síndá-gɨ̄ tɨ́ kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ-nḛ̀ḛ̄.The horses were running at the race track this morning.
á̰yóỳ,á̰yōy NI type of small river bird. á̰yōy ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ dūú kɨ́ bāa-á. à sà ngán kānjɨ̄-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ ngán kùr̄-gɨ̄. ____ is a small bird found at the river. It eats small fish and insects.
(Syn: gā) VT pay. M-āa kɨ̀ m̄-bā gɨ̄rā lò Súu. I went to pay Suu's debt. Lòo-ń ùn gúrsɨ̀ dá àw̄ bā gɨ̄rā lò-ǹ. When he received his pay he went and paid his debt.
bàa (Syn: bɨ̀là,bà̰y) VIA be numerous, plentiful. ḭ̄ḭ-n̄ bà̰ý-ā? Kɨ̀-bàa ngá̰y. How many of you are there? We are many.
bàa AV down, at the bottom. Kínī sō bàa gír bùlò-tɨ́. The bucket fell to the bottom of the well. AV behind. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ bàa -to drag behind, be slow ì dèē kɨ́ ɔ̀r̄ bàa ngá̰y.He is someone who always drags behind.
Bàa NP female name {often given to first of female twins}.
bàa NI type of wild onion [Cissus quadrangularis] (see also tāŕ). Bàa ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé yòo. Ngé-yòo-gɨ̄ à hɔ̀-n̄ bàa ngá̰y tà kújɨ́-gɨ̄ tɨ́ lò-dɨ́ hō kɨ̀ tà ndɔ̀ɔ̄-gɨ̄ tɨ́ lò-dɨ́ hō. ____ is a plant used in preparing spells. Sorcerers keep a lot of it by their houses and fields. Expr: bàa kɨ̄ngā kānjɨ̄ -fetish for protection against fish bones Expr: bàa pāa -onion used as fetish for singing àdɨ̄-n̄-á bàa pāa kàdɨ̄ ɔ̀sɨ̄-ň pāa ngá̰y.They gave him a fetish from this onion so he could sing a lot. Expr: bàa jàng -onion used as fetish against a rival Expr: bàa ndōm -onion used as fetish for dancing Expr: bàa ɓògɨ̀ -onion used as fetish against thieves Expr: bàa-kèdɨ̄ -elephant fetish {both as protection and for use in hunting them}
bāa NI river. Kɨ̀-ɓày lòo ndògɨ̄ màn̄ tɨ́ bāa-á. We're coming back from bathing at the river. Màn̄ bāa òo ngá̰y kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄. The river water is very deep this year. Màn̄ bāa ì màn̄ ɗòng àĺ -- ōtɨ́ kàdɨ̀ ngán-í-gɨ̄ àā-n̄ kɨ̄ nà ɓétɨ́ yá̰a̰ à ɗāa-dɨ́. River water is not a place to play in -- don't let your children go there lest something happen to them. Expr: màn̄ bāa -river, water in the river Màn̄ bāa nṵ̄ṵ kɨ̄ ɓōdōó.The water of the river flows downstream. Expr: bāa-bòo -a wide river Mɨ́rá̰ kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ bāa màjɨ̀ ngá̰y tɔ̀ӯ kɨ́ bāa-bòo tɨ́.The taste of fish from a normal river is much better than that from a wide river.
8
báa IDS tightly; with strength, determination (desc. of hɔ̀). ī-hɔ́ kāgɨ̄ báa. Hold on to the stick tightly. Expr: hɔ̀ tɔ́gɨ́-ǹ báa (=hɔ̀ rō-ǹ báa) -be brave, strong, use one's strength ī-hɔ́ tɔ́gɨ́-í báa ī-ndá-á-ň dɔ̀-í tɨ́.Use all your strength and hit him to defend yourself. Expr: hɔ̀ njà-ǹ báa -run as fast as one's legs can carry one m̄-hɔ́ njà-ḿ báa m-ā̰y m̄-tɔ̀ӯ-á.I ran as fast as my legs could carry me and got away from him. Expr: hɔ̀ jī-ǹ báa -hold arms up (to fight), put up dukes ādɨ̄ ngōn-í hɔ̀ jī-ǹ báa ndà nām-ǹ dɔ̀-ǹ tɨ́.Have your son put up his dukes and hit his companion who is fighting with him. Expr: hɔ̀ tà-ǹ báa -be decisive, speak decisively and with courage ī-hɔ́ tà-í báa kàá ī-ɗāa-ň sèrīi.Be decisive and render judgement. Expr: hɔ̀ bíkɨ̀ báa -study hard and with determination ī-hɔ́ bíkɨ̀ báa kɨ̀ ā ī-tèē-ň sìī-í.Study hard so you will become a bureaucrat. Expr: hɔ̀ jī-ǹ báa -aim carefully ī-hɔ́ jī-í báa ī lā-ň mángò nò ī-gāng ādɨ̄-m̄.Aim carefully and hit the mango so it breaks off for me.
bà-bòo NT molars. Kūŕ-ngāng sà bà-bòo-ḿ. I have a cavity in my molar.
bà-gír (Syn: yā-gír) NI beginning. bà-gír dúnyà tɨ́ kɨ́ dàsá at the beginning of the world
bá-hōr NI type of plant. Bá-hōr ì kám kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à gāng-n̄ mbī-á bìw-n̄ dà hòr tɨ́ ndòm̄-n̄-nèé lòo kɨ́ tíī. ____ is a plant whose leaves people cut and pass over the fire to make them soft to be used for wrapping an infection.
bà-kɔ̄r NT great one. Bà-kɔ̄r kɨ̀là/ɓògɨ̀/ndīyā/etc. A great worker/thief/walker/etc.
bàa-bàa AV in time, by waiting. Bàa-bàa nà̰ ɓétɨ́ à ɗèē wáy. Wait a bit and he'll come when he can.
báa-báa AV exactly, precisely. Dɔ̀ njà-ḿ kɨ́ dòo báa-báa lā ī-ɓá nò. It was precisely my injured foot that you stepped on.
bàa-bèē AVE for a moment, briefly (commonly shortened to bàa-bè). Kɨ̀-ndì bàa-bè ɗâ tèē kɨ̄ dɔ̀-jɨ́ tɨ́. We were sitting for a moment and he came upon us. CNJ an instant later (followed by à̰nḛ̄, à̰nḛ̄ or à̰nḛ̄). ī-ngóō-á nà̰ bàa-bè ànḛ̄ ɓétɨ́ à ɗèē. What for him and in a second he'll arrive.
bāa-bòo-kàtɨ̄ NE sea, ocean. Bāa-bòo-kàtɨ̄ gòtóo Sádɨ̀ tɨ́. There's no ocean in Chad. ā ī-sō bāa-bòo-kàtɨ̄ tɨ́ à ā ál ī-gāng àĺ. If you fall into the sea you won't be able to swim to the other side.
bàa-kàdɨ̀ NE crowd. Bàa-kàdɨ̀ dèē-gɨ̄ ɔ̀y-n̄ kāgɨ̄ tɔ̀ӯ-n̄-nèé kɨ̄ ɓēe-é lò kòmàndá. A crowd of people passed pulling the tree with them heading towards the subprefect's house.
bàa-tàa N problem from a long time ago. Ngè kɔ̀r̄ gír bàa-tàa ì ngè ndúū wōng. Somebody who brings up a problem from a long time ago is someone who stirs up trouble.
bàa-tàa NI type of grass. Bàa-tàa ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ dā̰a̰-gɨ̄ túu-bè yé à sà-n̄ àĺ. "Baa-taa" is not a grass that all animals will eat.
bàbá NI father, oh father. Bàbá tɨ̄ɓā kó̰o̰ jɨ́ ɓēe-é àdɨ̄ ɓōo ndì ɗāa-jɨ̀ ngá̰y. Father kicked our mother out of the house, and so we're suffering from a lot of hunger. NI sir, oh sir.
bábā (Syn: bángē) NI type of playful dance. Bábā ì ɗòng lò ngán-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄. ____ is an amusement for young girls.
bábɨ̄ Arabic (Syn: =bápɨ̄) NI door (as separate from frame) (see also tà-bītɨ́, tà-bītɨ́). Bábɨ̄ tà-kújɨ́ lò-ḿ ɔ̀r̄ sō. The door to my house came off (its hinges) and fell.
bādī NI satchel, bag. Ngōn ṵ̀ṵ̄ mbētē kàm bādī tɨ́. The child put his papers in the satchel.
9
bādī-kūbɨ̄ NE pocket. Kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ bādī-á ì sɔ̄ɔ́. My shirt has four pockets.
bàdɨ̀ AV slowly. NT old slow [horse] {complement is síndá. AV jerkily (spinning top). The top spins jerkily. Expr: gà bàdɨ̀ -run slowly Sɨ́ndá kɨ́ dūú à gà bàdɨ̀ àĺ.A young horse won't run slowly. Expr: gà bàdɨ̀ -fail, not be successful {in school} ā ī-gá bàdɨ̀ kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄ tɔ̀ɔ̄ ànḛ̄ à tūwā-ī-n̄ lòkól̀ tɨ́.If you fail again in school this year they'll kick you out of school. Expr: sɨ́ndá lò [dèē] à̰ӯ bàdɨ̀ -[s.o.] to be too late [lit: his horse ran slowly] Kɨ̀-ngóō-ī sétɨ́ nà j-ò̰o̰ mbùr̄ nò̰-í tɨ́ àdɨ̄ síndá lò-í à̰ӯ bàdɨ̀.We waited for you in vain and then ate without you, you were too late.
bàdɨ̀ NI type of plant [Stylochiton sp.]. Bàdɨ̀ dá gír-á à ɔ̀sɨ̀-n̄-nèé nà̰ā̰ yá̰a̰. The root of ____ is used to bet with. {One person hides roots in his hand and asks ^^, and his opponent must guess to win.} Bàdɨ̀ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ ndɔ̀ɔ̄ ngá̰y. ___ is a plant that (requires) a lot of weeding.
bādōrī-gɨ̄ NI circle (in expression lā à 'go around, circle'). ɗà lā bādōrī-gɨ̄ dɔ̀ mbùr̄ tɨ́ nà kɨ̀ n-ò̰o̰. He does circles about the 'boule' to get at it (i.e he goes to great lengths to ensure that he's present when it's being served}.
Bàgírmɨ̀ NP Bagirmi {Muslim people related to the Sara living between Sarh and Njamena in areas near Bousso. ɓēe lò Bàgírmɨ̀-gɨ̄ ì Bùsó. The country of the Bagirmi is at Bousso.
bágɨ̀dàr Arabic VT be able to. àn m-āw Mā̰ysālāá m̄-ɗèē kɨ̀ nḛ̄ḛ́-ǹ nà̰ m-ā m̄-bágɨ̀dàr àĺ. He told me to go to Moissala and bring his wife back but I'm not able to.
bàgɨ̀r-bèŕ AVE barefoot (in expression ṵ̀ṵ̄ à 'go barefoot'). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ṵ̀ṵ̄ bàgɨ̀r-bèŕ nà̰ ndì àw̄ gà màn̄ tɨ́. The woman is barefoot and is going to fetch water.
bàgɨ̀r-ɗóbɨ́ N place where fork occurs in road. Ngé-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-nà̰ā̰-gɨ̄ ngà-n̄ nà̰ā̰ bàgɨ̀r-ɗóbɨ́ tɨ́. The people fighting met together at a fork in the road.
Bàhāy NP Bahai faith. NP follower of the Bahai faith.
bájàl Arabic NI gonorrhea. m̄-gèe sòr̄ ájɨ́bà-gɨ̄ àĺ nà̰ wétɨ́ m-ún bájàl. I don't want to sleep with prostitutes lest later I contract gonorrhea.
bàjɨ̀ NIN fork of tree (followed by kāgɨ̄ or pronominal suffix). M-āl m̄-tò bàjɨ̀ kāgɨ̄ tɨ́ m̄-sá njà kɨ̄njá lò-ḿ. I climbed up and sat in the fork of the tree and ate my chicken leg. Kāgɨ̄ dá bàjɨ̀-á gòtóo. That tree has no branching. Expr: tɔ̄ɔ̄ bàjɨ̀ -be forked Kāgɨ̄ mángò lò-ḿ tɔ̄ɔ̄ bàjɨ̀ ngá̰y.My mango tree has a lot of forks in it.
bájò Arabic NI blanket. Bájò lò-ḿ lā m-ā m-lā dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́ lā m̄-hɔ́-ň kūl dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́ yé. I'll put my blanket over my head to protect me from the cold. ún bájò ādɨ̄-m lā dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́ lā kūl ò̰o̰ ngá̰y. Grab a blanket for me so I can cover myself, it's very cold out.
bákɨ̀ NIN ferry. Màn̄-kò̰o̰ tɨ́ kàmyō̰o̰-gɨ̄ à tèē-n̄ màn̄ kɨ̀ bákɨ̀. In marshes trucks cross the river on a ferry.
bákɨ̀ French (Syn: kátɨ̀m,nīngá) NI ring. Bákɨ̀ ì yá̰a̰ ɗāa màndɨ̀. A ring is something to make a girl look pretty.
bákɨ́tā NI white cotton cloth. Dèē-gɨ̄ à dūlō-n̄ nīń kɨ̀ bákɨ́tā kám-tā̰á̰ lā dùbɨ̄-n̄-á yé. People wrap a corpse in white cotton cloth and then they bury it.
bál̀ NI falseness, deceipt. ōtɨ́ mā̰a̰ nàjɨ̄ kɨ́ bál̀. Don't bear false witness. Expr: tàa-kɨ́-bál̀ -lie, deceitful speech Nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ èl tàa-kɨ́-bál̀ nà àw̄ ɓēe lò ngè ngàw lò-ǹ.My wife told a lie and then went to her lover's house.
10
bàl VT interrupt (obj. is tàa). ī-ɗèē à ī-ndì kàrī nà̰ ōtɨ́ bàl tàa. If you come then just sit there and don't interrupt.
bàl (Syn: =bàlà) NI jump ( ɓày bàl 'to jump'). Kɨ́-sɨ̀rà à ɓày bàl ngá̰y. The frog called ^^ can jump very high.
bàl NI goat, billy goat. Bàl ì bḭ̄yā̰ kɨ́ dìngá. A billy goat is a male goat. ādɨ̄-m̄ bàl bḭ̄yā̰ tɨ́ lò-í m̄-ɗāa-ň mbāa. Please give me your billy goat so I can receive a guest with it. Expr: bàl-kɔ̀r̄-gòm -castrated goat Bàl-kɔ̀r̄-gòm yàm ngá̰y.{The meat of} a castrated goat is very greasy. Expr: tàā bàl [yá̰a̰] là nò̰-ǹ tɨ́ -take charge of [s.t.] M-ā m̄-tàā bàl kɨ̀là lò-sɨ́ m̄-lá nò̰-ḿ tɨ́.I'm going to take charge of your work.
bàĺ NI type of fish [Alestes nurse]. Bàĺ ì ngōn kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ yìbɨ̄-á ì ngá̰y. ____ is a small fish that is very oily.
bál̀ French NI ball. Ngán-gɨ̄ ndà-n̄ bál̀ tàgɨ́-bè. The children played ball yesterday. Expr: lòo-bál̀ (=lòo-ndà-bál̀) -soccer field Ndīi èdɨ̀ tàā lòo-ndà-bál̀ túu-bè.It rained and flooded the whole soccer field. Expr: lòo-kòō-bál̀ -soccer stadium or arena Expr: ngè-hɔ̀-bál̀ -goal keeper (soccer) Ngè-hɔ̀-bál̀ yé hɔ̀ bál̀ ngá̰y.The goal keeper blocked a lot of balls.
bàlà (Syn: ==bàl) NI jump ( ɓày bàlà 'to jump'). Ngōn bḭ̄yā̰ ɓày bàlà tɔ̀ӯ kɨ́ bòo. A small goat jumps more than a big one.
bàlàng [bàlà̰ŋ] ID quickly, suddenly (go out). Tèē bàlàng tɔ̀ӯ àw̄ ɓēe-é lò kàa-ǹ. He came out suddenly and went off to his grandparents' house.
bálāng [bálā̰ŋ] NI deceit, lies. Tàa-kɨ́-bálāng lò-í ì ngá̰y. You lie too much.
báláng [bálá̰ŋ] AV completely (off). Tèē báláng kɨ̄ tígé. He came completely out. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ tà rō-ǹ báláng (=ɔ̀r̄ ngḛ̀ḛ rō-ǹ tɨ́ báláng kɔ̄ɔ́) -get busy, don't be so lazy ɔ̄r ngḛ̀ḛ rō-í tɨ́ báláng kɔ̄ɔ́ nà̰ ī-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ kɨ̀ nām-í-gɨ̄.Get busy and plow with your companions.
bàléè,bàlē French (Syn: Sàmàdíì) NI European style broom. ún bālē sōó ādɨ̄ m-ɔ́y-ň lòo. Bring the broom here so I can sweep. NP Saturday {traditional day of sweeping} (normally ndɔ̄ɔ̄ bālē).
bàlì-sàmù NE type of fish {perhaps [Distichodus sp.]}. Bàlì-sàmù ì kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ ɗāa tītɨ̄ wōó bè. ____ is a fish that is somewhat similar to a small carp.
bàlɨ̀m AV useless, stupid (chatter).
bàlɨ̀m ID quickly, with a quick movement. ɔ̀r̄ ndò̰o̰-ǹ bàlɨ̀m ɔ̀dɨ̀-ň kɔ́n-ǹ. He shot his tongue out and touched his nose with it.
bám̄-ndàa (Syn: ==bém̄-ndàa) NI type of bush.
bāmē-gɨ̄ NI rabies. Bísɨ́ bāmē-gɨ̄ à dò̰o̰-ī à yá̰a̰ à hán̄-ī. If a rabid dog bites you, you will go crazy.
bámbā VI be of worth or value; work out; amount to something. Ngè-kà̰ӯ-árgɨ̀ à bámbā dúnyà tɨ́ àĺ. A drinker of strong manioc alcohol will never amount to anything in this world. Kɨ̀là ń m̄-ɗāa nò bámbā àĺ. The job I did didn't work out as planned. VI succeed, be successful. Ngán-m̄-gɨ̄ bámbā-n̄ pétɨ́. All of my children have passed. VI survive. Mò̰y ń m-ōo-á nò à bámbā àĺ. The sick person I just saw is not going to survive.
bámbàr Arabic NI small stool. Bámbàr ì ngōn mbātā kɨ́ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ndì-n̄ dɔ̀ tɨ́ gàr-á. ____ is a small stool that women sit on in the kitchen.
11
bàmbō French NI bamboo, bamboo-like reed. Ngàr-kàm bàmbō lā ngán-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé kàmyó̰ò̰-ɗòbɨ̀ lò-dɨ́ yé. Children use the inside of bamboo to make their toy trucks. Bàmbō lā à ɗāa-n̄-nèé sìgī-ndì yé. Bamboo is used to make chairs with a back. Expr: séjɨ̀-bàmbō -chair made with bamboo like reeds Bɨ́gá dèē-gɨ̄ à ndì-n̄ séjɨ̀-bàmbō tɨ́.Old people sit on bamboo chairs.
bàn̄ NI rhinoceros. Bàn̄ à ɔ̀r̄ kó-tḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ̀ gàjɨ̀-ǹ kɨ̄ dɔ̀ kɔ́n-ǹ tɨ́. The rhinoceros removes the honey of the ^^ bee with the aid of his horn. NI womanizer {fig.}. Bɔ̀ɔ̄-á ì bàn̄ tā bàn̄. His father is a great womanizer.
bàn̄ (Syn: ==bà̰r̄) NT paternal aunt.
bàń VI be debauched, sleep around. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dá bàń ngá̰y. That woman sleeps around with a lot of men. Expr: ɗāa bàń -sleep around; live debauched life ḭ̄ḭ ngōn álà ànḛ̄ ā ī-ɗāa bàń àĺ.If you are a child of God, you won't lead a debauched life. Expr: ngè-bàń -person who sleeps around a lot Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ngè-bàń à tɔ̄l ngàw-ǹ.A woman who sleeps around will kill her husband.
bán [bá̰n] (Syn: =bɔ́n,bár) NT pubic hair. Ngōn kɨ́ dūú à ɓà bán àĺ. A small child doesn't have pubic hair.
bánà-bánà [bá̰nàbá̰nà] NI form of gambling played with cards.
bànáǹ French NI banana tree. Mbī bànáǹ ngāl hō tátɨ́ hō. The leaf of the banana tree is long and broad. NI banana. Gātɨ̄ bànáǹ ì ngá̰y súkɨ̄-ú. The price of bananas is very high in the market.
bànànà [bà̰nà̰nà] NP Masa {Chadic people living in Mayo-Kebbi prefecture around towns of Bongor and Guelendeng}. Bànànà-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ kūl ngá̰y. The Masa can't tolerate the cold. NIN naked, without any clothes on. ī-yá̰ ngōn ādɨ̄ ɗà bànànà kɨ̀tɔ̄-ɗí? Why do you let the child go about naked?
bànáw [bà̰náw] NI elephant bull, leader of elephant herd. Bànáw ì kèdɨ̄ kɨ́ bòo tɔ̀ӯ nām-ǹ-gɨ̄. The elephant herd leader is an elephant that is bigger than all the others.
bàndì-sàlò French NE worthless bum, good-for-nothing. ḭ̄ḭ bàndì-sàlò ī-gèe ɗāa kɨ̀là àĺ. You're a worthless bum; you don't want to work.
bàndíì,bàndī French NI hustler, street urchin. Ngōn-á ì bàndíì súkɨ̄-ú. His child is a hustler in the market. Bàndī-gɨ̄ kɨ́ ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ hɔ̀-n̄-dɨ́ nò ndɨ̀-n̄ kàm kòy tɨ́. The hustlers that the police arrested are at death's door.
Bàndɨ̀ [Bà̰ndɨ̀] NP Bande {Central African people}. Bàndɨ̀-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ́ Bàngí. The Bande are a people from Central Africa.
bāndɨ̄ French NI bandage. Dòktór̀ dūlō jī-ḿ kɨ̀ bāndɨ̄. The doctor wrapped up my hand with a bandage. Ndɨ̀ m-āw̄ kɨ́ bāndɨ̄ kɨ́ ndōm-ň jī-ḿ kɨ́ dòo. I have a bandage used to wrap my wounded hand.
bándɨ́ [bá̰ndɨ́] NI net. Náw-gɨ̄ ṵ̀ṵ̄-n̄ bándɨ́ kàm màn̄ tɨ́. The fishermen threw the net in the water. Bùndḭ̄ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ à tɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ kɨ̀lā, jō-n̄-nèé bándɨ́, ndān kɨ̀lā kínī tɨ́ hō. 'Bunde' is a grass that is used to make rope for weaving nets, as well as for the rope for buckets. Expr: (yá̰a̰) hɔ̀ bándɨ́ sō-ň tà [dèē] tɨ́ -[s.o.] to have an abundance of (s.t.) Gúsɨ̀ hɔ̀ bándɨ́ sō-ň tà-ḿ tɨ́ ɓó-làā.I have plenty of money today. Expr: bándɨ́-kálɨ̀m -type of net with small holes, of Kotoko origin
bándú [bá̰ndú] NI type of manioc (normally with ngàrì). Ngàrì kāngābā kɨ̀ sór bándú lā ngɔ̀ɔ̀ dɔ̀ Sòĺ-gɨ̄ yé, (à̰a̰ yée) tɨ́lò, ī-ɗāa-m dàlì (à kòlè). {Song} The kangaba cassava and big lando cassavas make the Sol bald, (la la) tulo dance, play the drum for me (la la).
bàng [bà̰ŋ] NI type of dance.
12
bāng [bā̰ŋ] NI clod of mud, piece of mud brick. Ngōn lā dèn dɔ̀ nām-ǹ kɨ̀ bāng. The child threw a mud clod at his friend and hit him in the head.
bāng VI be hard. ɓà kàm kújɨ́ lò-ǹ àdɨ̄ bāng báng. He stamped down the interior of his house so that it was as hard as a rock.
báǹg [báǹ] IDS bad (hernia) (in expression ngónjɨ́ ɓà [déē] báǹg [s.o.] to have a hernia').
báng [bá̰ŋ] (Syn: wáng) ID loudly (cry, laugh). Tàa lò-ḿ nèl̄-á àdɨ̄ gō báng. He liked what I said and laughed loudly. ID ibid. (pl.,emph.). Ngōn kōo báng-báng. The child cried extremely loudly.
báng [bá̰ŋ] (Syn: wáng) ID extremely (hot).
bàng [bà̰ŋ] AV exactly, precisely. Sɨ́ndá lò-ḿ òy ndɔ̄ɔ̄ kàw̄-ḿ mbāa tɨ́ bàng. My horse died on the very day of my trip. ā ī-gèe ɗí bàng? What exactly do you want? Expr: dàsá bàng -firstly, the very first thing Dà-sáa bàng dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ à sòō yá̰a̰-kōo nà gán̄g kɨ̀tɔ̄ kɔ̀r̄ bɨ̀nā-á kɔ̄ɔ́.Firstly, the woman will pound the millet and then remove the chaff.
bàng [bà̰ŋ] AV more than once, several times (with verb ùr). M-úr bàng kɨ̄ ɓēe-é lò-í. I went several times to your village.
bàng [bà̰ŋ] NI lines {on ground}. Ngōn jà bàng dà-nàng tɨ́. The child drew lines on the ground. Bàng ń-nò̰ó̰ ì bàng kɨ́ sɔ̀l̄, nà bàng ń-tèń ì bàng kɨ́ kàtɨ̄. That line is sweet, but this line is bitter. {expression used by child who is threatening a companion not to cross the second of two lines} NI way, route. The child who doesn't listen will get lost along the way. NI circle, area within circle drawn on ground. Bàng ì lòo-tàā-kòō. The circle is base. Expr: jà bàng ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ -draw lines over which opponent is warned not to cross Ngán kɨ́ Njɔ̀rkòyó-gɨ̄ à jà-n̄ bàng ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ Hólnàr-gɨ̄.The children from the Njorkoyo neighborhood draw battlelines in front of those from the Hornar neighborhood. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ dɔ̀ bàng -announce the start of Dèē-gɨ̄ à ɔ̀r̄-n̄ dɔ̀ bàng ndòo kɨ̀ dà ɓāl-gɨ̄.People announce the start of the initiation rites every year. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ bàng ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ -declare war à̰lmā̰a̰-gɨ̄ ɔ̀r̄-n̄ bàng ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ pɨ̀ránjè-gɨ̄.The Germans declared war on the French.
bàng [bà̰ŋ] ID tightly (tie).
bàn̄g [bàn̄] NI type of fish [Schilbe uranoscopus]. Bàn̄g ì kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ dūú kɨ́ jɔ́tɨ́-kɔ́ɔ́-á bòo ngá̰y. It's a small fish with a thick upper chest.
báng [bá̰ŋ] ID very (bitter). Njòr lò-í àtɨ̄ báng. Your eggplant is very bitter.
bán̄g [bán̄] VT color, paint (always with kàm 'in'). ī-bán̄g kàm bákɨ́tā àdɨ̄ màjɨ̀. Color in the white cloth so that it looks nice. m̄-bán̄g kàm kújɨ́ lò-ḿ kɨ̀ ndɨ̀bà. I painted the interior of my house with red clay. VT polish. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ bán̄g gìdɨ̀ ngóo là-ň àdɨ̄ ngàw-ǹ. The woman polished the exterior of the gourd and sent it to her husband. Expr: bán̄g rō-ǹ -change colors Kɨ́-lā̰y à bán̄g rō-ǹ ngá̰y.The chameleon changes colors a lot.
báng [bá̰ŋ] NT trace of, tracks of. ɔ̀r̄-n̄ báng njà-sɨ́ lòo tɨ́ ń-tèn. They followed your tracks here. Lòo-ń ngán-gɨ̄ òō-n̄ báng tùbò dá ɓōĺ ɗāa-dɨ́ ngá̰y. When the children saw the lion tracks they were very afraid. Báng njà dɔ̀gɨ̀ lā tèn. There are the tracks of the buffalo NT home of, house of. m̄-ɓáy báng-í tɨ́. I'm coming from your house. NT remains of, place where s.t. was. ṵ̀ṵ̄ mbētē-gɨ̄ báng kèē tɨ́. He put the papers where the basket had been. Expr: ɗóo báng [dèē] -road [s.o.] came by M-āw kɨ̀ ɗóo báng-ḿ.I'm going by the way I came.
báng [bá̰ŋ] ID extremely (stretchy, loose). ID ibid. (emph.,pl.). Kàdɨ̄ ndór̄ jī-ḿ báng-báng. The sun has made (the skin on) my hand very stretched.
báng [bá̰ŋ] ID hammering. Ndà yá̰a̰ kɨ́ làmsó̰ò̰ tɨ́ báng. He hammered at the mission.
13
bàng-ndòo [bà̰ŋgndòo] NI place where initiation ceremony takes place. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ bàng-ndòo -to organize an initiation ceremony Dèē ɔ̀r̄ bàng-ndòo àĺ kònī-làā.There was no initiation ceremony this year.
bāngá [bā̰ŋgá] (Syn: =bāngá-tá̰a̰,bāngá-kɨ́-sà) NI type of small tree. Bāngá ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à tètɨ̀-n̄ mbī-á ndīr-n̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́. ____ is a tree the leaf of which women pick and cook in sauce.
bāngá-kɨ́-sà N type of small tree, leaf used in sauce (see bāngá).
bāngá-kól̀ N type of tree (see bāngá-tīw).
bāngá-súu [bā̰ŋgásúu] NI type of bitter manioc {possibly [Manihot glaziovii]}. Bāngá-súu ì nápàr ngàrì kɨ́ kàtɨ̄. ____ is a type of bitter manioc.
bāngá-tá̰a̰ N type of small tree, leaf used in sauce (see bāngá).
bāngá-tīw [bā̰ŋgátīw] (Syn: =bāngá-kól̀) NI type of tree {possibly rubber tree [Landolphia owariensis]}. Bāngá-tīw ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à gà-n̄ kàdɨ̀-á ɗāa-n̄ tīw-á tḭ́yá̰-n̄-nèé yá̰a̰. ____ is a tree the bark of which people cut and then prepare its sap to be used as glue.
bāngàw Arabic NI sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas]. Bāngàw kɨ́ tɔ́l à ndīr-n̄ kɨ̀ yùbɨ̄. Peeled sweet potato is cooked with oil. m̄-lā bāngàw ngá̰y lā ɓògɨ̀ ɓògɨ̀-m̄-n̄ túu-bè yé. I planted a lot of sweet potatoes but they stole all of them. Expr: njúwá-bāngàw -hairy green caterpillar that eats sweet potato leaves Expr: bāngàw làndò -sweet potato planted in dry season and harvested after worst of rains Expr: tàw̄-bāngàw -type of hairless caterpillar very destructive to sweet potatoes Expr: dīí bāngàw -mound in which sweet potatoes have been planted {see also ßàÿ-bängä#
bāngàw-kɨ́-ndàa [bā̰ŋgàwkɨ́ndáà] NI white sweet potato.
bāngàw-kɨ́-kìrē [bā̰ŋgàwkɨ́kɨ̀rē] NI red sweet potato.
bángē Sango (Syn: bábā) NI type of playful dance. Bángē ì ɗòbɨ̀ lò ngán-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄. The Bange is a game for girls.
Bàngí [Bà̰ŋgí] NP Central African Republic. Kɨ̀-ɗāa ɓāl jōó Bàngí dá kɨ̀-ɓày Bàngí dá kɨ̀-ɗèē Sár̀. Sár̀ kɨ̀-ɗāa ɓāl mɨ̀tá, kɨ̀-ɓày Sár̀ dá kɨ̀-ɗèē j-àw̄ kɨ̀-ndɨ̀ Dīlīí. We stayed two years in Central Africa, left Central Africa and came to Sarh. In Sarh we stayed three years, then we left Sarh and went to stay in Beboro.
bángtɨ́ [bá̰ŋgtɨ́] ID with a thumping sound (pound).
bànjɨ́ [bà̰njɨ́] NI debauchery; loose living. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ bànjɨ́ ngá̰y à nàl mò̰y àĺ. {Proverb} A debauched woman won't fail to get sick.
bānjɨ̄ [bā̰njɨ̄] NI leprosy. Ngè-ngḛ̀ḛ à ndīngā bānjɨ̄. {Proverb} The lazy person covets leprosy. NI insect said to cause leprosy. Bānjɨ̄ ì ngōn kùr̄ kɨ́ à dò̰o̰-ī ànḛ̄ bānjɨ̄ à sà-ī. ____ is an insect which if it bites you results in leprosy. Expr: rō [dèē] gāng bānjɨ̄ -[s.o.] to catch leprosy Mò̰y ɗāa Ngèkɨ̀là àdɨ̄ rō-á gāng bānjɨ̄.Ngekela got sick and he caught leprosy. Expr: bānjɨ̄ sà [dèē] -[s.o.] to have leprosy, to get leprosy Bānjɨ̄ sà-ḿ ɓāl jōó ɓó-làā.As of today I've had leprosy for two years. Expr: ngè-bānjɨ̄ -leper
bānjɨ̄-nō̰o̰ [bā̰njɨ̄nō̰o̰] NI disease of scalp. Bānjɨ̄-nō̰o̰ ì mò̰y kɨ́ à sà bìsɨ̄-dɔ̀ dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ ndāŕ dèē-gɨ̄. ____ is a disease that attacks people's hair and skin.
bápɨ̄ Arabic (Syn: =bábɨ̄) NI door (not including frame). Bápɨ̄ tà-kújɨ́ lò-ḿ tètɨ̀. The door to my house broke.
bápɨ́ ID a handful (take with fingers). Sàā bápɨ́ nà à̰ӯ. He grabbed a handful and fled.
bár AV entirely (too much for) (in expression yál̄ [dèē] à 'be entirely too much for [s.o.]'). Kàdɨ̀ yál̄-m̄ bár. The sun burned me badly.
14
bàr NI board, plank. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à tō-n̄ kīr kɨ̀ bàr. Women carry firewood with a board. ùr ngòō ndā gír bàr tɨ́ tō-ň kīr. She made a headcloth and put it under the board so she could carry firewood with it (on her head). Expr: bàr-tō-kīr -board for carrying firewood Expr: bàr-rìī-wúl̄ (=bàr-kùsɨ̀-wúl̄) -board for crushing peanuts Expr: bàr-púsɨ̄ -planks forming bottom and sides of oxcart Expr: bàr-ndā-jóo -board used to carry pottery Expr: bàr-kúndɨ̄ -board used to carry xylophone Expr: kɨ́ ī-lá-m̄ ngòō nà̰ bàr rètɨ̀ -seriously, something terrible Tàgɨ́-bè nḛ̄ḛ́ màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ-gɨ̄ ɗà kɨ̀ nà̰ā̰ kɨ́ ī-lá-m̄ ngóo nà̰ bàr rètɨ̀.Yesterday my neighbor's wives got into a fight that was just terrible.
bār NT penis, tip of penis (see also mɔ̀tɨ̀). Kàlɨ̀só̰ò̰ gír ngōn gòtóo àdɨ̄ bār-á ndɨ̀ tígé. The boy has no underpants so that his penis is sticking out.
bār NI anteater. Bār à ndán̄g dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ kùm-ǹ. The anteater can strike people with its eyes.
bár (Syn: bán, bɔ́n) NT crotch, between legs. Expr: tèē bár-ǹ -open one's legs Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ tèē bár-ǹ kɨ̀ ǹ-àdɨ̄ ngōn tèē tɨ́.The woman opened her legs so that the child could come out {giving birth}. Expr: ùtɨ̄ bár-ǹ -close one's legs ūtɨ̄ bār-í nà ɓétɨ́ yèr-m̄.Close your legs or it will gross me out.
bár (Syn: njɔ̀r) NT furrow; row, line. Bár tā̰y/kɨ́-mbéré/etc. Furrow of millet/corn/etc. Expr: bár-ndògɨ̄ -path between grass fencing m̄-ngá-á bár-ndògɨ̄ tɨ́.I met him on the path between the grass fencing. Expr: kɨ̀ bár-á-bár-á -in a line, in a row ī-ɗà-n̄ kɨ̀ bár-á-bár-á.Form a line.
bār-bísɨ́ NI type of briar. Bār-bísɨ́ ì kɔ̄n kɨ́ à hɔ̀ njālā lò dèē-gɨ̄. ____ is a briar that gets caught on people's pants.
bár-dèē-kɨ́-bòo-gɨ̄ NE crowd of people. Ngōn ùdɨ̀ ɗà kàm bár-dèē-kɨ́-bòo-gɨ̄ tɨ́. The child entered the crowd and stood there.
bàr-gìdɨ̀ NT lower back, flat part of lower back. Bɔ̀r tètɨ̀ ndà bàr-gìdɨ̀ ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́. The wall broke and hit the girl in the lower back.
bàr-kàdɨ̀ NT thanks to, by the grace of. Bàr-kàdɨ̀-í lā m-ó̰o̰ mbùr̄ ɓó-làā yé. Thanks to you I ate 'boule' today.
bàrà (Syn: dùwà) NI hole, slit in earth for planting peanuts. ɔ́sɨ́ bàrà ādɨ̄ m̄-dùū-ň wúl̄. Poke a hole in the ground so I can plant the peanuts.
bárà Arabic AV out, outside. Expr: tèē bárà -be out of the game of sörö m̄-gèe tàa àĺ, m̄-tèē bárà tàa tɨ́ lò-sɨ́.I don't want any trouble, I am staying out of your problem. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ bárà -want nothing to do with [problem, etc.] M-ɔ̄r bárà kàm tàa tɨ́ lò-sɨ́.I want nothing to do with your problem.
Báráa NP name of town, capital of the Day canton encompassing towns of Bouna and Bengoro.
bàrátɨ̀ Arabic NI teapot. Bàrátɨ̀ ì yá̰a̰ ndīr sáӯ. A teapot is used for making tea. Súwɨ̀ŕ sáӯ tèē tà bàrátɨ̀ tɨ́. Steam from the tea came out of the teapot.
bàrbár̀ French NI pompousness, obnoxiousness. NI boasting. Expr: ɗāa bàrbár̀ -boast, act pompous Ngán ngé-yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ bàrbár̀ kɨ́ dùm̄.The children of the rich act tremendously pompous.
bàrkà NI machete. Bàrkà ì kɨ̄ngā lò nàsár̀-gɨ̄; dèē-gɨ̄ à gà-n̄-nèé kīr. A machete is the axe of the white people; it's used for chopping up firewood.
bàrtálā Arabic NI woven straw plate. ādɨ̄-m̄ bàrtálā lò-í m̄-gán̄g-ň yá̰a̰. Give me your straw plate so I can separate the grain from the bran with it.
bàryéǹ,bàryáǹ French NI long metal river boat. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ gìdɨ̀ bāa tɨ́ à tèē-n̄ màn̄ kɨ̀ bàryéǹ. The women on the other side of the river cross the water in a metal river boat.
15
bàsá VI be a young man. VI be handsome (said of males) (see also màndɨ̀). Dèē kɨ́ bàsá a handsome man NI handsomeness, male good looks. Bàsá lò-á ì ngá̰y. He's very handsome. [lit: his handsomeness is great] Expr: ngōn-kɨ́-bàsá -young man Ngōn-kɨ́-bàsá tītɨ̄-ī bè dá dɔ̀-í à mbùjɨ̀-àĺ.A young man like you is not an old person. Expr: ɗāa bàsá -dress up, make oneself look nice Ngōn kɨ́ ngè ɗāa bàsá ngá̰y ì ngè-ngḛ̀ḛ, à ɗāa kɨ̀là sétɨ́.A young man who dresses up fancy all the time is lazy, it's impossible for him to work.
básàl Arabic (Syn: jḭ̀yō̰o̰) NI onion. Tá̰a̰ kɨ́ ndīr kɨ̀ básàl mɨ́rá̰-á ì ngá̰y. A sauce cooked with onions has a lot of flavor.
básɨ̀ French NI canvas, canvas covering. Expr: básɨ̀ dɔ̀ kà̰myō̰o̰ -canvas covering for back of truck Nél ùn básɨ̀ dɔ̀ kà̰myō̰o̰ lā kɔ̄ɔ́ àdɨ̄ ndīi ndà yá̰a̰ kɨ́ kà̰myō̰o̰ tɨ́.The wind blew the canvass off the back of the truck and so the rain got everything in the truck wet. Expr: básɨ̀-dɔ̀ɔ̄-bùĺ -canvas used to hold cotton for weighing at cotton market Dèē-gɨ̄ tèē-n̄ kɨ̀ bùĺ kɨ̄ tígé túu-bè nà básɨ̀-dɔ̀ɔ̄-á gòtóo.The people brought all the cotton outside but there was no canvass to cover it.
básɨ́ Arabic CNJ only, but. Kó̰o̰-ḿ àn kɨ̀ m-āw m̄-ngá-ǹ básɨ́ kɨ̀là ùn tà-ḿ àdɨ̄ m-āw àĺ. My mother told me to go meet her, but work prevented me from going. AV precisely {emphasizes previous noun phrase}. ḭ̄ḭ básɨ́ ī-ɓògɨ̀ wúl̄ lò-ḿ. You're the one who stole my peanuts. [lit: it-is-you precisely you-stole peanuts of-me] AV just, only. ādɨ̄-m̄ básɨ́. Just give it to me.
bàsɨ̀r NI disease caused by spell that attacks teeth. Bàsɨ̀r ì mò̰y yòo kɨ́ à sà ngāng dèē-gɨ̄. ____ is a disease caused by a spell which attacks people's teeth.
bāsɨ̄r-básɨ́r ID extremely (stale, mealy) (desc. of sàtɨ̄). Wúl̄ dá sàtɨ̄, bāsɨ̄r-básɨ́r. These peanuts are stale and mealy.
bátà Arabic NI draw, tie (in card game kòsɨ̀). Kártē ì bátà, dèē kɨ́ sà nām-ǹ gòtóo. It's a tie, nobody has won. [lit: Cards are tie, person who beat friend-his is-not]
bàtàkúmbá Sango NI assistant to truck driver responsible for baggage, collecting money, etc.. Bàtàkúmbá ɔ̀y sákɨ̄ kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ kàm kàmyō̰o̰ tɨ́. The driver's assistant put the bag up into the truck. Bàtàkúmbá-gɨ̄ ɓògɨ̀-n̄ ɓɔ́l lò kàa-ḿ kàm kàmyō̰o̰ tɨ́ Sár̀ tɨ́. The driver's assistants stole my father's bag on the truck at Sarh.
bàtɨ̀ (Syn: lòng) NT trunk [elephant]. Kèdɨ̄ à jà wàā kɨ̀ bàtɨ̀-ǹ. The elephant pulls up millet with its trunk.
bàtɨ̄ NI sheep. Bàtɨ̄ à ɓōĺ kíyē-ǹ àĺ tɔ̀ӯ bḭ̄yā̰. Sheep are less afraid of their owners than goats.
bátɨ́ AV never, not at all. M-ōo Njàménà tɨ́ àĺ bátɨ́. I've never seen Ndjamena.
bátɨ́ ID neatly (cut through). m̄-já tá̰a̰ kúl̄ m̄-gāng bátɨ́. I cut the 'long sauce' neatly {with my pinkie}. ID ibid. (freq.).
bátɨ́-bátɨ́ AV for a long time. àw̄ bátɨ́-bátɨ́ tā̰á̰ lā tél yé. He went away for a long time and then returned.
bàtɨ̄-kò̰o̰-yòo (Syn: ngōn-kūl,ngà-m̄-sá-ngāng) NP winter month around December.
bàtɨ̀-màdɨ̄-mbāa-gɨ̄ NI type of yam ( ngúl̄-ɓēe) which ripens very slowly.
bàtú Arabic NI cat. Bàtú à tɔ́y yégɨ̄ kɨ̀ ǹ-hɨ̀wà-á. The cat stalks the mouse to catch it.
16
báw NT huge one of, leader of. NI leader {fig.}. Ná̰ā̰ ì báw lò-sɨ́? Who is your leader? Expr: báw-ɓògɨ̀ -a big thief or liar ōtɨ́ kèl sì-á tàa nà̰ ì báw-ɓògɨ̀.Don't talk with him, he's a big liar. Expr: báw-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ -a great warrior Báw-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ì dèē kɨ́ à ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ngá̰y.A great warrior is someone who fights all the time. Expr: báw-kèdɨ̄ -huge elephant Báw-kèdɨ̄ ì bɨ́gá kèdɨ̄ kɨ́ à ndīyā gō ngán-á-gɨ̄ tɨ́.A huge elephant is an old elephant that walks behind its children.
báw NI type of large reddish snake. Báw ì līi kɨ́ ngāl nà kìrē; à dò̰o̰-ī nà̰ ī-sá kḭ̄ḭ-á àĺ à ā óy. Mbáӯ-gɨ̄ èl-n̄ àn báw kɨ́ mbùjɨ̀ ngá̰y à tél mòm. ____ is a long red snake; if it bites you and you don't get an antidote for it you will die. The Mbay say that old ones turn into pythons. Expr: ndà kɨ́ báw àĺ-à gìdɨ̀ gàn -beat to a pulp, beat horribly ā ī-ɓòdɨ̀ à j-à kɨ̀-ndà-ī kɨ́ báw àlā gìdɨ̀ gàn.If you want to play around we'll beat you to a pulp.
bày NI bowl made of black clay, used to serve 'boule' or sauce (see also hánjɨ́ 'black clay'; hánjɨ́ 'clay pot'). Bày tītɨ̄ bùgɨ̄r bè nà̰ à ɗāa-n̄ kɨ̀ hánjɨ́. The ^^ bowl is like the wooden bowl only it's made of clay. ún bày nò àdɨ̄ kɨ̀ ndā-ň mbùr̄ ngōn kɨ́ bàsá nò. Get the clay bowl so we can put "boule" for the young man in it.
bày NI ulcer of skin that lasts for a very long time. Dòo bày ì dòo kɨ́ à ɗāa dèē à à èdɨ̄ àĺ. The skin ulcer is a sore that if it attacks someone it doesn't go away.
bày-gír-kūtɨ̄ NI type of clay pot with base.
bày-tòo NI front of pirogue. Ngè-lā-bándɨ́ à ndì bày-tòo tɨ́. The net thrower sits in the front of the pirogue.
Bāyā NP Gbaya {Central African people}. Bāyā-gɨ̄ à sēr-n̄ ngāng-dɨ́. The Baya file down their teeth. NP Central African, any people of Central African origin.
báyáng [báyá̰ŋ] (Syn: kóng, bóyóng) ID as hard as a rock. Wúl̄-sàr̄ kɨ́ kànjɨ́ ndàw̄ lā bāyāng-báyáng yé. Groundnuts which haven't been cooked are as hard as rocks.
báyàng-báyàng [báyà̰ŋgbáyà̰ŋ] IDS sound of thunder (desc. of ndīi ndán̄g). Ndīi ndán̄g báyàng-báyàng ɓó-nḛ̀ḛ̄ àdɨ̄ ɓétɨ́ à èdɨ̀ ngá̰y. The thunder is booming loudly today; later it's going to rain hard.
bà̰a̰ AV slowly (in expression ɔ̀r̄ bà̰a̰ 'really take one's time, drag one's feet'). Ndīyā lòkól̀ tɨ́ lā à ɔ̀r̄ bà̰a̰ kɨ̀-gō-ɗóo-gɨ̄ yé. He walks to school and he really takes his time on the way.
bà̰ā̰ NI hatred, rancor, spite (see ngè-bà̰ā̰ 'enemy'). Bà̰ā̰ lò bɔ̀ɔ̄-í nà̰y dɔ̀-í tɨ́. The rancor of your father rests upon you. Expr: hɔ̀ bà̰ā̰ kɨ̄ kàm-ǹ tɨ́ -hold a grudge ōtɨ́ hɔ̀ bà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ kàm-í tɨ́.Don't hold a grudge.
bà̰ā̰ VT turn back (obj. always ). ī-bà̰ā̰ tà màn̄g-gɨ̄ nò kɨ̄ gògɨ́. Turn that cow back.
bá̰à̰ French NI bench (see also yá̰a̰-ndì). ādɨ̄ bá̰à̰ mbāa lò-sɨ́ ndì tɨ́. Give your guest a bench to sit on.
bà̰á̰ NI Abyssinian roller. Bà̰á̰ ì yèl̄ kɨ́ à sà kɨ́-dāa-gɨ̄; à tér rō-ǹ gō hòr-kò̰o̰ tɨ́. The abyssinian roller is a bird that eats grasshoppers; it likes to hang around bush fires.
bà̰r NI type of tree {reed-like}. Bà̰r ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ nàl bè; à ɓà bɔ̄gɨ̄-bāa tɨ́. ____ is a tree similar to the reed; it grows by the riverside.
bà̰r̄ (Syn: bàn̄) NT paternal aunt. Bà̰r̄-ḿ ì ngōn-kó̰o̰ bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ kɨ́ dḛ̀ḛ́. My paternal aunt is the sister of my father.
bá̰rɨ́m (Syn: ==bḛ́rɨ́m) ID completely (dead). Ngè-kɔ́l òō kàdɨ̄ tùbò òy bá̰rɨ́m. The hunter saw that the lion was completely dead.
17
bà̰y NI young woman undergoing initiation rites (see ndòo 'initiation'). Ngōn bà̰y kɨ́ jà-n̄-á dàsá à kɔ́r̄-n̄-á tà-yīngá. The first girl to be initiated is called 'the mouth of the razor'. NI female initiation rites. Bà̰y kɨ́ kàw̄ ɓàr-á ɔ̀gɨ̄ ndīi kèdɨ̀. Initiation ceremonies performed in the rainy season stop the rain from falling. Expr: bà̰y lò [dèē] -[s.o.'s] sweetheart, girlfriend Bà̰y lò dèē ì ngōn-kɨ́-màndɨ̀ lò dèē.A person's sweet-heart is his pretty young girl. Expr: jà bà̰y -suffer M-ḭ̄ḭ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-ḿ gòtóo m̄-ɗà m̄-já bà̰y kɨ̀ kɨ́rā-ḿ bè góǹg.I have no woman, I am suffering all alone. Expr: kɔ́kɨ́-bà̰y -woman initiated in past years Kɔ́kɨ́-bà̰y-gɨ̄ lā à jà-n̄ bà̰y ngán bà̰y kɨ́ kìjɨ̀-gɨ̄ yé.Women initiated in previous years perform initiation on the new girls being initiated. Expr: àw̄ bà̰y -have initiation, initiation take place Expr: àw̄ bà̰y -be initiated, undergo initiation Ngán-gɨ̄ àw̄-n̄ bà̰y tà ɓàr tɨ́.Girls are initiated at the start of the rainy season.
bà̰y VI be numerous. Kété dá kèdɨ̄-gɨ̄ bà̰y-n̄ ngá̰y nà̰ gògɨ́-nḛ̀ḛ̄ dá dèē-gɨ̄ tɔ̄l-n̄-dɨ́ túu-bè. In the past elephants were numerous but now people have killed them all. Yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ lò-á bà̰y-n̄. He has a lot of things. [lit: thing-s of-him are.numerous-PL]
bà̰ý INT how much, how many. Kɨ̀lō dā̰a̰ lò-í ì gúsɨ̀ bà̰ý bà̰ý? How much is a kilogram of your meat? Bà̰ý-bà̰ý? How much is each one? Gātɨ̄ kòsɨ́ lò-í ì bà̰ý? How much are your cucumbers? INT how goes it?. Bà̰ý? Kàrī. How goes it? Fine. INT how is it (followed by há̰ 'that'). Expr: ɗāa bà̰ý -be how many, make how many? Bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ lò-í ɗāa-n̄ bà̰ý?How many goats do you have? [lit: goats of-you make how-many?] Expr: [dèē] ɗāa bà̰ý há̰ -how on earth did [s.o.] Ngōn kó̰o̰-ḿ ɗāa bà̰ý há̰ ngà gúsɨ̀ ndūgō-ň kūbɨ̄ wà?How on earth did my brother get money to buy clothes? Expr: Kàdɨ̀ ì bà̰ý? Kàdɨ̀ ì jī-jōó. -What time is it? it's eight o'clock.
bá̰y NI scorpion tail (see also gɨ́ná 'scorpion'). Gɨ́ná à gà dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ bá̰y-ǹ. A scorpion strikes people with its tail.
[bə̀] AV only, just ( bèé when followed by suffix). Mò̰y à ɗèē kɨ̀-dò̰ó̰-tɨ́ nà̰ à tél jén-jén bè. Sickness arrives quickly but only goes away slowly. ādɨ̄-m̄ sḭ́ḭ bè. Just give me a little. AV just, exactly. Bè básɨ́. It was just like that. AV really. AV single; exactly, only {accentuates temporal phrases and numbers}. Kɨ́rā bè a single one Kɨ̀-ndɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄ bè every single day, always CNJ and. M-ōo tùbò-gɨ̄ bè, kèdɨ̄-gɨ̄ bè, nàsɨ̄-gɨ̄ bè. I saw lions and elephants and antelopes. EC marks end of phrase introduced with tītɨ̄ 'like'. Gɨ̀mbā tītɨ̄ yētɨ̄ bè. The black wasp is like the yellow wasp. Expr: òō bè à -if he had known M-ōo bè à m-ā m̄-tɔ̄l-ī.If I had known I would have killed you. Expr: bè àĺ -no {in indirect discourse} m̄-ndì m-él tàa kàw̄ mbāa lā kó̰o̰-ḿ àn bè àĺ yé.I was talking about going on a trip but my mother said no. Expr: làā bè -right here Dùbɨ̄-n̄ kɔ̀w-ḿ làā bè àdɨ̄ m-óy làā bè hō.They buried my placenta right here, so let me die right here also.
bèé AV with reflection, carefully considering matter. m̄-gāa tàa bèé kàdɨ̄ m-āw mbāa nà̰ m̄-tél m̄-dɨ̀bà. I thought carefully of a way to travel but I gave up the idea. M-ōo tàa kèl-í bèé dá ḭ̄ḭ ngè ɓògɨ̀. I've examined the matter with care and concluded that you're a liar. M-ōo bèé dá ā él tàa kɨ́ sèý àĺ. I've examined it carefully, you never tell the truth. Expr: [dèē] òō bèé à -had [s.o.] known M-ōo bèé à m̄-ɗèē gògɨ́ àĺ.Had I known I wouldn't have come back.
bèé (Syn: bè) AV only, just, etc. (suffix (interrogative) becomes following , which can then become ). ì tītɨ̄ bèé-ē? (=ì tītɨ̄ bè wà?) Is it like this?
bè-gásɨ̀ AVE anyway, in spite. Màn̄ bùr̄ nà̰ ɗà à̰ӯ-n̄ bè-gásɨ̀. The water was muddy by they drank it anyway.
bè-lā AVE just, this very second (must begin sentence; clause which follows ends with ). Bè-lā m̄-ɗèē mbāa tɨ́ yé. I've just returned from a trip.
bē-lòo-tíngā [bēlòotḭ́ŋgā] NE hot season.
bè-tā AV that's how, that's the way ( =bèē-tā is also possible). Bè-tā lā m-ā m̄-gèe yé. That's how I like it.
18
bèé-bèé (Syn: ==mbá̰a̰) AV for a long time. PRP until.
bēdɨ̄ NT thing with piece broken off. NT torn up thing. Expr: bēdɨ̄ kìyā -knife with broken or chipped blade Ngōn ɔ̀sɨ̀ nām-ǹ kɨ̀ bēdɨ̄ kìyā.The boy stabbed his companion with the piece of a broken knife. Expr: bēdɨ̄ mḭ̀yā̰ -throwing knife without prong (ng¼½) Kɔ̀dɨ̀ ndà tà bēdɨ̄ mḭ̀yā̰ lò-ḿ àdɨ̄-m̄.The blacksmith repaired my broken throwing knife for me. Expr: bēdɨ̄ kāgɨ̄-ndògɨ̄ -broken pole for supporting grass fencing Yō̰o̰ ò̰o̰ bēdɨ̄ kāgɨ̄-ndògɨ̄ lò-ḿ àdɨ̄ tètɨ̀.Termites ate the old pole supporting my grass fencing and it broke. Expr: bēdɨ̄ sákɨ̀ -piece of cloth torn from sack ún bēdɨ̄ sákɨ̀ nò ī-lā dɔ̀ kānjɨ̄ tɨ́ nà ndùm.Take that old piece of sack and put it over the fish lest they go bad.
bējɨ̄ NI club with thick dried mud at top, formerly used as throwing weapon.
bèl ID bobbing up and down {in water}. Kūbɨ̄ ɓày bèl-bèl. The clothes flapped in the wind.
bèl̄ NT feather. Ndòo-gɨ̄ à tɨ́lā-n̄ bèl̄-gɨ̄ dɔ̀-dɨ́ tɨ́. The young men being initiated put feathers in their hair. NI fan (made of feathers or straw). ún bèl̄ nò sōó ādɨ̄ m̄-íbɨ́-ň hòr m-ādɨ̄ ndīr sáӯ kānáng àdɨ̄ mbāa-gɨ̄ à̰ӯ-n̄. Bring the fan here so I can fan the fire so she can make the tea quickly for the guests. NT wing, wings. Ngúrō ì ngán kùr̄ kɨ́ dūú-gɨ̄ kɨ́ ɓà-n̄ bèl̄. The ^^ termite is a small insect with wings. Expr: bèl̄-ndìsā -first fluffy feathers to appear on young bird Ngán dér-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ ɓà-n̄ bèl̄-ndìsā.My young pigeons are growing fluffy feathers.
bēl NT stick of, piece of [wood, metal]. Expr: bēl-mḭ̀yā̰ -broken piece of throwing knife Bēl mḭ̀yā̰ ì gásɨ́-á kɨ́ nà̰y gà-á tɨ́.A broken piece of the throwing knife is the rest of it that's missing. Expr: bēl gìndɨ̄ (=bēl-hāndɨ̄) -piece of metal Kɔ̀dɨ̀ ùn bēl gìndɨ̄ òo kɔ̀sɨ̀ tɨ́.The blacksmith took an old piece of metal and forged a hoe from it. Expr: bēl kɨ̄ngā -piece of broken or worn down axe blade Bɨ́lá-kóo-dḛ̀ḛ́ yà̰ bēl kɨ̄ngā lòo kīr tɨ́ kɔ̄ŕ.The old woman left the broken axe at the place in the field where she was getting firewood. Expr: dɔ̀-bēl -hitching post Dèē-gɨ̄ à dɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ sɨ́ndá kɨ̀ dɔ̀-bēl tɨ́.People tie horses to a hitching post.
bél ID fine (powder); heavily (pour down [powder]}. m̄-nàjɨ̀ ndùjɨ̄ kàdɨ̀-á m-ādɨ̄-á ùr̄ bél-bél kám-tā̰á̰ lā m-úr m-óo bíyā m-ā̰y yé. I dried the flour in the sun so it was perfectly powdery first and then I ground it and made porridge to eat.
bél̄ (Syn: géw̄) VT glean, search for remains of [crop] in field. Kóo-bɨ́lá-dḛ̀ḛ́ à bél̄ wúl̄. An old woman will glean the peanut field in search of unharvested peanuts. VT mooch, wait around s.o.'s house for meals. VNI gleaning; freeloading. Bél̄ ì yá̰a̰ lò ngé-ngḛ̀ḛ-gɨ̄. Freeloading is what the lazy do.
bēl-ɓēe NI customs, traditions. Bēl-ɓēe kɨ́ márí tɨ́ dá bɔ̀ɔ̄ ngán-gɨ̄ lā à hɔ̀-n̄ dɔ̀ ngōn-kɨ́-màndɨ̀ àdɨ̄-n̄ ngán-dɨ́-gɨ̄ yé. In the olden days, a child's father chose his wife for him. [lit: customs LOC of past EC fathers of children chose young-woman for their sons EC.]
bèl̄-dɔ̀-kùm (Syn: bḭ̀ḭ̄-dɔ̀-kùm) NT eye brows. Bèl̄-dɔ̀-kùm-á ìl ngá̰y. His eyebrows are very dark. ī-ɗāa ɗí bèl̄-dɔ̀-kùm-í tɨ́ há̰ ìl tītɨ̄-bè wà? What did you do to your eyebrows that they're black like that?
bèl̄-kùm NT eyelid, eyelids. Tà-ɗóbɨ́ lò-ḿ ì-n̄ jōó, à ùtɨ̄-n̄ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ hō tèē-n̄ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ hō. bèl̄-kùm-ḿ. {Riddle} I have two doors which open and close at the same time. My eyelids. Bèl̄-kùm ngōn-ḿ ń-ɗàń gòtóo tɨ́. My child here has no eyelids.
bèlóò,bèlō French (Syn: síndá-gá̰à̰,síndá) NI bicycle. Nàní bèlō lò-ḿ ì nò ànḛ̄ m-ā m̄-ɗèē ɓó-làā kānáng. If there had been a bicycle I would have come today quickly. Expr: bèlóò-lò-ngè-njà-mòtɨ̀-gɨ̄ -wheel-chair Pɨ́r̀-gɨ̄ lā àdɨ̄-n̄-á bèlóò-lò-ngè-njà-mòtɨ̀-gɨ̄ yé.It was the priests who gave him a wheel-chair.
bém̄ (Syn: =bám̄) AV in expression òy yòo à 'be badly done, cooked poorly'. Bāngàw ń ndīr tàgɨ́-bè nò òy yòo bém̄. The sweet potato that was cooked yesterday was badly done.
bém̄-bà̰y NI type of plant with edible tuber. Bém̄-bà̰y ì kám kɨ́ tītɨ̄ kɨ́-ngà-sútɨ́-yá̰a̰ bè nà̰ dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á àĺ, nà̰ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé kḭ̄ḭ bájàl. ____ is a bush similar to the plant called ^^ but its fruit is not edible, but its used to make a remedy for gonorrhea.
19
bém̄-ndàa (Syn: =bám̄-ndàa) NI type of bush. Bém̄-ndàa ì kám kɨ̀ à ndògɨ̄-n̄ kókɨ́-ndōo-gɨ̄. ____ is a bush used to bathe women who have just given birth.
bènyéè,bènyē French (Syn: pàngàsóò) NI fried dough. Bènyéè màjɨ̀ kà̰ӯ sáӯ kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ. Fried dough is very good to eat with tea in the morning.
bèr NT beer residue. ɔ́dɨ́ bèr kàsɨ̀ nò ādɨ̄ m-ā̰y nà̰ dèē kɨ́ à ndūgō-ī ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́-nèē gòtóo. Give me the beer residue to drink; no body is going to buy it from you tonight.
bèr NI type of millet, which like wàā normally has bran removed ( wàā) before grinding into flour. Bèr ì gír yá̰a̰-kōo kɨ́ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé mbùr̄ ò̰o̰-n̄-nèé kānjɨ̄. ____ is a type of millet that is used to make boule to eat with fish (sauce). Expr: bèr-kɨ́-ndàa -type of ^MB^ millet with white grains Expr: bèr-kɨ́-kìrē -type of bèr/gîjÆ-dìngàm millet with reddish brown grains, similar in appearance to bèr/gîjÆ-dìngàm Expr: bèr-kùm-kānjɨ̄ -type of ^MB^ millet with light beige grains Bèr-kùm-kānjɨ̄ ì yá̰a̰-kōo kɨ́ màjɨ̀ ɗāa kɨ̀ kānjɨ̄.It's a millet that's good to prepare with fish.
bèŕ AV down. ī-ndì bèŕ. Sit down. AV on the ground. Màn̄ ndì kɨ̀jā kàm jóo tɨ́ kɨ́ tɔ̄ɔ̄ kɨ̄ bèŕ. The water is pouring out from the broken pot onto the ground. AV in the ground. Ngōn ùn gúsɨ̀ dùbɨ̄ bèŕ. The child took the money and buried it in the ground. Expr: kɨ̄ bèŕ -downward; to/towards the ground Búndɨ́ ndà àbìyó̰ò̰ àdɨ̄ ɗèē kɨ̄ bèŕ kɨ̀-ngɔ̄dɨ̄-gɨ̄.The rifle hit the plane and it came crashing down to the ground. Expr: ndā rō-ǹ bèŕ (=ndā dɔ̀-ǹ bèŕ) -do everything possible m̄-ndā rō-ḿ bèŕ mbá̰a̰ m-ɔ̄r ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ dàngá̰y tɨ́.I did everything possible until I got my brother out of prison. Expr: ɔ̀sɨ̀ gòjɨ̀-ǹ bèŕ -kneel down Ngōn ɔ̀sɨ̀ gòjɨ̀-ǹ bèŕ nò̰ bɔ̀ɔ̄-ǹ tɨ́ ndìjè-á gápɨ̀rà.I knelt down. Expr: là dɔ̀-ǹ kɨ̄ bèŕ -to bow down one's head, lower one's head Kùm-ḿ ìl-m̄ àdɨ̄ m̄-lá dɔ̀-ḿ kɨ̄ bèŕ.I felt dizzy so I bowed my head.
bér ID extremely short.
bér (Syn: =búr) ID evenly (cut). ID ibid. (freq.).
bēr-bēsɨ̄ NI type of grass [Eleusine indica]. Bēr-bēsɨ̄ ì mṵ̀ṵ sà bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ hō sà màn̄g-gɨ̄ hō sà sɨ́ndá-gɨ̄ hō sà bàtɨ̄-gɨ̄ hō. ____ is a grass eaten by goats, cows, horses and sheep.
bèrbèrí Arabic NI type of millet with large grains (type of gɔ̀jɨ̀).
bèrwétɨ̀ French (Syn: =brùwétɨ̀) NI wheelbarrow. Gātɨ̄ bèrwétɨ̀ lò nàsár̀-gɨ̄ tɔ̀ӯ kɨ́ lò kɔ̀dɨ̄-gɨ̄ kɨ́ ɗāa ɓēe-é nḛ̀ḛ̄. The price of European made wheelbarrows is much higher than those made locally by blacksmiths.
bétɨ́m ID right (down {sit}). Bɨ́lá kóo dḛ̀ḛ́ tɔ̄ɔ̄ gír-ǹ bèŕ bétɨ́m ndì nàjɨ̀ wàā. The old lady sat completely down and was drying the millet.
bḛ̀ḛ-bḛ̀ḛ (Syn: bàa-bàa) AV gradually, little by little. AV in a bit, shortly. Tàa "bḛ̀ḛ-bḛ̀ḛ" tɔ̄l tḭ́yā̰-ɓɔ̄r. (Proverb} The words 'in a little while' killed the bedbug. {Mats with bedbugs are placed out in the sun, and the bedbugs don't come out and are killed by the heat.} Bḛ̀ḛ-bḛ̀ḛ nà̰ ɓétɨ́ à sō ɓēe-é. In a little while he'll be home.
bḛ́ḛ̀ḛḛ AV sound of sheep, 'baaa'. Bàtɨ̄ à kōo bḛ́ḛ̀ḛḛ. The sheep says 'baaaa'.
bḛ̀rèm (Syn: =bḛ̀r) NI type of grass. Bḛ̀rèm ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ màdɨ̄-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé dɔ̀-kújɨ́ nà ngàn̄g àĺ. ____ is a grass which some people use to make roofs, but it's not strong.
bḛ́rɨ́m (Syn: =bá̰rɨ́m) IDS completely (dead). Kòrō lò málɨ̀m òy bḛ́ŕɨ́m. The koranic school teacher's donkey is completely dead.
bìī NI mortar (see also gòy 'pestle'). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ṵ̀ṵ̄ wàā bìī tɨ́. The woman poured the millet into the mortar. ún bìī nà àdɨ̄ kɨ̀ sòō yá̰a̰. Grab the mortar so we can pound some grain.
20
bíì NI goal {soccer} (in expression lā bíì 'make a goal').
bíī VIA be lukewarm. Dà-nā̰a̰ kūl tɨ́ dá màn̄ kɨ́ bíī màjɨ̀ ndògɨ̄ yé. In the cold season it's nice to bathe in lukewarm water.
bíī VT shake, shake out. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ túgó kūbɨ̄ nà tùtɨ̀ ndéré àĺ àdɨ̄ ùn bíī. The woman washed the clothes but they didn't dry quickly so she took and shook them about. ā ī-bíī kāgɨ̄ màjàĺ à ā ī-tɔ̄ɔ̄ kùm ngè-tár-í. {Proverb} If you shake a bad tree it will injure the eye of someone who loves you. m̄-ndì m̄-bíī jī-ḿ dà hòr tɨ́. I'm stretching my hands out over the fire. VT jostle. ī-bíī-m̄ tītɨ̄ bè àĺ. Don't jostle me like that. VT swing around. Súu bíī būr hóyóng-hóyóng. Suu swung the large lizard around in circles. VT threaten. Bíī-m̄-n̄ dɔ̀ pòtō tɨ́ lò-ḿ ngá̰y. They threatened me a lot about my pictures. VI extend [hands] over fire. VT play games with, have [s.o.] running in circles. ōtɨ́ bíī-m̄ dɔ̀ gúsɨ̀ tɨ́ lò-ḿ tītɨ̄ bè. Don't play games with me about my money like this.
bīi-bíi ID firm, firmly entrenched. Ngɔ̀ɔ̀ kɨ́ bīi-bíi à ɔ̀r̄ rō-tɨ́ àĺ. A deeply entrenched dead tree can't be pulled up.
bídɨ́ [bɨ́dɨ́] NI smallpox. Bídɨ́ ì mò̰y kɨ́ à ɗāa-ī ànḛ̄ rō-í à tèē rìdɨ̀dɨ̀. Small pox is a disease which when it attacks you your body breaks out in a rash all over.
bìgɨ̀jɨ̀ ID very (big).
bìgɨ̀r ID extremely (wide). Sàmbé lò nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ làa bìgɨ̀rìii. My wife's enamel basin is extremely wide. ID ibid. (pl.). ID ibid. (pl.). ID be rich. Dèē kɨ́ bìgɨ̀rìii a rich person
bíkɨ̀ French NI pen. Bíkɨ̀ ì yá̰a̰ ɗāa mbētē lò ngán lòkól̀-gɨ̄. A pen is a writing tool for school children. Bíkɨ̀ lò-í lā tèn. Here is your pen. Expr: hɔ̀ bíkɨ̀ báa -to study hard, work hard at school ī-hɔ́ bíkɨ̀ báa kɨ̀ ā ī-ngá-ň dɔ̀-í.Study hard so that you will succeed.
bīĺ NI hot season {encompassing months of March and April}. Bīĺ tɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à ndɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ yá̰a̰ àĺ. In the hot season people don't plant anything.
bíl̄-bìl NI millet beer. Gɔ̀jɨ̀ màjɨ̀ ɗāa bíl̄-bìl ngá̰y. Sorghum is very good for making millet beer.
bīĺ-bòo [bīĺbóò] NI April {hot month}.
bìlìng [bìlḭ̀ŋ] ID blazing hot. Dān-kàdɨ̀ tɨ́ bìlìng-bìlìng. It's blazing hot in the sun.
bílíǹg [bílíǹ] ID quickly, hastily (come out, leave). Ngōn-kɨ́-màndɨ̀ tèē bílíǹg àā gō ngé-ngàw-gɨ̄ lò-ǹ. The young woman came out hastily and went after her suitors.
bìm ID all (black). Dɔ̀-á ìl bìm. All his hairs are black.
bínɨ́n [bḭ́nɨ́n] (Syn: =dínɨ́n) ID extremely (sweet). Màn̄ yír-kɨ́-kìrē kɨ́ ɗā kɨ̀ sɨ́kɨ̀r yīkɨ̄ bínɨ́n. The red hibiscus drink with sugar is terribly sweet.
bíndī [bḭ́ndī] (Syn: ==dúndō) NI dragonfly.
bìndìng [bḭ̀ndḭ̀ŋ] ID extremely (wide).
bìn̄g [bìn̄] NT thigh. Līi dò̰o̰ bìn̄g-ḿ. A snake bit me in the thigh.
21
bíngɨ́ḿ [bḭ́ŋgɨ́ḿ] ID with a slam (closing door). Ngōn ùtɨ̄ tà-bítɨ́ bíngɨ́m̀. The child closed the door with a slam.
bìngsḭ̀ḭḭ [bḭ̀ŋgsḭ̀ḭḭ] IDS horribly fat (Can be desc. of bòo). Góy-í bìngsḭ̀ḭḭ̀. Your thighs are horribly fat.
bípɨ̀ ID hard (fall).
bípɨ̀ ID suddenly (appear). Tùbò ɓà kɨ̄ tà-á tɨ́ bípɨ̀. The lion-man appeared suddenly before him.
bípɨ̀ (Syn: =búpɨ̀) ID suddenly (start up). Sɨ́ndá sìdè ngɔ̄dɨ̄ bípɨ̀. The horse suddenly started up running.
bìr ID with fluttering sound. Yèl̄ tèē kújɨ́-ǹ tɨ́ bìrrr. The bird flew out of its nest with a fluttering sound. ID ibid. (emph.,pl.). Yèl̄-gɨ̄ ɓày-n̄ bìr-bìr. The birds flew off with fluttering wings.
bīr NI type of tree {probably [Canarium schweinfurthii]}. Bīr ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ bòo kɨ́ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á. ____ is a large tree with an edible fruit.
bír ID badly (split, cut {skin}). Gídɨ́-ḿ kāy bír. (The skin on) my heel is badly split.
bìr-bìsɨ̄-lòo NI garbage pile; trash heap. ī-lā ngìsɨ̀ kūbɨ̄ dɔ̀ bìr-bìsɨ̄-lòo tɨ́. Put the scrap of cloth in the garbage pile. Dà bìr-bìsɨ̄-lòo ì kɨ́ yūró Njàménà tɨ́. Yégɨ̄-bàngī à ndīyā-n̄ tɨ́. The garbage heap is a filthy place in N'jamena. Norwegian rats abound there.
bír-mbóo (Syn: =bír-kɨ́-mbóo) NI strong and energetic person. NI troublemaker.
bìrbḭ̀ NI thick black wasp (see also yētɨ̄, yētɨ̄). Bìrbḭ̀ ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ yētɨ̄ bè nà̰ bòo tɔ̀ӯ yētɨ̄. bìrbḭ̀ à ɗāa kújɨ́ lò-ǹ kɨ̀ bɔ̀r kàm kújɨ́ tɨ́ lò dèē-gɨ̄. The black wasp is similar to the yellow wasp only it's larger. It makes its nest with mud inside people's houses. Bìrbḭ̀ dò̰o̰-m lā rō-ḿ ɓà tíngā pár ndìn. The wasp stung me and my body swelled and got terribly hot.
bìrè NI powerful sorcerer. Bìrè ì dèē kɨ́ yòo lò-á dùm̄ bítɨ́. A great sorcerer is someone whose magic is tremendous.
bíríng [bírḭ́ŋ] (Syn: bátɨ́) AV never.
bìrɨ̀m ID off (black); very (angry). Kàm-ḿ ìl bḭ̀rɨ̀mḭ̀ḭḭ. I'm furious.
bìrɨ̀msì NI chicken pox; skin disease. Bìrɨ̀msì òtɨ̀ ɓōĺ ngá̰y tèn làā, ɗāa ngōn ànḛ̄ sḭ́ḭ bè à tɔ̄l-á. Chickenpox is a fearful disease, it infects a child and soon he's dead.
bìrɨ̀msì AV useless, worthless. M-ā m̄-ɗāa kɨ̀là kɨ́ bìrɨ̀msì àĺ. I'm not going to do useless work.
bírɨ̀sɨ̀ Arabic (Syn: =pál̄-bírɨ̀sɨ̀,pál̄-jápɨ̀) NI type of straw mat made with flexible palm. Pál̄ bírɨ̀sɨ̀ ì pál̄ kɨ́ màjɨ̀ ngá̰y. The Arab style mat is a very good mat.
22
bìsɨ̄ NT residue. ī-yá̰ bìsɨ̄-á ī-ndā-á. Leave the tea leaves (residue of tea) for him. Expr: bìsɨ̄-sáӯ -used tea leaves, tea grind Ngán-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ bìsɨ̄-sáӯ ngá̰y kɨ̀tɔ̄ yīkɨ̄-á.Children eat tea leaves a lot because of their sweetness (sugar left in leaves). Expr: bìsɨ̄-kàpéè -coffee grinds Expr: bìsɨ̄-kàsɨ̀ -residue of millet beer {used as goat feed or in treating interior of gourds} ṵ̄ṵ bìsɨ̄-kàsɨ̀ kàm ngóo tɨ́, ī-ndā-n̄ àdɨ̄ ɗāa ndɔ̄ɔ̄ ngá̰y tā̰á̰ lā ún ī-túgó kàm-á.Pour the beer residue into the gourd and let it sit there for many days first and than wash it out. Expr: bìsɨ̄-tèjɨ̀ -honey comb from which honey has been extracted Dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ mbàr̄-tèjɨ̀ ànḛ̄ à ɔ̀r̄-n̄ bìsɨ̄-á lā-n̄ kɔ̄ɔ́.People chew honey comb and then take out the residue and throw it away. Expr: bìsɨ̄-kɨ́-mbéré -corn husk Bìsɨ̄ kɨ́-mbéré, kīr gòtóo dá ā ī-ɗāa-ň hòr.Corn husk, if there is no firewood you will make a fire with it. Expr: bìsɨ̄-yá̰a̰ -rubbish, garbage J-àw̄ kɨ̀ bìsɨ̄-yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ ngá̰y kɨ́ màjɨ̀ kàdɨ̄ j-ṵ̀ṵ̄ dɔ̀ bìr-bìsɨ̄-lòo tɨ́.We have a lot of garbage, we have to go put it on the garbage pile. Expr: bìr-bìsɨ̄-lòo -garbage pile, garbage dump Dà bìr-bìsɨ̄-lòo yé ɓày kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ ngá̰y.The garbage dump is getter a lot higher.
bísɨ́ NI dog. Bísɨ́ kɨ́ à dò̰o̰ kàm-á à òy dɔ̀ dò̰o̰ àĺ. {Proverb} A dog that bites doesn't forget how to bite. {People don't change their character.} Bísɨ́ lò-ḿ à ɓōĺ bòr̄ àĺ. My dog is not afraid of boars. NI slut {fig.}. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dá ì bísɨ́ tā bísɨ́. That woman is nothing but a slut.
bísɨ́-kāgɨ̄ NI type of small ant (about the size of the ant kɨ́-tìtè). Bísɨ́-kāgɨ̄ à àndɨ̄ rúwō tɨ́ ànḛ̄ tèjɨ̀ à ndā tɨ́ àĺ. If this little ant enters a beehive, the bees won't produce any honey.
bísɨ́-kóló NI jackal, wolf. Bísɨ́-kóló-gɨ̄ à hɨ̀wà-n̄ dā̰a̰ à sà-n̄ nà̰ à yà̰-n̄ dɔ̀-á àdɨ̄-n̄ bɨ́gá lò-dɨ́. When jackals catch an animal and eat it they leave its head for their elders. Bísɨ́-kóló hɔ̀ nàsɨ̄ kɨ́ bòo bè. The jackals caught a huge antelope.
bīsɨ̀ḿ (Syn: ==būsɨ̀ḿ) NT stump of sweet potato plant. Ngán-gɨ̄ ndɨ̀ ùr-n̄ bīsɨ̀ḿ bāngàw. The children are digging up the sweet potato stumps.
bìsɨ̀r ID bad taste. Tà-ḿ ìdè bìsɨ̀rìii. (=tà-ḿ ɗāa bìsɨ̀rìii.) I have a bad taste in my mouth. ī-sá yá̰a̰ kɨ́ màjàĺ tītɨ̄ kàndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ màjàĺ bè dá tà-í à ìdè bìsɨ̀rìii. If you eat something such as bad fruit then you will have a bad taste in your mouth.
bítɨ́ [bɨ́tɨ́] (Syn: =bátɨ́) AV never.
bítɨ́ [bɨ́tɨ́] IDS completely (spoiled, obnoxious) (desc. of dùm̄). Ngōn kɨ́ dùm̄ bítɨ́ ā él-á tàa à à òō dɔ̀ àĺ. If you speak to an impossible child he won't listen. IDS utterly (amazing). Ngōn-í ɗāa yá̰a̰ kɨ́ màjɨ̀ kɨ́ dùm̄ bítɨ́. You child does some amazingly good things.
bítɨ́ [bɨ́tɨ́] AV no matter what, regardless of obstacles. Lòo-tīi m-ā m-āw Sár̀ bítɨ́. Tomorrow I'm going to Sarh no matter what.
bítɨ́ [bɨ́tɨ́] (Syn: ==tà-bítɨ́) NI door made of woven straw.
bíẁ ID with a thud (put/get down). M-údɨ́ dɔ̀ mángò tɨ́ bíẁ. I jumped down from the mango tree with a thud. ID ibid. (emph.,pl.). M-ún ngōn m-údɨ́-á bíw-bíw m-ādɨ̄ ɓīi gán̄g kùm-á tɨ́. I took the child and put him on his feet with a thump so that he would wake up.
bìw ID somewhat (dry). Kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ àӯ bìw. My clothes are not completely dry. Kūbɨ̄-gɨ̄ lò-jɨ́ àӯ-n̄ bìw-bìw. Our clothes are not completely dry.
bìw ID completely (astonish). Tàa kèl-í yáā-m̄ bìwww. What you are saying completely surprises me.
bìw (Syn: wàtɨ̀tɨ̀) ID perfectly (straight). ID ibid. (pl.). Kāgɨ̄-màr sór bìw-bìw. The palm tree is perfectly straight.
bìw [bìwww, bìw] ID loudly (bark). Bísɨ́-gɨ̄ kɨ̀nà-n̄ bìwww. The dogs were barking like mad.
23
bìw ID all (red). Bɨ̀ríkɨ̀-gɨ̄ kìrē-n̄ bìw. The bricks are all red. Njɔ̄kɔ̄ kɨ́ dɔ̀ ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ tɨ́ kìrē-n bìw-bìw. The hats on the soldiers heads are completely red.
bíw̄ VT extend [hands] (see bíī). VT shake [hands] in anguish. VT twirl around or about.
bíyā NI porridge. m̄-ndì m-ā̰y bíyā. I am eating porridge. Expr: bíyā-ndōo -special porridge given to woman who has just given birth Expr: kɔ̄wɨ̄r/kɔ̄ɔ̄r-bíyā -lump in porridge Kɔ̄ɔ̄r bíyā ngàrì yé nèl̄ ngá̰y.Lumps in porridge made from cassava are very pleasant (to eat).
bḭ̀ḭ̄ NT body hair (not head). NT fur of animal. Bḭ̀ḭ̄ bísɨ́ lò-ḿ ndúlō ngá̰y. The fur of my dog is very shiny. NT fuzz or hairy growth on insect or plant. Expr: ngè-bḭ̀ḭ̄ -hairy person
bḭ́ḭ-bò̰o̰ AV lukewarm.
bḭ̀ḭ̄-dɔ̀-bār NT pubic hair. M-ngìsɨ̄ bḭ̀ḭ̄-dɔ̀-bār-ḿ. I shaved my pubic hair.
bḭ̀ḭ̄-dɔ̀-kùm (Syn: bèl̄-dɔ̀-kùm) N eye brows.
bḭ̀ḭ̄-gìdɨ̀-gɨ̄jā [bḭ̀ḭ̄gÌdɨ̀gījā] NE obscurity {lit: hair on back of civet}. Lòo à bḭ̀ḭ̄-gìdɨ̀-gɨ̄jā dá ā ōo dèē sá̰y à ā ī-gèr̄-á àĺ. It's getting dark out, if you see someone faraway you won't recognize him.
bḭ̀ḭ̄-tà (Syn: mbāý) NT beard around mouth. Bḭ̀ḭ̄-tà-ḿ ndò̰ō̰-m̄ ngá̰y. The hair around my mouth itches a lot.
bḭ̀ḭḭ ID buzzing, with a buzzing noise (desc. of ɓày 'rise, go up, come out'). Gɨ̀mbā ɓày bḭ̀ḭḭ. The wasp rose with a buzz.
bḭ̀yà̰ NT unpleasant scent secreted by african civet ( gījā). Bḭ̀yà̰ gɨ̄jā òtɨ̀ ngá̰y. The scent of a civet cat is very strong.
bḭ̀yà̰ (Syn: tèjɨ̀-bḭ̀yà̰) NI ground bees. Tèjɨ̀-bḭ̀yà̰ à tò kàm bùlò tɨ́ bèŕ dà-nàng tɨ́ nà̰ à ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ngá̰y àĺ. Ground bees live in holes in the earth but they're not very aggressive.
bḭ̀yā̰ VIA be twisted (mouth or lip). Tà kɨ́-bḭ̀ḭ́ bḭ̀yā̰. The mouth of the dung beetle is twisted.
bḭ̄yā̰ NI goat (see also bàl 'billy goat'). ɓàr ùdɨ̀ lā dèē-gɨ̄ à dɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ bḭ̄yā̰ lò-dɨ́ yé àĺ dá à sà-n̄ yá̰a̰-kōo lò-dɨ́ àdɨ̄ ɓōo à ò̰o̰-dɨ́. In the rainy season people tie up their goats, otherwise they'll eat their millet and they'll be hungry. Bḭ̄yā̰ lò-ḿ òjɨ̀ ngán-gɨ̄ ngá̰y. My goat has given birth to a lot of offspring. Expr: ɗāa [dèē] kāsɨ̄/njà bḭ̄yā̰ tɨ́ kɨ̄ gògɨ́ -make [s.o.] look ridiculous ōtɨ́ ɗāa-m̄ njà bḭ̄yā̰ tɨ́ kɨ̄ gògɨ́.Don't ridicule me.
bḭ̀yà̰-kàm-tòŕ NI tobacco residue found in pipes. à ɔ̀r̄-n̄ bḭ̀yà̰-kàm-tòŕ kɨ̀ kāgɨ̄. One extracts the residue of tobacco in pipes with a stick.
bɨ́gá (Syn: bɨ́lá) NI old person (can precede a second noun: bɨ́gá bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ 'my old father'). Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ ì bɨ́gá; tɔ́gɨ́ ɗāa-á kɨ̀là gòtóo. My father is old; he has no strength to work. Expr: tél bɨ́gá -become old, get old Màn̄g lò-ḿ tél bɨ́gá ngá̰y àdɨ̄ m-āw m̄-mbél̄-ň ngán-á-gɨ̄.My cow has got very old, I am going to go change it for some calves.
bɨ́gà-kɨ́-nām-ngán-gɨ̄ [bɨ́gàkɨ́nāmŋgá̰ngɨ̄] NI elder who behaves like young person, refusing to recognize his age. ɗāa rō-ǹ bɨ́gà-kɨ́-nām-ngán-gɨ̄ tɨ́ ɗà sà-ň yá̰a̰ lò dèē-gɨ̄. He acts like a child so as to get things from people.
bɨ́jír (Syn: =bíjír) ID all set up (in life, housing, etc.). m̄-ndì bɨ́jír. I'm all set up in life. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ndɨ̀ tà ɓēe ngàw-ǹ tɨ́ bɨ́jír. The woman is happily married and all set up in life.
24
bɨ́lá NI old person. Bɨ́lá à ɗāa kɨ̀là ngá̰y àĺ. Old people don't do much work. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ndìn tél bɨ́lá wòy. That woman has become old. [lit: Woman that became old.person already] NT old one. Bɨ́lá bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ à ndīyā sétɨ́, tɔ́gɨ́-á gòtóo. My old father can't walk, he has no strength.
bɨ́lá NI type of white yam. Bɨ́lá ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ ngúl̄ bè; kàndɨ̄-á ndàa nà̰ tō ndùjɨ̄. ____ is a plant similar to a yam; its tuber is white and has a pleasant texture and taste. Dèē-gɨ̄ ɗāa-n̄ mbāa tɨ́ kɨ̀ ngúl̄ bɨ́lá. The people received their guest with a type of white yam. Expr: ngɔ́ɔ́-bɨ́lá -variety of ^MB^ yam with red interior
bɨ̀là NT string of [crop] tied together for harvesting. Bɨ̀là mùnjò ì mùnjò kɨ́ dɔ̀ɔ̄ gìdɨ̀-á kɨ̀ bùndḭ̄. ____ is string beans tied together with ^^ grass. Expr: bɨ̀là mùnjò̰/yá̰a̰-kōo/gɔ̀jɨ̀ -bunch of beans/millet/sorghum tied together Bɨ̀rà-kɔ̀sɨ̀ lā bɨ̀là mùnjò kɨ̀ ǹ-ɗāa kōo tɨ́.The farmer set aside a bunch of beans as seed for future years.
bɨ̀là (Syn: bà̰y,bàa) VI be numerous. Ngán-gɨ̄ bɨ̀là-n̄ lòo-kòō-bál̀ tɨ́. The children were numerous at the football stadium.
bɨ̀là NT coop, pen. Bɨ̀là-kɨ̄njá gɨ̄ lò-ḿ tél bɨ́gá ngá̰y. My chicken coop is getting very old. Expr: bɨ̀là-kɨ̄njá-gɨ̄ -chicken coop Mɨ̀là tèē tà bɨ̀là-kɨ̄njá-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ ǹ-hɨ̀wà-n̄ kɨ̄njá-gɨ̄.The wildcat came to the entrance to the chicken coop to get some chickens. Expr: bɨ̀là-bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ -goat pen ɓòn̄g hɔ̀ bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ kàm bɨ̀là-dɨ́ tɨ́.A hyena caught the goats in their pen.
bɨ̄lā NI evil spirit.
bɨ́lā (Syn: ==bɨ́rā) VTF form [balls of dough] with hand.
bɨ̄lā-gɨ̄ NE curse ( ndà bɨ̄lā-gɨ̄ dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ 'to curse [s.o.]). Bɔ̀ɔ̄-á ndā bɨ̄lā-gɨ̄ dɔ̀-á tɨ́. His father placed a curse upon him. Expr: bɨ̄lā-gɨ̄-m-ā̰y-mājɨ̄-á -it's going to rain Bɨ̄lā-gɨ̄-m-ā̰y-mājɨ̄-á yé ōo-á àlē há̰ ndì āw kɔ̄ŕ-ē?It's going to rain, why on earth are you going to the field?
bɨ̄lā-gɨ̄-kɨ́-nām-ḿ-kìrē NI type of small bird {red bishop, considered variety of gōý-gɨ̄}. Bɨ̄lā-gɨ̄-kɨ́-nām-ḿ-kìrē ì gōý-gɨ̄ kɨ́ dìngá; rō-á kìrē. à tèē-n̄ ɓàr-á ngá̰y. ɓāl-á bèl̄-á kɨ́ kìrē à tɔ́r̄ kɔ̄ɔ́ nà à tél gōý-gɨ̄. ____ is a male bishop; its body is red. They appear in large numbers during the rainy season. In the dry season their red feathers come off and the turn back into bishops.
bɨ́láng [bɨ́lá̰ŋ] (Syn: pétɨ́,túu-bè) AV all, all of it/them. Ngán-gɨ̄ à̰ӯ-n̄ kàsɨ̀ lò-ḿ bɨ́láng. The children drank all of my beer.
bɨ̀lò-kḭ̀ḭ NI hole in ground for defecating. Bùlò-kḭ̀ḭ ādɨ̄-m̄ sɨ́wé. The hole for defecation makes me nauseous.
bɨ̀lò-kɔ́n NT nostrils. Sùngóo ɓòdɨ̀ à òō dèē à ùdɨ̀ tà-ǹ àĺ. bùlò-kɔ́n-ḿ. {Riddle} Guess the idiot who sees people but doesn't close his mouth? My nostril.
bɨ̀lò-líbɨ̀r NI eye of needle. m̄-lá kɨ̀lā bùlò-líbɨ̀r tɨ́ kɨ̀ m-ūr-ň yá̰a̰. I put the thread in the eye of the needle so I could sew.
bɨ̀lò-màn̄ (Syn: ɗèe) NI well. Bùlò-màn̄ kɨ́ Kā̰a̰ òo ngá̰y. The well at Kan is very deep.
bɨ̀lɔ́kɨ̀ IDS brutally {strong against weak} (desc. of ndà ?? plural,). Ngōn ndà nām-ǹ bɨ̀lɔ́kɨ̀. The boy hit his friend brutally.
Bɨ́ná (Syn: =Bɨ́ná̰, Búná) NP Bouna {Day town northwest of Moissala}.
bɨ̀nā,bɨ̀nā̰ NI bran. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ sòō wàā ṵ̀ṵ̄ kàm kèē tɨ́ gán̄g ɔ̀r̄ bɨ̀nā kɔ̄ɔ́. The woman pounded the millet, poured it into the basket and winnowed it to remove the bran. Kàm jóo bɨ̀nā à nàl màsɨ̄ àĺ. {Proverb} The pot with the bran will not fail to be acidic. {i.e. people don't change their basic character.}
25
bɨ̀ndā VT bend. m̄-bɨ̀ndā tà-kɔ́n njà-ḿ kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰. I bent the tip of my foot up. ī-bɨ̀ndā kāgɨ̄ ndògɨ̄. Bend the pole supporting the grass fencing. VI be bent. Bɔ̀r lò nān-ḿ bɨ̀ndā. My uncle's wall is bent. VT lean, lean back. ōtɨ́ bɨ̀ndā kɨ̀ séjɨ̀ kɨ̄ gògɨ́ nà̰-tâ ī-sō. Don't lean back in your chair lest you fall.
bɨ́ndír ID be excessively thick. Tà-í bɨ́ndírìii. Your lips are excessively thick.
bɨ̄ngāl [bɨ̄ŋgāl] (Syn: gɔ̀l-tɔ̄ɔ̄-kānjɨ̄) NI club {for fishing}. m̄-tɔ̄ɔ̄ dɔ̀ gàgɨ̀ kɨ̀ bɨ̄ngāl. I crushed the head of the carp with a fish club.
bɨ̀rà AV in groups (in expression ndà à 'be/put in groups,piles,bunches'). Mángò ndà bɨ̀rà. The mangoes are in piles. Màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ ndà bɨ̀rà yá̰a̰-kōo lā dà dàw tɨ́. My neighbor put his millet in a pile and put it on the drying structure.
bɨ̄rā NI type of fish net. Bɨ̄rā ì bándɨ́ kɨ́ ngāl ngá̰y. ____ is a long fishing net.
bɨ̄rā VT stamp down. ī-bɨ̄rā dɔ̀-ɓádɨ́ kɨ̀ njà-í. Stamp down on the tomb with your foot. VT form by squeezing or pressing. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ bɨ̄rā mbùr̄. The woman shaped the 'boule'. VT tap, slap. Bɔ̀ɔ̄ ngōn bɨ̄rā dɔ̀ ngōn-ǹ. The boy's father slapped him on the head.
bɨ́rā (Syn: bɨ́lā) VT form [balls of dough] with hand. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ndì bɨ́rā kɨ̀ ɓà mùnjò. The woman is forming little balls of bean dough. EMP to the brim (filled) (desc. of ɗòsɨ̀ 'fill', used with powders').
bɨ́rá-bɨ́rá IDS excessively (short: suggests a dwarf) (desc. of bɨ̄rā 'be short'). Dèē kɨ́ bɨ̄rā bɨ́rá-bɨ́rá à tɔ̀gɨ̀-àĺ. A person who is excessively short (a dwarf) won't grow tall.
bɨ̀rà-bòo NI large red ants. Bɨ̀rà-bòo à ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ tɨ́pá ngá̰y. The large red ants often battle with the large black ants.
bɨ̀rà-bòo NP October.
bɨ̀rà-ɓēe NI type of bush. Bɨ̀rà-ɓēe ì kám kɨ́ mbī-á tátɨ́ dògɨ̀ròoo. à gāng-n̄ mbī-á ndā-n̄ hòr-ó ndògɨ̄-n̄ ngán-gɨ̄. ____ is a bush with a very wide leaf. Its leaf is cut and boiled and used to bathe children.
Bɨ̀rà-ɓēe NP Lord, Christ {chr.}.
bɨ̀rà-ɓēe French (Syn: =ɓɨ̀rà-wēe) NI identification card. Kḛ́ḛsá̰à̰ ń bɨ̀rà-ɓēe lò-á gòtóo à à ùn gúsɨ̀ àĺ. A veteran of French military service who doesn't have his identification card won't receive his pension.
bɨ̀rà-dɔ̀ NT chief; boss. Expr: bɨ̀rà-dɔ̀-ndòo -head of initiation ceremony for boys Bɨ̀rà-dɔ̀ ngán-ndòo-gɨ̄ ì kété nò ngán ndòo-gɨ̄ tɨ́.The head of the initiation is up ahead of the boys to be initiated. Expr: bɨ̀rà-dɔ̀-bà̰y -head of initiation ceremony for girls Expr: bɨ̀rà-dɔ̀-ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ -military officer
bɨ̀rà-dɔ̀-kújɨ́ (Syn: ==bɨ̀rà-kújɨ́) NI woven decorative top of straw roof.
bɨ̀rà-kɔ̀sɨ̀ NI farmer, skilled farmer (lit 'champion of the hoe'; see also ngè-ndɔ̀ɔ̄).
bɨ̀rà-kújɨ́ (Syn: =bɨ̀rà-dɔ̀-kújɨ́) NI woven decorative top of straw roof. Bɨ̀rà-kújɨ́ ì tà-kɔ́n dɔ̀-kújɨ́. ____ is the top part of the roof. Dèē-gɨ̄ ndā-n̄ bɨ̀rà-dɔ̀-kújɨ́ lò kàa-ḿ mbḛ̄ḛ ngá̰y. The people put a decorative roof on my grandfather's house, it came out beautiful.
26
bɨ̀rà-ndòo NT godfather of [boy being initiated]. Bɨ̀rà-ndòo ngōn lā à sà yá̰a̰ ndōm ndòo lò ngōn yé. The godfather of a child to be initiated will spend the presents given to that child as a result of his dancing at the ceremony.
bɨ̀ràbóò French NI applause, (in expression ndà à 'to applaud'). Ngán-gɨ̄ ndà-n̄ bɨ̀ràbóò gō ngé-ndà-bál̀-gɨ̄ tɨ́. The children applauded the soccer players.
bɨ̀ràndáà,bɨ̀ràndā French NI covered porch. M-ā m̄-ɓīi bɨ̀ràndā tɨ́. I sleep on the covered porch. ī-ndā mbùr̄ kɨ̀ bɨ̀ràndā tɨ́ ādɨ̄ kɨ̀ tèē j-ò̰o̰-n̄. Put the boule on the covered porch so we can go out and eat.
bɨ̀ràng [bɨ̀rà̰ŋ] NI galago (type of animal). Bɨ̀ràng à sà kɨ́-kūtɨ̄ ngá̰y. The galago eats a lot of the plant called ^^.
bɨ́ráy ID in small pieces, completely (cut up).
bɨ́rā̰ý NI type of blue bird. Bɨ́rā̰ý ì yèl̄ kɨ́ à sà kàndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ yīkɨ̄; kùm-á kìrē pérɨ́r; ɓōĺ ngá̰y. ____ is a bird that likes to eat sweet fruit; its eyes are red, and it's very skittish.
bɨ́rá̰y ID in small pieces, completely (cut up).
bɨ̀rī,bɨ̀rī-gɨ̄ NI infection {caused by s.t. left in skin} ( ɗāa à 'cause an infection'). Kɔ̄n ɔ̀sɨ̀-ī nà ɔ̄r àĺ à à ɗāa bɨ̀rī. If a thorn gets in you and you don't get it out it will cause an infection.
bɨ́rìbáà Sango NI game played with rocks in holes in the ground. Ngōn ndégɨ̄ mbàng ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ bɨ́rìbáà ń nām-á ɗāa wōng nà̰ ṵ̀ṵ̄ kɔ̄ɔ́ nò. The boy picked up the rocks for playing the game with holes in ground which his friend had tossed away in anger.
bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ French NI brick (see also dèrɨ̀ngēl). m̄-ɓá bɔ̀r kám-tā̰á̰ lā m-ɔ̄r bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ tɨ́ yé. I mix the mud {by stamping on it} first and then I make the bricks. Kújɨ́ ń-ɗàn à ɗāa-n̄ kɨ̀ bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ kɨ́ kìrē. That house is made with red bricks. Expr: bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ kɨ́ tíngā -baked bricks Bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ kɨ́ tíngā màjɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ kɨ́ kàrī. ā ī-ɗāa-ň kújɨ́ à à tɔ̄ɔ̄ àĺ.Baked bricks are better than regular bricks. If you make a house with them it won't break. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ -make bricks ɔ̀r̄ bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ ndā-ň kújɨ́.He made bricks to build a house with.
bɨ̀rìm ID dark blue; dark green. Kàndɨ̄ mṵ̄y kɨ́ kìl bɨ̀rìm, ā ī-sá tɔ̀ӯ dɔ̀ ànḛ̄ dɔ̀-í à gà-ī. If you eat too much of the fruit of the ^^ tree when it's dark blue, you'll get a splitting headache.
bɨ́rím ID sound of fast drum. Kɔ̀dɨ̀ kōo bɨ́rím-bɨ́rím. The drum goes rum-a-tum-tum. ID sound of slower drum beat.
bɨ̀róò French (Syn: =bɨ̀rō,bɨ̀rōo) NI office. Sìī-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ kɨ̀là bɨ̀róò tɨ́. Bureaucrats work in offices.
bɨ́sár ID extremely (dry {manioc,sweet potato}).
bɨ̀tīl French NI bottle. árgɨ̀ bɨ̀tīl jōó two bottles of firewater Expr: bɨ̀tīl kàsɨ̀/yìbɨ̄/kḭ̄ḭ/màn̄ -beer/oil/medicine/water bottle Expr: bɨ̀tīl sɔ́l-bāyā -short fat bottles Bɨ̀tīl sɔ́l-bāyā ì ngōn bɨ̀tīl kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀ gɔ́pɨ́yɔ́ɔ́ɔ́ bè. à ɗāa-n̄-nèé árgɨ̀.It's a short fat little bottle. It's used to make cassava moonshine. Expr: bɨ̀tīl yír -bottle of sweet hibiscus drink
bɨ̄tīng [bɨ̄tīŋ] NI brain disease {causing person to act foolishly}.
27
bòo VIA be big, large. Kèdɨ̄ bòo tɔ̀ӯ nām-ǹ-gɨ̄ túu-bè. The elephant is larger than all of the other animals. [lit: elephant is-large it-surpasses companion-its-PL all] ì ɗí há̰ ī-bòo-ň tītɨ̄-bè wà? How is it you're so big? VIA be important. Dèē/ɗóo kɨ́ bòo An important person/road VIA be fat. VI become big, fat, important. Nēl-gɨ̄ ì kɨ̄njá kɨ́ à bòo ngá̰y àĺ. The "nelge" is a type of chicken that won't grow very big. VT cause to become big. Ngōn-dɔ̀-dèē ì mò̰y kɨ́ à bòo kàm dèē-gɨ̄. Hydropsy is a disease that causes people's stomach to get big. Mángò bòo ngōn-ḿ. Mangoes are making my child big. NT size, bigness. Bísɨ́-kóló ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́-mṵ̀ṵ-tɨ́ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ bísɨ́ bè ì-n̄ kɨ̀ tàl̄ bè, nà̰ bòo-á lā tɔ̀ӯ-dɨ́ yé. The wolf is a wild animal similar to the dog and the jackal, but its size is much greater.
bòo NT leaf of type of palm tree { màr}. Bòo màr tátɨ́ ngá̰y. Kāgɨ̄ bòo màr ndèr̄ ngá̰y, dèē-gɨ̄ à ùsɨ̀-n̄-nèé gír kàsɨ̀. The leaf of the palm tree is very wide. Its stem is very thick, and people use it to stir millet beer.
bóo (Syn: ngɨ́ndír) ID extremely tough. Ngɨ̀rà màn̄g ngɨ̀rà bōo-bóo. Beef grizzle is terribly tough.
bòó (Syn: =bòó-tà-ngóo-tɨ́) NI gluttony. NI glutton. ḭ̀ḭ̄-n̄ bòó-gɨ̄, ā ī-sá-n̄ yá̰a̰ à à àsɨ̀-sɨ̀ àĺ. Your all gluttons, you eat and you're never satisfied. EMP decision. Expr: bòó tɨ́ -gluttonously ī-sá yá̰a̰ bòó tɨ́ ngá̰y.You eat like a pig. [lit: you-eat food gluttony LOC a.lot]
bōó (Syn: =ɓèe-bōó) NI type of white mushroom.
bòó-tà-ngóo-tɨ́ [bòótàŋgóotɨ́] (Syn: =bòó) NI glutton. Bòó-tà-ngóo-tɨ́ à sà yá̰a̰ ànḛ̄ à àsɨ̀-á àĺ. When a glutton eats it is not going to be enough for him.
bògɨ̀ (Syn: =gír-bògɨ̀) NT chin; jaw. Nām-ḿ ndà bògɨ̀-ḿ ùn gà lā-ḿ. My friend hit me in the jaw and knocked me down.
bògɨ̀rò ID dirty (white) {color of skin when covered with dust}. Lòo-ń àl̄ kàmyō̰o̰ kàm búu tɨ́ ànḛ̄ rō-í à ndàa bògɨ̀ròòò. When you ride a truck in the dust your body gets dirty white.
bōĺ NI type of small sand turtle (see also mḛ̀ḛ). Bōĺ tītɨ̄ mḛ̀ḛ bè nà̰ dūú ngōn kɔ́ɔ́-kɔ́ɔ́. The sand turtle is like the river turtle but it's smaller and round. Sídɨ́ bōĺ òtɨ̀ bōĺ. {Proverb} Gas passed by the turtle smells bad to the turtle. Sùngóo ngōn-kɨ́-bàsá kɨ́ à tèē kɨ̀ kújɨ́ gìdɨ̀-ǹ tɨ́. Bōĺ. {Riddle} Guess a young man who goes out with a house on his back. Sand turtle.
bòndrɨ̀díì French (Syn: =bòndòrdíì,júmà) NP Friday (normally preceded by ndɔ̄ɔ̄). Bòndrɨ̀díì ì ndɔ̄ɔ̄ sálà lò Dùm-gɨ̄. Friday is the day the Muslims pray.
bōngō [bō̰ŋgō] (Syn: =kújɨ́-bōngō) NI round house. Bōngō ì ngōn kújɨ́ kɨ́ dà gɔ̀r-gɔ̀jɔ̄-gɨ̄. ____ is a small round house.
bópɨ̀ (Syn: ɓípɨ̀) ID with a thud (fall) {small animal or bird}. Ngōn sō bópɨ̀. The child fell with a thud.
bòr̄ NI boar. Bòr̄ ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́ à gèe lòo kɨ́ sɔ̀l̄. The boar is an animal that likes cool places. Bòr̄ kɨ́ mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ à ɗāa ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ngá̰y. Wild boars are very aggressive. NI motorcycle. ī-tél kɨ̀ bòr̄ lò-í kɨ̄ gògɨ́. Turn your motorcycle around.
bōr NI type of fish [Alestes macrolepidotus]. Bōr ì kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ à sà kḭ̀ḭ ngá̰y bāa-á. Dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ nà m-ḭ̄ḭ m-ā sá àĺ. ɓōo ɗāa-m̄ kúlù m-ā m̄-sá-àĺ. It's a fish that eats a lot of excrement in the river. People eat it but I won't eat it. Even if I'm hungry I won't eat it.
bòr̄-bādɨ̄m NI warthog. Bòr̄-bādɨ̄m gɔ̀jɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ bòr̄ kɨ́ kàrī. Sɨ̄lā-á ngāl; à ɗāa ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ngá̰y hō. A warthog is shorter than the regular boar. Its tusks are long; it is very aggressive.
28
bōr-kàdɨ̀ NT upper side {under arms}. ɗāa nìngà ùr-ň kɨ́ màdɨ̄ bōr-kàdɨ̀-á jútɨ̀. He took a spear and hit one of them in the upper side with a thud. Expr: bōr-kàdɨ̀ màn̄/bāa -edge of water/river; riverside ā ī-ngá hánjɨ́ bōr-kàdɨ̀ bāa tɨ́.You find clay at the edge of the river.
bósɨ́ ID extremely (tough).
bòskíì,bòskwíì French (Syn: =bòskīi) NI cracker, biscuit. Bòskíì ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à à̰ӯ-n̄-nèé sáӯ. Crackers are a food people drink tea with.
bòtɨ̀l NI variety of sesame (leaves also serve in preparation of sauce nɨ́má-bótɨ̀l). Bòtɨ̀l ì kór kɨ́ kìrē. ____ is red sesame.
bòw ID badly (shrivel up, deformed). Kɨ́-dà-bòo-njà nām-ḿ ɗōríī bòw. The big toe of my friend is all shriveled up. ID ibid. (pl.). Jī-sɨ́ ɗōríī bów-bów. Your (pl.) hands are all shriveled up.
bóy AV stopped up, blocked. Mbī kɨ̀mā ì bóy, ā tɔ̄l ngōn-í nà̰ él-ā tàa-á ànḛ̄ à tél ɗèē ùn tɔ̄l tɔ̀ɔ̄. The ears of a sorcerer are blocked up, if he kills your child and you complain to him about it, he'll kill another one. AV forgotten {fig.}.
bóyóng [bóyó̰ŋ] (Syn: báyáng, kóng) ID as hard as a rock.
bó̰ò̰ French NI loan; credit. Bó̰ò̰ lò-ḿ ì ngá̰y nà̰ ngé-ɗáw̄-yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ gèe kɨ̀ n-àdɨ̄-m̄-n̄ àĺ tā. I have a lot of loans, and the merchants don't want to give me anything any more. Expr: tàā bó̰ò̰ -get a loan, take a loan m̄-gèe kɨ̀ m̄-tàā bó̰ò̰ àĺ.I don't want to get a loan.
bɔ̀ɔ̀ NI burp, smelly burp ( ndà à 'to have a smelly burp'; see also ndà à). Kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ ndùm ń tàgɨ́-bè m̄-sá nò ɗāa-m̄ àdɨ̄ m̄-ndá bɔ̀ɔ̀ ɓó-làā ngá̰y. The rotten fish I ate yesterday is making me burp a lot today. Expr: ndà [dèē] bɔ̀ɔ̀ -make [s.o.] burp Kàw kɨ̄njá à ndà-m̄ bɔ̀ɔ̀.Chicken eggs make me burp.
bɔ̀ɔ̀ NI type of small tree [Crateva adansonii]. Bɔ̀ɔ̀ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ mbī-á hō kāgɨ̄-á hō tītɨ̄ kɨ̀mā-dà-kɨ́-dīí bè nà̰ kàndɨ̄-á ì dáng. à ndīr-n̄ mbī-á ké-kàá kàdɨ̀-á wàń ndògɨ̄-ň kɨ̀tɔ̄ kāgɨ̄. ____ is a tree whose leaf and wood is like the tree called ^^, but the fruit is different. Its leaves or bark is boiled and used to bathe in for rheumatism.
bɔ̀ɔ̄ NT father. Ngār̀-gɨ̄ hɔ̀-n̄ ngōn-kɨ́-bàsá nà̰ bɔ̀ɔ̄-á mājɨ̄ tàa àdɨ̄ yà̰-n̄-á. The chiefs arrested a young man but his father denied the charges and they let him go. NT paternal uncle. NT ancestors. Expr: ngōn-bɔ̀ɔ̄ -brother, half brother Ngán-bɔ̀ɔ̄ nà̰ā̰-gɨ̄ dá, bɔ̀ɔ̄-dɨ́ ì kɨ́rā bè, nà kó̰o̰-dɨ́ ì dáng.Half brothers have the same father but different mothers. Expr: bɔ̀ɔ̄ kòjɨ̀ dèē -biological father Bɔ̀ɔ̄ kòjɨ̀-ḿ ì bèrà-kɔ̀sɨ̀.My biological father is an expert farmer.
bɔ́-bɔ́-bɔ́-bɔ́pɨ́ (Syn: =níkɨ́-níkɨ́) IDS with a bad stuttering (desc. of ɓādɨ̄ tàa). Ngōn-á ɓādɨ̄ tàa bɔ́-bɔ́-bɔ́-bɔ́pɨ́. His child stutters badly.
bɔ̀ɔ̄-bàrà NI large red-headed lizard (large male kɨ́-bɔ̀ɔ̄). Bɔ̀ɔ̄-bàrà ì kɨ́-bɔ̀ɔ́ kɨ́ bòo kɨ̀ dɔ̀-á kìrē. ____ is a large ^^ lizard with a red head.
bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ-ɔ̀r [bɔ̀ɔ̄ḿɔ́r̀] (Syn: =sèjɨ̀-bàmbū) NE type of bamboo chair. Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ-ɔ̀r ì yá̰a̰-ndì kɨ́ à ɗāa-n̄ kɨ̀ kāgɨ̄ bòo màr. ____ is a chair made from the stem of the 'palm' leaf.
bɔ̀ɔ̄-màn̄g [bɔ̀ɔ̄màn̄] NI bull. Dèē ɓògɨ̀ bɔ̀ɔ̄-màn̄g lò nān-ḿ ndɔ̄ɔ́-làā. Somebody stole my uncle's bull last night.
29
bɔ̄gɨ̄ NT shoulder. Dòktór̀ kósɨ̄-gɨ̄ ndà-n̄ dɔ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄ dèē-gɨ̄. Many doctors give people shots in the shoulder. ī-ɗòng-n̄ tà bɔ̄gɨ̄ màn̄ tɨ́ nḛ̀ḛ̄ bè. You're playing right at the edge of the water there. Ná̰ā̰ ndà bɔ̄gɨ̄ dér lò-ḿ tètɨ̀ kɨ̀ làspɨ́r̀ ǹ-tèn à? Who shot my pigeon broke its wing with a slingshot? NT limit of, edge of. NT wing. Bɔ̄gɨ̄ yèl̄ ń-tèń tètɨ̀ lā sō yé. This bird's wing is broken and it fell. Expr: ɔ̀y bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ dò̰ó̰ (=hɔ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ dò̰ó̰) -swagger, swagger about Ngè-ngòm à ɔ̀y bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ dò̰ó̰.A boastful person swaggers about. Expr: bɔ̄gɨ̄-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ -edge of field à hɔ̀ ngàrì bɔ̄gɨ̄ ndɔ̀ɔ̄ tɨ́.One plants manioc along the edge of his field. Expr: bɔ̄gɨ̄-ɓēe -edge of the village Hòr ò̰o̰ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ɓēe lò-jɨ́ túu-bè.The fire burned right up to the edge of our village. Expr: ɓày kɨ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ -fly Yèl̄ à ɓày kɨ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ nà àl̄ kāgɨ̄ àĺ.A bird flies, it doesn't climb trees. Expr: bɔ̄gɨ̄-bándɨ́ -sides of rectangular net (tÆrë,bærä) supported with poles Hɔ̀-n̄ bɔ̄gɨ̄-bándɨ́ kōkɨ̄ màdɨ̄ hō.They took the rim of the net on the other side as well. Expr: tètɨ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ kɨ̄ bèŕ -be humble, stop boasting ī-tètɨ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄-í kɨ̄ bèŕ nà̰ yá̰a̰-ngà kɨ̀ dān kàdɨ̀-á à àw̄ sè-í kɔ́kɨ́ àĺ.Don't be boastful lest your recently acquired wealth not be with you for a long time. Expr: ùn [dèē] gà-á bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ tɨ́ -take [s.o.] and throw him across one's shoulders
bɔ̄gɨ̄-bāa NE riverside, river bank. m̄-ɗà bɔ̄gɨ̄-bāa tɨ́ m-ōo ngé-là-kùӯ-gɨ̄. I stood on the riverside watching the fishermen.
bɔ̄gɨ̄-mbī NT blade of [grass]. Bɔ̄gɨ̄-mbī ngà̰ā̰-ngɔ́r ɗāa rìgɨ̀-rìgɨ̀. The blade of the grass called ^^ is jagged.
bɔ̄gɨ̄-ngār̀-ì-ndáa [bɔ̄gɨ̄ŋgār̀ḭ̀ndáa] NE shirt - sleeveless and open at sides ( ndáa 'stalk' (sara)). Bɔ̄gɨ̄-ngār̀-ì-ndáa ì kūbɨ̄ lò ngé-kàl̄-sɨ́ndá-gɨ̄. The sleeveless shirt is a shirt for horse-riders.
bɔ̄gɨ̄-ɗóbɨ́ NI side of road. Ngán-gɨ̄ ɗà ɗòbɨ̀-n̄ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ɗóbɨ́ tɨ́. The children are playing on the side of the road.
bɔ̀mbɔ́ḿ French NI candy. M-ā m̄-ndūgō bɔ̀mbɔ́m̀ m-ādɨ̄ ngán-m̄-gɨ̄ kám-tā̰á̰ lā m̄-ā m̄-ɗèē yé. I'm going to buy some candy for my children and then I'll come.
bɔ́n (Syn: bár, bán) NT pubic hair. Bɔ́n dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dá ì ngá̰y. That woman has a lot of pubic hair.
bɔ̀r NI mud. m̄-hɨ́wá lòo m̄-sō kàm bɔ̀r tɨ́. I slipped and fell in the mud. NI muddy. Jī-ḿ/màn̄ ì bɔ̀r. My hand/the water is muddy. NI wall. M-ɔ́sɨ́ dɔ̀-ḿ bɔ̀r tɨ́. I bumped my head against the wall. Expr: kújɨ́-bɔ̀r -mud house Expr: ndògɨ̄-bɔ̀r, bɔ̀r-ndògɨ̄ -mud wall surrounding compound Ndīi èdɨ̀ ngá̰y, bɔ̀r-ndògɨ̄ lò-ḿ rīyā.It has rained a lot and the mud wall around my compound has cracked. Expr: bɔ̀r-kàsɨ̀ -bottom part of drink ā ā̰y bɔ̀r-kàsɨ̀ ngá̰y à ā ī-késɨ̄.If you drink too much of the bottom part of beer you'll get a cough. Expr: bɔ̀r-wōó -liquid inside of carp
bɔ̀r̄ VT wipe. ī-bɔ̀r̄ dɔ̀ tábɨ̀l ādɨ̄-m̄. Wipe the table for me. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ bɔ̀r̄ kàm sàmbé. The woman wiped out the interior of the enamel basin. VT dry {by wiping}. à bɔ̀r̄-n̄ rō-dɨ́ kɨ̀ sàlbétɨ̀. People dry themselves with towels. VT brush [teeth]. Dèē-gɨ̄ à bɔ̀r̄ ngāng-dɨ́ kɨ̀ kám-ndàa. People brush their teeth with 'white bush'.
bɔ̀r̄ (Syn: ɓāl-kɨ́-gògɨ́) AV next year. Bɔ̀r̄ nàsár̀-gɨ̄ à ùr-n̄ bùlò-màn̄ Dīl-ngāl-á. Next year the whites are going to dig a well in Dilingala.
bɔ̀ŕ-bɔ̀tɨ̀ [bɔ̀ŕbɔ́tɨ̀] NI type of grass. Bɔ̀ŕ-bɔ̀tɨ́ ì mṵ̀ṵ sà sɨ́ndá-gɨ̄ kɨ́ ngá̰y. ____ is a grass horses love to eat.
bɔ̀r-ɓɔ̀ndɨ̀ NI type of whip (made of branches of gúm tree with leaves stripped off). Ndée gúm lā dèē-gɨ̄ à kɔ́r̄-n̄-á bɔ̀r-ɓɔ̀ndɨ̀ yé. People call the whip made out of 'gum' branches 'Borbonde'.
bɔ̀ríì NI thick bottom part of millet beer. Bɔ̀ríì ì gír jálá kɨ́ ɓɔ̀w nò. ____ is the thick bottom part of ^^ beer.
30
bɔ̀sɔ̀ NI type of flock bird. Bɔ̀sɔ̀-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ yèl̄-gɨ̄ kɨ́ à àw̄-n gō nà̰ā̰ tɨ́ bà̰y-n̄. à sà-n̄ ngán kùr̄-gɨ̄. Kùm-dɨ́ kìrē tītɨ̄ kùm bɨ́rā̰ý bè. They're birds that go about in flocks. They eat insects. Their eyes are red like the eye of the bird called ^^.
bɔ̄tɨ̄ NT crotch, space between legs. NT space between [s.t.]. Nàsɨ̄ ɓà bɔ̄tɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ pír-pír. The antelope got completely stuck in the space between the trees. Expr: bɔ̄tɨ̄ jī/njà [dèē] -space between [s.o.'s] fingers/toes m̄-lā bíkɨ̀ bɔ̄tɨ̄ jī-ḿ tɨ́.I stuck a pen between my fingers.
bɔ̀tɨ̄-bò̰o̰o̰ AVE cluttered. Kàm kújɨ́ lò-í bɔ̀tɨ̄-bò̰o̰o̰. Your house is cluttered with things. AVE dirty, covered with dirt. ī-sá yá̰a̰ à tà-í bɔ̀tɨ̄-bò̰o̰o̰. You eat and your face gets covered with food.
bɔ̀w̄ NI ace {cards} (worth 11 points in kósɨ̄). Bɔ̀w̄ lò sùbátà bòo tɔ̀ӯ nām-ǹ-gɨ̄ túu-bè. The ace of spades is bigger than all the other aces {physically}. Expr: bɔ̀w̄ lò sùbátà/kúbì/jɨ̀nárì/sɨ̀nékɨ̀ -ace of spades/hearts/diamonds/clubs
bɔ̀ӯ VIA be misformed, have shape lost. Bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ lò-ḿ bɔ̀ӯ. My bricks are misformed. VT knock down on. m̄-bɔ̀ӯ bɔ̀r kɨ̄ dɔ̀-á tɨ́. I knocked the wall down on him. VI fall down on. Dɔ̀-kújɨ́ bɔ̀ӯ kɨ̄ dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́. The roof of the house fell on top of me. EMP empty. VTI pour out on. VI be found in abundance. Tà-jī-gɨ̄-làā kānjɨ̄ ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ bɔ̀ӯ tā bɔ̀ӯ. Right now fish is found in great abundance. VT put too much [flour,condiment] in. Ngōn bɔ̀ӯ kàtɨ̄ kɨ̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́ ngá̰y. The child put too much salt in sauce.
bɔ́ỳ English NI assistant; servant. Bɔ́ỳ ì dèē kɨ́ à ɗāa kɨ̀là kɨ́ kàm kújɨ́ tɨ́ lò sìī-gɨ̄. A servant is a person who does the work in the house of a bureaucrat. Expr: bɔ́ỳ-dā̰a̰ -assistant to butcher Yáarī ì dā̰a̰ ɗáw̄ bɔ́ỳ-dā̰a̰-gɨ̄.Gristle is meat sold by the butcher's assistant. Expr: bɔ́ỳ-kɨ̄njá -boy charged with watching over chickens
búu NI dust. Nél là àdɨ̄ búu tàā kàm ɓēe. The wind blew and dust invaded the village. Búu ɓày ngá̰y ɓēe-tɨ́ ń-ɗàn. There's a lot of dust in this village. [lit: dust rises.up a.lot village-in this] NI ash. Kɨ̄njá à lā kàw dà búu tɨ́. The hen lays an egg on the ashes. Kīr hòr à tél búu kɨ́ ndàa. Firewood turns into white ashes. Expr: búu-hòr (=búu) -ashes à ɗāa-n̄ màndàwá kɨ̀ búu-hòr.Grilled peanuts are made with ashes.
bùú NI fog. Bùú ń ndɔ̄ɔ̄-tɨ́ lā nò ɔ̀gɨ̄ kòō lòo. The fog [that spread] on that day prevented one from seeing. Expr: bùú ndì gán̄g -the fog is lifting Bùú ndì gán̄g àdɨ̄ lòo àr̄ tā.The fog is lifting, and it's clear now. Expr: bùú hɨ̀wà -the fog spreads Expr: bùú lā ngá̰y -there is a lot of fog Bùú lā ngá̰y kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ làā nà kàdɨ̀ ɔ̀sɨ̀ à gāng túu-bè.There was a lot of fog this morning, but when the sun shone it broke up.
búù ID with a bang (explode). Kùm rūwā ndūu búù. The squash seed popped with a bang. ID ibid. (pl.).
búu-hòr N ash, ashes. Dà-būu-lòo ì lòo kɨ́ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ṵ̀ṵ̄-n búu-hòr tɨ́. An ash pile is a place where women throw away their ashes.
búu-kàtɨ̄ NI collection of burned stalks used in the fabrication of salt. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɔ̀y búu-kàtɨ̄ ùr màn̄ dɔ̀-tɨ́ kɨ̀ ǹ-ndèjɨ̄ kàtɨ̄ tɨ́. The woman gathered a pile of leaf ashes and poured water on it in order to make salt.
búu-mātɨ̄ NI flour from parkia africana tree. à lɔ́ӯ-n̄ bɨ̀nā kɨ̀ búu-mātɨ̄ lā-n̄ hòr-ó sà-n̄. Millet chaff is pressed with the flour from the parkia africana tree and boiled and eaten.
bùbɨ̀bɨ̀ ID quickly spreading (burn). Hòr ò̰o̰ lòo bùbɨ̀bɨ̀. The fire spread quickly. ID leaping up quickly (burn). Hòr sō hāyā tɨ́ ò̰o̰ bùbɨ̀bɨ̀-bùbɨ̀bɨ̀. The fire got into the tall grass and burned wildly {with the wind}.
31
búbùĺ NI gourd used by lion-men to roar like lions. Búbùĺ ì kūu kɨ́ tà-á kōkɨ̄ jōó túu ɗà tàgɨ̀, nà̰ tùbò dèē-gɨ̄ à kōo-n̄-nèé tītɨ̄ tùbò bè. ____ is a gourd with two open sides, and lion sorcerers use it to roar like a lion. NI gourd used for resonance of sound in xylophone (see kúndɨ̄ 'xylophone'). NI toy drum made from gourd. Búbùĺ ì ngōn kɔ̀dɨ̀ kɨ́ ngán-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé kɨ̀ kópɨ̀. ____ is a small drum that children make with cans.
bùdɨ̀ NI type of bush [Amaranthus cruentus]. Bùdɨ̀ ì mbī kám tá̰a̰. ____ is a plant whose leaf is used in sauces.
bùdɨ̄ NT remains of s.t. dry. Ngōn àw̄ súkɨ̄-ú ndūgō bùdɨ̄ kānjɨ̄. The child went to the market and bought remains of dry fish. bùdɨ̄ nɨ́má/sìtā/kàtɨ̄ remains of dry okra/hot pepper/salt Expr: bùdɨ̄ yá̰a̰ -crumbs Ngōn hàl à hɔ̀ bùdɨ̄ yá̰a̰-kɨ́-sà-gɨ̄ ń-há̰ dèē-gɨ̄ yà̰-n̄ ǹ-sà.An orphan child will take the food crumbs people leave behind and eat them. Expr: bùdɨ̄ mápà -bread crumbs, dried up remains of bread Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ árgɨ̀ kɨ̀ bùdɨ̄ mápà.Women make "arge" with dried bread.
búdɨ́-búdɨ́ IDS completely (worm-eaten) (desc. of ndūsɨ̄). Kāgɨ̄ tɨ́rā̰ý ń m̄-gá kàlèē kɨ̀ m̄-ɗāa-ň kújɨ́ nò ndūsɨ̄ búdɨ́-búdɨ́. The wood from the ^^ tree that I cut last year to build a house with is completely worm-eaten.
búgìí NI type of mild millet beer (see also bìl-bíl̀). Búgìí à ɗāa gò̰o̰-kàsɨ̀ àĺ kɨ̀tɔ̄-kàdɨ̄ òng àĺ. Mild millet beer won't intoxicate a veteran drinker because it is not strong.
bùgɨ̀ (Syn: =bùgɨ̀gɨ̀) ID freely (flow). Tò ɓīi àdɨ̄ màn̄-tà-á nṵ̄ṵ bùgɨ̀-bùgɨ̀. He was asleep so that his saliva flowed freely.
búgɨ́-búgɨ́ NT lung. Búgɨ́-búgɨ́ dā̰a̰ ì yá̰a̰ sà bàtú-gɨ̄. Dèē-kìl kɨ́ mɨ́skìn-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄. The lung is food for cats. Poor people also eat it.
bùgɨ̀gɨ̀ IDS with tears streaming. Ndì njà-á tɨ́ kɨ̀ nō̰o̰ kùm-ǹ tɨ́ bùgɨ̀gɨ̀-bùgɨ̀gɨ̀. He sat on her lap crying his heart out. [lit: he-sat lap-her LOC with weeping eyes-his LOC with-tears-streaming] IDS streaming (liquids in general). Tùtō ngè-ɗāa-kɨ̀là à̰ӯ bùgɨ̀gɨ̀. The sweat of the worker poured off him.
búgɨ́gɨ́ ID completely (cracked, split,torn). Kàdɨ̀ kújɨ́ lò-ḿ njàr búgɨ́gɨ́. The side of my house is completely split. Kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ kāy búgɨ́gɨ́. My shirt is badly torn. ID ibid. (pl.,freq.). ID somewhat (cracked). ID ibid..
bùgɨ̄jɨ̄ NI tool for carving pirogue. Bùgɨ̄jɨ̄ ì yá̰a̰ tɔ́l tòo. ____ is a tool for carving pirogues.
búgɨ́jɨ́ AV missing target. ùr dùl búgɨ́jɨ́. He threw at the gazelle {presumably with a spear} but missed.
búgɨ́jɨ́ ID thoroughly (wash). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ Yāmɨ̄r-gɨ̄ túgó-n̄ mbī sɨ̀wākā búgɨ́jɨ́ ndīr-n̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́. The Igbo women wash the leaves of the plant called 'suwaka' and cook it in a sauce. ID ibid (pl.,emph.).
bùgɨ̀jɨ̀-bùgɨ̀jɨ̀ IDS very slippery, slimy. Ndèl̄ rō-á tò bùgɨ̀jɨ̀-bùgɨ̀jɨ̀ tītɨ̄ gúm bè. The catfish has a body as slimy as 'long' sauce.
būgɨ̄l VT weed [dry ground]. Ndīi èdɨ̀ ànḛ̄ m-ā m̄-būgɨ̄l kàm wúl̄ lò-ḿ. It has rained so I'm going to weed my peanut field.
búgɨ̀ḿ (Syn: =búgɨ̀ŕ) NTI cover, lid ( búgɨ̀ḿ tà [yá̰a̰] '[s.t.'s] cover'). ī-ndā búgɨ̀ḿ tà tàwá tɨ́. Put the cover on the pot.
búgɨ́m ID very (old). dèē kɨ́ bɨ́gá būgɨ̄m-búgɨ́m someone who is very old ID ibid..
32
búgɨ́m (Syn: púkɨ́m) ID completely (crushed, pounded). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ rúndɨ̄ bɨ̀nā búgɨ́m-búgɨ́m. The woman thoroughly pounded the bran. ID toothless {mouth}. Tà-í rúndɨ̄ búgɨ́m-búgɨ́m. You have a crushed-in mouth with no teeth.
búgɨ́m ID pitch (dark). Lòo dīw búgɨ́m. It's pitch dark out.
búgɨ́m ID completely (dump on). m̄-déw ngóo dɔ̀-á tɨ́ búgɨ́m. I dumped the gourd on him in its entirety. ID ibid. (pl.). ID completely (cut off). Ndīi ùtɨ̄ ɗóbɨ́ nò̰-dɨ́ tɨ́ búgɨ́m. The rain completely cut off the road in front of them.
bùgɨ̄r (Syn: =kɨ́-bùgɨ̄r) NI wooden bowl used to serve 'boule' (see also bày 'clay bowl'). Nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ lā-m̄ mbùr̄ kàm bùgɨ̄r tɨ́. My wife handed me the 'boule' in a wooden bowl.
búgɨ̀ŕ (Syn: ==búgɨ̀ḿ) NTI cover, lid. M-lā tà tàwá búgɨ̀ŕ tà màn̄ tɨ́. I put a cover on the water pot.
bùjíì,bùjī French NI spark plug. Bùjī mòtōo lò kòmàndá òy. The spark plug in the subprefect's motorcycle is no good.
bújɨ̄ VT play about in [water] (obj. is always màn̄). Kàdɨ̀ ɔ̀sɨ̀ ngá̰y àdɨ̄ ngán-gɨ̄ àw̄-n̄ bāa-á tò bújɨ̄-n̄ màn̄. It was very hot and the children went to the river and played about in the water. Màn̄ ìi wòy lā ngán ngār̀ à bújɨ̄ yé. The water is drying up so the children of the chief are playing in it.
bùl ID with a rush (flow). Ndīi nṵ̄ṵ bùl-bùl kɨ̄ bāa-á. The rain water rushed towards the river. ID forcefully (pour in/out). Màn̄ kɨ̀jā kàm túkɨ̄ tɨ́ bùl-bùl. The water gushed out of the barrel.
bùĺ NI cotton [Gossypium sp.]. Kàmyō̰o̰-gɨ̄ à tō-n̄ bùĺ àw̄-n̄-nèé Kùmbráa kɨ̀tɔ̄ lòo-kɨ̀là-á ɔ̀r̄-n̄ kɔ̄ɔ́ Mā̰ysālāá. Trucks transport the cotton to Koumra because they removed the processing plant from Moissala. Dèē-gɨ̄ ndɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ bùĺ ngá̰y kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄. People have planted a lot of cotton this year. Expr: bùĺ-ḭ̀rmá̰à̰ -variety of cotton highly desired in world market Bùĺ-ḭ̀rmá̰à̰ ì bùĺ kɨ́ à àndɨ̄ ngá̰y.It is a type of cotton that produces a lot. Expr: bùĺ-kɨ̄rā̰ -cotton-like seeds of kapok tree Bùĺ kɨ̄rā̰ yé tɨ́sō ngá̰y ɓó-nèē.The cotton-like seeds of the kapok tree are falling all over the place today. Expr: mìsē-bùĺ -extension agent Mìsē-bùĺ ì sépɨ̀. ì dèē kɨ́ à ndóō kɨ̀là bùĺ dèē-gɨ̄ tɨ́.The extension agent is a director. He is someone who teaches the work (of growing) cotton to people. Expr: màsīn-ndà-bùĺ -cotton machine Màsīn-ndà-bùĺ dùbɨ̀ bùĺ túpɨ̀ ɔ̀y kɨ̄ tà ngāng-ǹ tɨ́.The cotton machine grabbed the bale of cotton and pulled it into its teeth. Expr: màsīn-bùĺ -cotton factory Màsīn kɨ́ ɗóo Gúrú yé tújɨ́ àdɨ̄ à àw̄-n̄ kɨ̀ bùĺ kɨ̄ Kumrāá.The cotton factory on the road to Guru is destroyed so they bring their cotton to Koumra.
bùl̄-mṵ̀ṵ NI tiny piece of straw or grass. Bùl̄-mṵ̀ṵ àndɨ̄ kùm ngōn-kó̰o̰-í tɨ́. Your brother has a speck of straw in his eye.
bùlò [bʉ̀lò] NI hole {dug for a purpose}. NT loop [in rope]. Ngé sùrò kɨ̀lā bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ à ndā-n̄ tà bùlò kɨ̀lā kɨ̀ ǹ-là-n̄ njà bḭ̄yā̰ tɨ́ ǹ-dɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄-á-nèé. The makers of rope for goats form loops in it so they can put the goat's legs in it and tie them. NT hole dug by insect or animal. Expr: bùlò-màn̄ (=bùlò) -well Bùlò-màn̄ òo tɔ̀ӯ bùlò-kḭ̀ḭ.A well is deeper than a hole dug as WC.
būlūm NI ostrich. Būlūm ì yèl̄ kɨ́ bòo ngá̰y, à ɓày kɨ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ àĺ. Yùbɨ̄ būlūm ì kḭ̄ḭ nàm̄. The ostrich is a very large bird; it doesn't fly. Its oil is a medicine for fractures. Expr: kádɨ́-būlūm-gɨ̄ -type of very sweet sugar cane, with light green leaves {lit: ostrich sugar cane}
būm NT pollen. Būm tā̰y ndò̰ō̰ ngá̰y. Millet pollen itches a lot. ā ótɨ́ būm mṵ̀ṵ dá à údɨ́ kɨ́-dìsé. If you smell the pollen of that plant you'll start sneezing. Expr: būm-tā̰y -pollen from 'small' millet
33
búm (Syn: búng) ID perfectly (white). ID ibid. (pl.).
bùm,búḿ (Syn: rúsɨ́) ID with a bang (explode, go off). Bùĺ kɨ̄rā̰ ndūu búm̀. The cotton-like seeds of the cotton tree completely burst. ID ibid. (freq.).
bùmɨ̀r (Syn: =bùngɨ̀r) NTI dust, dust [from s.t.]. Bùmɨ̀r ɓày gō kàmyō̰o̰ tɨ́. The dust rose up behind the truck.
bùndḭ̄ (Syn: =mùndḭ̄) NI type of grass [Imperata cylindrica]. Bùndḭ̄ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé dɔ̀-kújɨ́. ____ is a grass used by people to make roofs.
búndɨ́,búndɨ̀ Arabic NI rifle, gun. Ndà kèdɨ̄ kɨ̀ búndɨ́. He shot the elephant with a rifle. Dèē-gɨ̄ ɔ̀jɨ̀-jɨ̀-n̄ búndɨ́ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ j-àw̄ ɗɔ̄ɔ̄. The people distributed rifles among us so we could go off to battle. Expr: ndà búndɨ́ -shoot a rifle Ngè-ɗāa-kɔ́l ndà búndɨ́ kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ páẁ.The hunter shot the rifle off with a bang. Expr: là kùm búndɨ́ tɨ́ -load a rifle Expr: kùm búndɨ́ -bullet Kùm búndɨ́ ndūu búù.The bullet went off with a bang. Expr: kɨ́-ngà-kɨ̄lā búndɨ́ -trigger Ngōn ndà jī-ǹ dɔ̀ kɨ́-ngà-kɨ̄lā búndɨ́ tɨ́.The boy put his finger on the trigger of the rifle.
búndɨ́-mètrísɨ̀ NI machine gun.
búndɨ́-yérgɨ̀ NI pipe for distilling alcoholic drink yérgɨ̀. à ɗāa-n̄ búndɨ́-yérgɨ̀ kɨ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄ àbɨ̀yó̰ò̰. Pipes for distilling alcoholic drink are made from the wings of airplanes (wrecks from crashes).
bùng [bùŋ] ID in rows, columns (march, walk). ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ ndīyā-n̄ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ bùng-bùng kɨ̄ gérgèré. The soldiers marched together towards the camp.
bùng [bùŋ] (Syn: =bùnggg) IDS light (blue) (in expression ndàa à). Expr: lòo ndàa bùng -it's freezing out
búng [búŋ] (Syn: búm) ID perfectly (white). Dà-rā̰a̰ ndàa búng. The sky is perfectly clear. Nā̰a̰ tḭ̄ḭ ndīi ń ìl̄ nò àdɨ̄ lòo ndàa búng. The moon dispersed the dark clouds and it is perfectly clear.
bùngɨ̀r [bùŋgɨ̀r] (Syn: =bùmɨ̀r) NI dust from ground. ī-ɗāa bùngɨ̀r àĺ nà̰ mbāa ndì sà yá̰a̰. Don't kick up a lot of dust, the guests are eating. Dèē-gɨ̄ ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ nà̰ā̰ àdɨ̄ bùngɨ̀r ɓày pùuu. The people were fighting and the dust rose up in a cloud. Expr: bùngɨ̀r ɓày -there is dust in the air Bùngɨ̀r ɓày ɓó-nèē ngá̰y.There is a lot of dust in the air today.
bùngrṵ̀ṵṵ [bùŋgrṵ̀ṵṵ] AV lukewarm (with tíngā or tíngā). Màn̄ kɨ́ tíngā bùngrṵ̀ṵṵ lukewarm water
búpɨ̀ (Syn: ==bípɨ̀) ID suddenly (start). ID ibid. (pl.).
bùr ID descriptive of wiping. Tàgɨ́-bè ndīi ndà-m̄ ɗóbɨ́-ó kɔ̄ŕ àdɨ̄ m̄-bɔ̀r̄ kùm-ḿ bùrrr kɨ̀ m-ōo-ň lòo. Yesterday the rain caught me on the road to the field and I wiped my eyes so I could see where I was going. ID ibid. (pl.).
bùr ID noisily (walk, go). Kèdɨ̄-gɨ̄ à ndīyā-n̄ bùr-bùr àdɨ̄ dèē-gɨ̄ òō-n̄ káa njà-dɨ́. Elephants walk very noisily and so people can hear the sound of their feet.
bùr̄ VIA be muddy, unclear, dirty (water). Màn̄ bùlò ìi àdɨ̄ ā ī-gá màn̄ kɨ̀ kínī dá à bùr̄. The water in the well is drying up, so that if you fetch it with a bucket, it will be muddy. VT dissolve [s.t.]. ɗà bùr̄ kḭ̄ḭ kàm wér̀ tɨ́ kàdɨ̄ ngōn à̰ӯ. He was dissolving the medicine in a glass so that the child could drink it. M-ā m̄-bùr̄ ndùjɨ̄-kàsɨ̀ kàm màn̄ tɨ́ kɨ̀ m̄-ɗāa-ň bíl̄-bìl. I'm going to dissolve the flour into the water to make millet beer. VT stir [a liquid] {to dissolve s.t.}. Dèē-gɨ̄ à bùr̄-n̄ bíl̄-bìl kɨ̀ kāgɨ̄ bòo màr. People stir millet beer with the stem of the leaf of the 'palm' tree. VT begin making [beer] by mixing germinated millet flour in water. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ bùr̄ kàsɨ̀ ɓó-nèē. The woman began making millet beer today. VT try to get/take from. Bùr̄-m̄ dɔ̀ yá̰a̰ tɨ́ lò-ḿ ngá̰y. He's always trying to get my things. VNI muddiness, dirtiness.
34
būr NI iguana, large land lizard [Varanus exanthematicus].
búr ID a lot (eat). ID ibid. (emph.,pl.). Màn̄g sà tā̰y lò-ḿ búr-búr. The cows ate all of my millet. ḭ̄ḭ ngōn kɨ́ dūú dá ā ī-sá yá̰a̰ búr-búr lā ā ī-bòo yé. Your a small child, if you eat a lot then you'll grow big. ID a large surface (burn). Hòr ò̰o̰ tà mbētē búrɨ́r. The fire burned a large surface of the paper.
búr (Syn: bér) ID evenly (cut). ID ibid. (freq.).
būr-būtɨ́ (Syn: ==būtɨ́) NT weeds in a field.
bùrì-bùrì IDS soft and appetizing. Ngúl̄ kɨ́ tíngā tò bùrì-bùrì. Grilled yams are soft and appetizing.
bùrɨ̀m ID sound of leaves crunching.
bùrɨ̀r (Syn: búr) ID completely (cut {s.t. soft}). ID ibid.. Jà mṵ̀ṵ búrɨ́rɨ́ kɨ̀ ngòròng. He cut the grass thoroughly with a sickle. ID ibid. (freq.).
búrɨ́r ID widely, a big part of (burn). Hòr ò̰o̰ tà mbētē búrɨ́r. The fire burned a large surface of the paper.
būrō NT gap in [s.t.]. Ndīi ndèē būrō kújɨ́ tɨ́ lò-ḿ dò̰ó̰. The rain is leaking through the holes in my roof. Kānjɨ̄ tèē būrō bándɨ́ tɨ́ yúrúng. The fish got away through a hole in the net. NT hole in [cloth]. Gúsɨ̀ tèē būrō pósɨ̀-ḿ tɨ́ sō. The money fell out of a hole in my pocket. Expr: būrō lòo -a hole {in s.t.} Dèē-gɨ̄ ùtɨ̄-n̄ bàtú kújɨ́-ú kɨ̀ ǹ-tɔ̄l-n̄-á lā tèē ngōn būrō lòo tɨ́ màdɨ̄ à̰ӯ tɔ̀ӯ-dɨ́ yé.The people closed the cat up in the house to kill it but it escaped through a small hole and got away from them. Expr: būrō kújɨ́ -hole in the roof Ngán būrō kújɨ́ ì ngá̰y.There are a lot of little holes in the roof. Expr: būrō tól̀ -gaps between wall top and roof causes by folds in tin roof Tól̀ dɔ̀ kújɨ́ lò-ḿ mbùtɨ̀ àdɨ̄ màn̄ ndīi à̰ӯ būrō-á tɨ́.There are holes in my tin roof and water is coming through the gaps.
búròḿ NT stamping, tracking. Búròḿ njà ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄ à tɔ̄l hòr. {Proverb} The stamping about of the people fighting will put out the fire. M-ōo búròḿ njà ɓòn̄g ń hɔ̀-ň kòrō nò. I saw the tracks where the hyena had seized the donkey.
bùrúnjɨ̀ Arabic NI horn, trumpet. Dèē-gɨ̄ à tóo-n̄ bùrúnjɨ̀ kɨ̀-j-òō dɔ̀ ànḛ̄ j-àw̄ lòo kɨ̀là tɨ́. People blow the horn and when we hear it then we go off to the work place. [lit: people will play horn we-listen to-it then we-go place work LOC]
bùsɨ̀ ID suddenly (appear). Tùbò tèē kɨ̄ tà-ḿ tɨ́ bùsɨ̀. A lion appeared suddenly near me.
búsɨ̀ ID with a crack (split). ID ibid. (freq.). ID with little noise (split). ID ibid. (freq.).
būsɨ̀ḿ (Syn: =bīsɨ̀ḿ) NT stump of sweet potato plant. Dèē-gɨ̄ à ùr-n̄ bāngàw wòy à ngán-gɨ̄ à bél̄-n̄ būsɨ̀ḿ-á. When the people have dug up the sweet potato, the children will look through for any stumps left behind.
būsɨ̄r VT cancel (always būsɨ̄r tà). Ngār̀ būsɨ̄r tà mbāa lò-ǹ. The chief canceled his trip.
bùsó [bùsó, bùsō] NI winged termites. Náw-gɨ̄ à hɔ̀-n̄ kānjɨ̄ kɨ̀ bùsó. Fisherman use winged termites as bait.
35
bùtɨ̀ ID in large quantities or numbers (come out). Màn̄ kɨ̀jā bèŕ bùtɨ̀-bùtɨ̀. The water poured down in great quantities. Dèē-gɨ̄ tèē-n̄ kàm kújɨ́ tɨ́ bùtɨ̀-bùtɨ̀. The people came out in mass from their houses. Dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ̀jā-n̄ nàr bùĺ kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄ bùtɨ̀-bùtɨ̀. This year the people crowded about the (place where) cotton money (was being paid). ID quickly and carefully (measure). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɔ̀r̄ yá̰a̰-kōo bùtɨ̀-bùtɨ̀. The woman measures the millet quickly and carefully.
bùtɨ̀ ID vigorously (boil). Tá̰a̰ lēgɨ́ bùtɨ̀-bùtɨ̀. The sauce is boiling vigorously.
bùtɨ̄ NT anus. Bèl̄ bùtɨ̄ kɨ̄njá lò-ḿ rétɨ̄. The feathers around my chicken's anus have all come off. Expr: à òō yá̰a̰ kɨ́ bùtɨ̄ Ngāró māl-gɨ̄ tɨ́ -one is really going to get it! Ngè-ɓògɨ̀ ń-há̰ ɔ̀y kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ nò à òō yá̰a̰ kɨ́ bùtɨ̄ Ngāró māl-gɨ̄ tɨ́.The thief who took my clothes is really going to get it.
būtɨ́ (Syn: =būr-būtɨ́) NT weeds in a field. Expr: ndɔ̀ɔ̄ būtɨ́ (yá̰a̰) -plant a new field (of a crop) {which requires removing thick weeds} m̄-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ būtɨ́ mùnjò; m̄-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ būtɨ́ kór; m̄-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ būtɨ́ bùĺI planted a new field of beans/sesame/cotton.
bútɨ́ (Syn: =bútɨ́-pàĺ) NI type of tall grass [Andropogon gayanus]. Bútɨ́ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ tàm bè, nà̰ mbī-á tátɨ́ ngá̰y nà̰ à ɓà bḭ̀ḭ̄. ____ is a grass similar to penisettum pedicellatum, but it has a wider grass leaf and it has hair.
bùtɨ́-kɨ́-ndàa [bùtɨ́kɨ́ndáà] (Syn: kó-ndáӯ) NI mild craziness. Bùtɨ́-kɨ́-ndàa à ɗāa-ī ànḛ̄ tàa à ò̰o̰ ngé-í-gɨ̄ ngá̰y. If craziness strikes you, your parents will be shocked.
bútɨ́-pàĺ (Syn: =bútɨ́) NI type of grass {3 to 4 feet tall} [Andropogon gayanus]. Bútɨ́-pàĺ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ mbī-á ndàa, à ngāl ngá̰y ngá̰y àĺ. Màn̄g-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ ngá̰y. ____ is a grass with a light-colored blade; it's not extremely long. Cows eat it a lot.
bútɨ́-wàā-ngàw [bútɨ́wàāŋgàw] NI type of grass. Bútɨ́-wàā-ngàw à ngāl tɔ̀ӯ bútɨ́-pàĺ nà̰ dèē-gɨ̄ à jō-n̄-nèé ndògɨ̄. ____ is longer than the grass called ^^ and people use it to weave grass fencing.
būtɨ̄l (Syn: ==kɨ́-būtɨ̄l) N small potatoe. Būtɨ̄l kɨ́ ndīr kɨ̀ dā̰a̰ màjɨ̀ sà ngá̰y. Little potatoes cooked with meat are really good to eat.
bùtò [bʉ̀tò] NI millet flour in water (used in ancestral rites). Ngè-tūwā-kɔ́l-ɓēe ùr bùtò àdɨ̄ má̰-dèē-gɨ̄. The chief responsible for performing the village rites poured millet water for the spirits of the ancestors. VI be tasty (milk or milk-like drink).
bùtò-kà̰r̄ NI white liquid excreted by toads. Bùtò-kà̰r̄ à ɔ̀dɨ̀ kùm-í ànḛ̄ kùm-á à tɔ̄ɔ̄. If the liquid from this plant gets in your eyes you will go blind.
bùtò-tàw̄ NI caterpillar blood, removed before preparing them to eat (see tàw̄).
bùtò-tàw̄ NI type of tree with thick white sap in branches and leaves; small white flowers, large white globulous inedible fruit [Calotropis procera]. Bùtò-tàw̄ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ màn̄-á à ɔ̀dɨ̀ kùm-í à à tɔ̄ɔ̄ hō à ɔ̀dɨ̀ tà-í à hílē hō. à ɗāa-n̄ màn̄-á dɔ̀ lòo kɨ́ tíī tɨ́ ànḛ̄ à káw̄ ɓīi nò dò̰o̰ mbùtɨ̀ àdɨ̄ ɓīi à̰ӯ kɨ̄ kɔ̄ɔ́. ____ is a tree which if it touches you eye it will be injured and if it touches your mouth it will swell up. Its sap is placed on infections and it penetrates the wound so that the pus comes out.
bùtó̰ò̰ French NI button. ā ōo kàsɨ̀ à à̰ӯ ngíndɨ́m-ngíndɨ́m, ndɔ̄ɔ̄ tɨ́ à òy dá kūbɨ̄ kɨ́ kànjɨ́ bùtó̰ò̰-gɨ̄ à ɗòsɨ̀-n̄ kàdɨ̀-í. Every time you see beer you drink it down, on the day of your death you'll be covered with clothes without buttons. Expr: ùtɨ̄ bùtó̰ò̰ -button a button ūtɨ̄ bùtó̰ò̰ kūbɨ̄ lò-í kɨ̄ dɔ̀ kɔ̀dɨ̀-í tɨ́ kɨ́ bòo nò.Button your shirt over your fat stomach.
bùuu IDS blurry, unclear (in expression kùm [dèē] gà à '[s.o.] to not see clearly').
bùwà (Syn: =bɨ̀wà) NI bachelor. Bùwà ì dèē kɨ́ nḛ̄ḛ́-á gòtóo. A bachelor is a person who doesn't have a wife. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ ngàw-á gòtóo wàlá dèē-kɨ́-dìngá kɨ́ nḛ̄ḛ́-á gòtóo lā kɔ́r̄-n̄-dɨ́ bùwà-gɨ̄ yé. A woman with no husband or a man with no wife is called a single person. NI single woman.
36
bùwɨ̀r ID ample, large (clothing). Ngè-ndān-ngōn ò̰ō̰ kūbɨ̄ kɨ́ bùwɨ̀rùuu. The pregnant woman wears loose clothing. ID ibid. (pl.).
bùӯ VT pour out. Ngōn bùӯ yìbɨ̄ kàm màn̄ tɨ́. The child pours out the oil into the water.
búy INJ how dumb!. Búy! Dá ì ɓòdɨ̀! How dumb! That is idiotic!
búy-bùĺ NI fluffy part of cotton. Nél là ngá̰y dá búy-bùĺ lò-ḿ ɓày kɨ̄ kɔ̄ɔ́. The wind blew hard so that a lot of the fluffy part of my cotton blew away.
búy-kɨ́-mbéré NI corn silk.
búy-kɨ̄rā̰ NI cotton tree seeds in cotton like clusters.
búy-má̰a̰ (Syn: =búyúm) NI pin-tailed whydah {small bird with long tail}. Búy-má̰a̰ ndōm kɨ́léẁ; búy-má̰a̰ ɔ̀dɨ̀ màn̄ à ndōm kɨ́léẁ kɨ́léẁ. {Song} The whydah dances 'kalayu', when the whydah touches the water it dances 'kalayu,kalayu'. Búy-má̰a̰ ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ dūú kɨ́ ɓòng-á ngāl ngá̰y. Dèē-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé yòo dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄. The pin-tailed whydah is a small bird with a very long tail. People make a spell with it for women.
búy-má̰a̰-kɨ́-hólóo NI type of small bird (whydah sp.). Búy-má̰a̰-kɨ́-hólóo ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ dūú tītɨ̄ búy-má̰a̰ kɨ́ ɓēe bè. ɓòng-á ngāl nà̰ ìl nà tátɨ́ tɔ̀ӯ lò kɨ́ ɓēe. Bèl̄-á ì kɨ́ kìl, nà̰ kàdɨ̀-gṵ́ṵ-á kìrē pìtɨ̀-pìtɨ̀. ____ is a small bird similar to the whyda. Its tail is long and dark-colored and broader than that of the whyda. Its feathers are dark-colored and its chest is yellow.
bùyìng-bùyìng [bùyḭ̀ŋgbùyḭ̀ŋ] IDS flaming (coming out from sorcerer). Hòr ndɔ̄ɔ̄ tà-gír kɨ̀mā tɨ́ bùyìng-bùyìng. The fire burst out of the sorcerer's anus in flames.
bùyúm̄ NI type of large tree [Ficus sp.].
búyúm (Syn: búy-má̰a̰) NI pin-tailed whydah. Búyúm ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ rō-á ndàa hō ìl hō nà̰ ɓòng-á ngāl ngá̰y. à ndōm ngá̰y. ____ is a little black and white bird with a long tail. It loves to dance about.
37
ɓà VI grow. Ngúl̄ ɓà súkɨ̄ tā. There is a great abundance of yams in the market now. Ngōn ɓà nām-ǹ kɨ̀ njà-ǹ. The boy kicked his friend. Bùĺ lò ngār̀ ɓà rùtɨ̀tɨ̀. The chief's cotton is growing very well. VT be stuffed in, crammed in. Kūbɨ̄ lò-á ɓà ɓɔ́l nà̰ ṵ̀ṵ̄ gásɨ́-á kàm kèē tɨ́. His clothes were stuffed into the sack and he put the rest in the basket. VT become. ɓà màndɨ̀/bàsá become a young woman/man VT fill, be abundant in. VT throw at [s.o.] {with s.t.}. ā ī-ɓá-m̄ kɨ̀ mbàng nà̰ ā ōo. You throw a rock at me and you'll see. VT have, grow {on body}. m̄-ɓá gɨ́lá nò̰-ḿ tɨ́. I have a cyst on my forehead. Tàw̄ dá ɓà kɔ̄n kɨ́ bòo. That caterpillar has a big thorn. VT come out {from closed, tight place}; swarm out thickly. Ngúrō-gɨ̄ ɓà-n̄ dà-nàng tɨ́ bèŕ. The termites came swarming out of the ground. VT kick ( kɨ̀ njà-ǹ 'with one's foot' can be added for clarity). Súu ɗà ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ Ngāró lā ɔ̀r̄ njà-ǹ ɓà-ň yé. Suu was fighting with Ngaro and he took his foot and kicked him. VT be small for [s.o.], be too tight for someone. Kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ ɓà-m̄ àdɨ̄ m̄-gèe kɨ̀ m-āw-ň m-ādɨ̄ ngé-kùr̄-yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ ɔ̀r̄-n̄ kàm-á. My clothes are too tight, so I want to take them to the tailor so that they can be let out. VT be tied in [a knot]. Kɨ̀lā ɓà ngùm. The rope is tied in a knot. VT step on, walk on; stamp on; press. m̄-ɓá bɔ̀r kám-tā̰á̰ lā m-ɔ̄r bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ tɨ́ yé. I mix the mud {by stamping on it} first and then I make the bricks. ōtɨ́ ɓà dɔ̀ wúl̄ lò-ḿ. Don't walk on my peanuts. VT catch {with a trap}. m̄-ɓá dér kɨ̀ gūm. I caught a pigeon in a trap. Gūm ɓà dér. The pigeon was caught in the trap. [lit: trap caught pigeon] VT tie [rope,knot]. m̄-ɓá tà kɨ̀lā/m̄-ɓá ngùm kɨ̀lā. I tied the end of the rope/I tied a knot in the rope. ī-ɓá kɨ̀lā gír kùӯ tɨ́. Tie the rope to the end of the fishhook. VI rise (sun). VT be stuck in. Dōĺ ì kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ kɨ̄ngā-á ì ngá̰y. Dèē-gɨ̄ à kúl̄-n̄-nèé tá̰a̰ nà kɨ̄ngā-á ì ngá̰y. Ngōn kɨ́ dūú à ò̰o̰ dá à ɓà kɔ́ɔ́-á. Alestes baremoze is a fish with a lot of bones. People cook it in a sauce but it has a lot of bones. If a small child eats it they'll get stuck in his throat. VT stuff, stuff into. m̄-ɓá bùĺ ján̄g tɨ́. I stuffed the cotton into the basket. VT ferment. ànḛ̄ ī-lā sáӯ tɨ́ ādɨ̄ ɓà-ň. And then you put in some yeast so that it {the beer} ferments. Expr: kùm [dèē] ɓà àdɨ̄ tɔ̄ɔ̄ -[one's] eye closes up Kùm ngōn-ḿ ɓà àdɨ̄ tɔ̄ɔ̄.My son's eyes closed up on him so he can't see. Expr: ɓà màsɨ̄ -go sour; become acidic, tangy Mbàa ɓà màsɨ̄.The milk has gone sour. Expr: ɓà ndàa/ìl/kìrē -become white/black/red Tà kìyā ɓà kìrē.The blade of the knife became red {from rust}. Expr: ɓà kùm [dèē] -look like, have the eyes of Nān-í ɓà kùm ngé-ɓògɨ̀-gɨ̄.Your nephew looks like a thief. Expr: ɓà rō [dèē] -resemble [s.o.] Dèē ń-há̰ àw̄ tèn dá ɓà rō bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ ngá̰y.That man over there greatly resembles my father. Expr: ɓà húlùḿ -foam Tà màn̄g ɓà húlùḿ.The cow is foaming at the mouth. Expr: ɓà dɔ̀ yāl -play with fire, put self in tricky situation Ngōn bà̰r-ḿ ń ɗāa nḛ̄ḛ́ dèē nò ɓà dɔ̀ yāl.My cousin who is sleeping with someone's wife is playing with fire. Expr: ɓà lòo nàl̄ (=ɓà lòo nètɨ̀) -lose one's balance Ngōn ɓà lòo nàl̄ dá tèē sō.The boy lost his balance and fell out. Expr: ɓà kūl [dèē] -count on [s.o.] Ngōn ngè-yá̰a̰ ɓà kūl bɔ̀ɔ̄-ǹ sáā-ň tàa.The son of the rich person counts on his father for help, and goes about looking for trouble. Expr: ɓà tà-ǹ kɨ̄ -to head towards Kó̰o̰-ḿ ɓà tà-ǹ kɨ̄ súkɨ̄-ú.My mother is heading towards the market. Expr: ɓà lòo -move about restlessly Ngōn-í ɓà lòo ngá̰y.Your child moves about restlessly in his sleep. Expr: ɓà lòo ngá̰y -frequent Sìī-gɨ̄ ɓà-n̄ lòo ngá̰y bàr òbòdò tɨ́.Bureaucrats frequent Obodo's bar. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ ɓà -drag one's feet, take one's time Ndɨ̀ àw̄ lòkól̀ tɨ́ lā à ɔ̀r̄ ɓà kɨ̀-gō-ɗóo-gɨ̄ yé.Going to school he always drags his feet. Expr: kòō ɓà dèē -[s.o.] to be suffocating, unable to breath Kòō ɓà-m̄ gír màn̄ tɨ́. (=màn̄ ɓà-m̄)I was unable to breathe in the water. Expr: ɓà màndɨ̀ -[a girl] to grow up, become beautiful Ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɓà kɨ́-mūḿ mbàa ànḛ̄ ɓà màndɨ̀ wòy.When a girl first grows breasts then she is becoming beautiful. Expr: ɓà tɔ́gɨ́ [ɗāa yá̰a̰] -be a specialist [at doing s.t.] ā ī-ɓá tɔ́gɨ́ kà̰ӯ yérgɨ̀ ngá̰y ànḛ̄ kùm-í à sà.If you are a specialist at drinking manioc alcohol, you're sure to get an eye ailment. Expr: ɓà ràng-ràng (ɓà njà-ǹ ràng-ràng) -jerk in sleep (jerk one's foot in sleep) Expr: ɓà ɗùsɨ̀-ɗùsɨ̀ -jerk body before dying Ndà dēn dɔ̀-á kɨ̀ búndɨ́ nà ɓà ɗùsɨ̀ ɗùsɨ̀ kám-tā̰á̰ lā òy yé.He shot him through the head, and he jerked his body and then died. Expr: ɓà kɨ̀lā kɔ́ɔ́ [dèē] tɨ́ tɔ̄l-á -hang [s.o.] ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ ɓà-n̄ kɨ̀lā kɔ́ɔ́ ngè-ɓògɨ̀ tɨ́ tɔ̄l-n̄-á.The police hung the thief, killing him. Expr: lòo-ɓà-kàdɨ̀ -east Expr: ɓà sàa -begin to smoke (as s.t. cooking) Dā̰a̰ ń-há̰ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ndā hòr-ó nò rùtō àdɨ̄ ɓà sàa.The meat the woman put on the fire is charred and starting to smoke. Expr: rō [dèē] ɓà tíngā -[s.o.] to become feverish Rō ngè-mò̰y ɓà tíngā wɔ́l-wɔ́l.The sick person has a terrible fever. Expr: ɓà gūĺ -have a herniated navel. Ngōn kɨ́ dūú yé ɓà gūĺ.The small child has a herniated navel.
38
ɓā VT crowd, crowd about. Tàgɨ́-bè dèē-gɨ̄ ɓā-n̄ nà̰ā̰ dɔ̀ ngè-mò̰y tɨ́. Yesterday the people crowded around the sick person. VT shape; form. VTI block; be blocked up. VT mold, make [pottery]. Nōm kángɨ̀ŕ kɨ̀-ǹ-ɓā jóo tɨ́. She soaked the broken pieces of clay to make a pot with. VT stick to, cover. VI be covered. VT squeeze. Ngōn ɓā mbùr̄. The child squeezed the 'boule'. VI be molded, formed, shaped. Gòdɨ̀-gódɨ̀ ì sútɨ́ mbùr̄ tā̰y kɨ́ ɓā-n̄ kɨ̀ sìtā. Millet balls are remains of 'small millet' 'boule' formed with hot pepper.
ɓàa NI type of small fish [Ctenopoma petherici]. Ndīi èdɨ̀ àdɨ̄ ɓàa ɔ̀sɨ̀ ngá̰y. It has rained, so now there are a lot of little fish.
ɓāa (Syn: hà̰a̰) VT to say bad things about [s.o.]. m̄-gèe kɨ̀ dèē ɓāa-m̄ àĺ. I don't like it when someone says bad things about me. VT to wish evil upon. Ngōn ngè-yá̰a̰ ɓāa-m̄ kɨ́-dà yá̰a̰ tɨ́ lò-ḿ. The son of the rich man wishes me evil in regards to my wealth.
ɓàā VT find on ground. M-ḭ̄ḭ kɨ̀ ndòō nīngá, ngōn-ḿ ɓàā nīngá. {Song} I'm in need of a ring, my child found a ring.
ɓà-kùm-dàm-á NI person with big eyes. Ngōn-í ì ɓà-kùm-dàm-á wà, kùm-á bòo tītɨ̄ bè yé. Is your child a huge-eyed person, with the big eyes he has?
ɓà-màndɨ̀-mbōrōrō [ɓàmà̰ndɨ̀mbōrōrō] NI plastic shoes commonly worn by the Fulani. Pórō lìlō̰o̰ lā à kɔ́r̄-á ɓà-màndɨ̀-mbōrōrō yé. Plastic shoes are called 'Grow a beautiful Fulani'.
ɓà-tòo-ndùy NI type of river bird. ɓà-tòo-ndùy ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ njà-á yām ngá̰y. à sà ngán kùr̄-gɨ̄, à ndīyā kàdɨ̀ bāa tɨ́. ____ is a bird whose legs are very thin. It eats insects, and walks by the river.
ɓàbɨ̀rō (Syn: =gàbɨ̀rō) VI act tough {to intimidate s.o.}. ōtɨ́ ɗà ɓàbɨ̀rō dɔ̀ ngè-mò̰y tɨ́. Don't act tough in front of a sick person. ɗà ɓàbɨ̀rō dà yá̰a̰ tɨ́ lò-á kɨ̀ ǹ-ùn. He is trying to intimidate him to get something from him. [lit: he-acts-tough before thing LOC of-him that he-take-it] Expr: ngè-ɓàbɨ̀rō (=ngè-gàbɨ̀rō) -bully, s.o. who intimidates others to get things Ngán-gɨ̄ ndà-n̄ ngè-ɓàbɨ̀rō àdɨ̄ sō kɨ̀ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ tɨ́ à̰ӯ.The children hit the bully and he ran away.
ɓādɨ̄ VT stutter (obj: tàa 'words, speech'). Ngōn kɨ́ dūú kɨ́ à sà kàw kɨ̄njá ngá̰y à ɓādɨ̄ tàa. A small child who eats a lot of eggs will stutter. Expr: tà [dèē] ɓādɨ̄ lày -[s.o.] to hesitate Tàgɨ́-bè m-ōo-ī súkɨ̄-ú, m̄-gèe kɨ̀ m-él-ī tàa nà̰ tà-ḿ ɓādɨ̄ lày.Yesterday I saw you in the market, I wanted to speak with you but I hesitated.
ɓādɨ̄ (Syn: mbā) VT propose. Kó̰o̰-ḿ ndì ɓādɨ̄ kàw̄ mbāa. My mother is proposing to go on a trip.
ɓádɨ́ NI souls of the dead (see also dà-ɓádɨ́). NI place underground where dead meet.
ɓájɨ́là INJ oh really? {indicates realization of previous deception}. ɓájɨ́là! Jībēl ɓògɨ̀ lè-í lā-à? Oh really! So that's the way you steal!
ɓàkɨ̀sɨ̀ ID dry, not enough water (boule). Mbùr̄ dá ɓàkɨ̀sɨ̀. The 'boule' doesn't have enough water.
ɓákɨ́sɨ́ (Syn: =ɓókɨ́sɨ́) NTI hard, unripe fruit. ɓákɨ́sɨ́ mángò ìdè gìsɨ̀rìii. Unripe mangoes are terribly bitter. Mángò lò-í ì ɓákɨ́sɨ́ ngá̰y m-ā m-ndūgō àĺ. Your mango's are hard and unripe, I'm not buying them. EMP be hard.
39
ɓāl NI year. ɓāl-í ì bà̰ý? (=āw kɨ̀ ɓāl bà̰ý?) How old are you? ɓāl-ḿ ì dɔ̀-sɔ́ɔ́. I'm 40 years old. Lòo-ń ngá-tɔ́gɨ́-ḿ tàā ngàw dá m-āw kɨ̀ ɓāl mḭ́ḭ kòo-ń; lòo-ń kó̰o̰-ḿ òy dá m-āw kɨ̀ ɓāl mɨ̀tá. When my elder sister got married I was five; when my mother died I was three. NI dry season {late October through April}. NI dragon fly {which appears in dry season} (see also ɓàr). Expr: kɨ̀ dà ɓāl-gɨ̄ -every year Kɨ̀ dà ɓāl-gɨ̄ m-ā m-āw Njàménà tɨ́.Every year I go to N'Djamena. Expr: ɓāl tɨ́ ń-tèn (=kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄) -this year Yá̰a̰-kōo tèē ngá̰y ɓāl tɨ́ ń-tèn àĺ.Millet is not producing well this year. Expr: ɓāl màdɨ̄ tɨ́ -a certain year, one year ɓōo sō ɓēe tɨ́ ɓāl màdɨ̄ tɨ́ àdɨ̄ dèē-gɨ̄ ò̰o̰-n̄ bɨ̀nā.Hunger fell upon the village one year and the people ate millet bran. Expr: ɓāl ndɔ̄ɔ̄ -the dry season arrives, be the dry season ɓāl ndɔ̄ɔ̄ dá m-ā m-āw ɓēe Sár̀.During the dry season I'll go live in Sarh. Expr: ɓāl-á tɨ́ nò -that year, during that year
ɓál NTI stripes. Bàtú lò-ḿ ɓál-á ì kɨ́ kìl. The stripes on my cat are black. NI large spots (see also ndàng). Expr: lā ɓál/tɨ́lā ɓál -be striped/have many stripes Njālā lò-ḿ lā ɓál.My pants are striped. Expr: tɨ́lā ɓál -be spotted with spots or long stripes Kūbɨ̄ ń-há̰ m̄-ndūgō nò tɨ́lā ɓál ngá̰y.The clothes I bought have a lot of stripes.
ɓàlà NI lily pod [Nymphaea sp.] (large dark yellow flour; root is called mērē). ɓàlà ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ̀ à ɓà kàm màn̄ tɨ́, à hútɨ̄. Mbī-á tátɨ́ ngá̰y; dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á kɨ́ gír tɨ́. Tɔ̄ɔ̄ kàndɨ̄-á ì mērē. ____ is a plant that grows in the water. Its leaf is very wide; people eat its root. This root is called ^^.
ɓàm INJ watch out, you're going to get it. ɓàm, ɓétɨ́ ā ōo wáy. Watch out, or you're going to get it. ī-ɗāa ɓàm, ɓétɨ́ ā ōo yá̰a̰ ń m-ā m-ɔ́jɨ́-ī nò. You be on guard or later you'll see what I'm going to show you. AV on guard (in expression ɗāa à 'be on guard'). AV patient. Nām-í ɔ̀gɨ̄-ī yá̰a̰ à ī-ɗāa ɓàm nà̰ ndɔ̄ɔ̄ màdɨ̄ tɨ́ ā ɔ̄gɨ̄-á yá̰a̰ lò-í hō. If your friend refuses to give you something be patient and someday you can refuse to give him something of yours.
ɓàndàng [ɓà̰ndà̰ŋ] NI round net. ɓàndàng ì kòr̄ kɨ́ dèē kɨ́rā à ùdɨ̀-ň gír màn̄ tɨ́ à sáā-ň kānjɨ̄-gɨ̄. ____ is a round net that a single person takes into the water and uses to catch fish.
ɓándáng [ɓá̰ndá̰ŋ] ID in a tantrum. ID ibid. (several times). M-ɔ̄gɨ̄ mbùr̄ ngōn lā tɨ́sō ɓándáng-ɓándáng kɨ̀ nō̰o̰-gɨ̄ yé. I refused to give the child the 'boule' and he kept falling on the ground crying in a tantrum.
ɓāng [ɓā̰ŋ] VT ask [s.o.] for return of loan. M-ā m̄-ɓāng-ī gɨ̄rā lò-ḿ ń tò dɔ̀-í tɨ́ nò. I ask that you repay what you owe me.
ɓápɨ̀ ID suddenly and hard (fall, knock down}. Ngōn ɔ̀sɨ̀ nām-ǹ lā-á ɓápɨ̀. The boy took his friend and threw him down hard. ID ibid. (freq.). ɓày-n̄ dò̰ó̰-tɨ́ sō-n̄ ɓápɨ́-ɓápɨ́. They got up quickly and fell down hard.
ɓàr (Syn: dúndō) NI rainy season {May through early October}. Nél kɨ́ ɓàr-á à là kō jōó. {Proverb} The wind in the rainy season blows from both sides. ɓàr ùdɨ̀ wòy, dèē-gɨ̄ à ɗòng-n̄ àĺ, j-à kɨ̀-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ tā. The rainy season has arrived, people don't play, we plough (the fields) now. NI dragon fly {which appears in rainy season} (see also ɓāl). Expr: ɓàr ùdɨ̀ -be the rainy season, the rainy season arrive Lòo-ń ɓàr à ùdɨ̀ ànḛ̄ dà-nàng à sɔ̀l̄ lùmmm.When the rainy season arrives the earth gets wonderfully cool.
ɓàr̄ VT curse, put a curse on. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɓàr̄ ngōn-bà̰r̄-ǹ. The woman put a curse on her nephew. Bà̰r̄ ɓòn̄g lā ɓàr̄ ɓòn̄g yé. {Proverb} It was the hyena's paternal aunt who put a curse upon him. VT perform a rite {either to ancestors or for twins}. m̄-ɓàr̄ ndíl kàa-ḿ-gɨ̄. I perform rites to the spirits of my ancestors. Expr: ɓàr̄ tàa rō-ǹ -show one's dissatisfaction Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ òō-n̄ kùm-á àĺ ndì ɓàr̄ tàa rō-ǹ.A woman who is not loved finds ways to show her dissatisfaction. Expr: ɓàr̄ tà rō-ǹ -attempt to convince people m̄-ɓàr̄ tà rō-ḿ nà̰ m-ḭ̄ḭ kɨ̀mā àĺ.I'm trying to convince people that I'm not a sorcerer.
ɓáráng [ɓárá̰ŋ] ID tightly (tie). Súu dɔ̀ɔ̄ tà kɨ́-ngà-mbérē ɓáráng nà̰ àw̄-ň ɓēe-é. Suu tied the satchel tightly and brought it home. ID ibid. (pl.). Dɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ tà-ɗóbɨ́ ɓáráng-ɓáráng. They tied the gate closed tightly.
40
ɓáráng [ɓárá̰ŋ] ID extremely (heavy). Ngōn-í ò̰o̰ mbùr̄ ngá̰y àdɨ̄ ɔ̀ӯ ɓārāng-ɓáráng. Your child eats so much 'boule' he's become terrifically heavy.
ɓátáa NP Bata {name of village cluster in Bekourou cantonate}. Mbáӯ kɨ́ ɓátáa jà tá̰a̰ kúl̄ lā ò̰ō̰ yé. The Mbay of Bataa eat a lot of 'long sauce'.
ɓàtɨ̀ AVT early in the morning (commonly kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ ɓàtɨ̀). Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ tèē kɨ̀-sḭ̀ḭ́-làā ɓàtɨ̀. My father went out early in the morning.
ɓàtɨ̀ NT rag, old piece of cloth. ún ɓàtɨ̀ ngɨ̄rā bḭ̄yā̰ nò ī-lā kɔ̄ɔ́. Grab that old piece of goatskin and throw it away.
ɓátɨ̄ (Syn: =ɓétɨ̄) VT do bit by bit, piece by piece. M-ā m̄-ɓátɨ̄ ngúl̄-kɔ̄r. I'm hunting for wild yams (which are found one at a time). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɓátɨ̄ kɨ́lá wúl̄. The woman is going over the place of harvest looking for single peanuts left behind. M-ā m̄-ɓátɨ̄ nàr kɨ̀ m̄-bā-ň gɨ̄rā dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́. I'm saving money bit by bit in order to repay my debt.
ɓátɨ́ NP Bata - tiny Mbay subgroup; dialect very similar to dominant ɓēe-jùu dialect.
ɓátɨ́ ID carefully (cut 'long sauce'). ID ibid. (freq.,pl.).
ɓàtɨ̀-ngɨ̄rā [ɓàtɨ̀ŋgɨ̄rā] NI piece of skin. Ngán-ndòo-gɨ̄ à ndōm-n̄ kɨ̀ ɓàtɨ̀-ngɨ̄rā gír-dɨ́ tɨ́. The young getting initiated dance covered with a piece of skin.
ɓáw ID extremely (bitter). Ngàrì dá àtɨ̀ ɓáw. That cassava is extremely bitter.
ɓày VI come from ( ɓáy - 1st person sing. and 2nd person). Kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄ yá̰a̰-kōo lò-ḿ ɗà ɓày ngá̰y. This year my millet is growing very well. ī-ɓáy ɗá? Where are you coming from? VI rise, get up; stick up/out (often with dò̰ó̰ 'up'). ī-ɓúkɨ̄ màn̄ dɔ̀-á tɨ́ àdɨ̄-á ɓày dò̰ó̰. Pour water on his head so he gets up. ī-ɓáy gìdɨ̀-ḿ tɨ́ nà̰ j-àw̄. Climb on my back and let's go. VI strike (sickness). VI grow, develop (plant). VI flap {in wind}; bob {in water} {with desc. bèl-bèl}. Kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ ɓày pèl-pèl. My clothes are flapping in the wind. VI grow (crop). VI become (black). VT divorce [husband]. Kó̰o̰ Súu ɓày ngàw kɨ̀tɔ̄ kūbɨ̄ ń ngàw-á ɔ̀gɨ̄-á nò. Su's mother got divorced on account of the clothes that her husband refused to give her. Expr: ɓày kɨ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ -fly Būlūm à ɓày kɨ̀ bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ àĺ.The ostrich doesn't fly. Expr: gātɨ̄ [yá̰a̰] ɓày ngá̰y. -[merchandise] be sought after, in great demand Gātɨ̄ ngúl̄ ɓày ngá̰y.Yams are in great demand. Expr: ī-ɓáy kɨ̄ gògɨ́ nò -get out of here Kɨ̀là ɗāa-ī gòtóo làā bè, ī-ɓáy kɨ̄ gògɨ́ nò.There is no work for you here, get out of here. Expr: ɓày ngɔ́ɔ́ -become scaly (skin) Expr: yá̰a̰ ɓày kàm [dèē] tɨ́ -[s.o.] be agitated, upset Expr: ɓày rṵ̀y/rṵ̀y-rṵ̀y -swell up visibly Njà-ḿ ń tíī yé ɓày rṵ̀y.My swollen foot swelled up visibly. Expr: ɓày àw̄ ngàw -leave one's husband for another man Nḛ̄ḛ́-á ɓày àw̄ ngàw dɔ̀ ɓēe tɨ́ kɨ́ ɗàng.His wife left him for another man in a different village. Expr: ɓày ɗà kéréng -act innocent, act as if one hasn't done anything ɓògɨ̀ ngá̰y nà ɓày ɗà kéréng.He steals a lot but acts innocent.
ɓàӯ NT mound (man-made, often for growing sweet potatoes or making bricks; see also dīí). M-ɔ̄r ɓàӯ ngár̄ gìdɨ̀ kújɨ́ tɨ́ lò-ḿ kɨ̀ m̄-ɗāa-ň bɨ̀ríkɨ̀. I made a mound of sand behind my house to make bricks with. Expr: ɓàӯ-bāngàw -sweet potato mound {before planting -- see also dïí-bängàw} M-ɔ̄r ɓàӯ-bāngàw ngá̰y kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄, nà m̄-ngá dɔ̀ m̄-túsɨ̄ tɨ́ àĺ.I dug a lot of mounds for sweet potatoes this year, but I did not succeed in planting them.
ɓáy-lā (Syn: =wáy-lā) AV precisely, exactly (someone). M-ḭ̄ḭ ɓáy-lā m̄-ɗèē kɨ́lá-í tɨ́ yé. It was precisely me who came in your absence. Būr ndìjè-dɨ́ àn ké n-ḭ̄ḭ-n̄-gɨ̄ ɓáy-lā ī-tūwā-ǹ-n̄ tītɨ̄-bè yé wà. The large land lizard asked them if they were the very ones who were chasing him in that way.
ɓáy-tɔ̀ɔ̄ (Syn: tɔ̀ɔ̄) AV yet {negative} ( ...àĺ à 'not...yet'). ī-sá yá̰a̰ àĺ ɓáy-tɔ̀ɔ̄-ɔ̀? Haven't you eaten anything yet? Kɨ̀-sà yá̰a̰ àĺ ɓáy-tɔ̀ɔ̄. We haven't eaten yet. AV still. ì ngōn ɓáy-tɔ̀ɔ̄. He's still young. Màn̄ tíngā ɓáy-tɔ̀ɔ̄-ɔ̀? Is the water still hot? AV again. ɔ̀y kɨ́ màdɨ̄-gɨ̄ àdɨ̄-dɨ́ àw̄-n̄ ɓáy-tɔ̀ɔ̄, nà ngè-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ tɔ̄l-dɨ́ ɓáy-tɔ̀ɔ̄. He gathered some others and had them go again, but the warrior killed them again.
41
ɓèe NI mushroom, toadstool. ɓèe-hṵ́r hō ɓèe mbàa hō lā ì ɓèe-gɨ̄ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à ɔ̀r̄-n̄ wōng-á àĺ yé. Gásɨ́ ɓèe-gɨ̄ túu-bè dèē-gɨ̄ à ɔ̀r̄-n̄ wōng-á. The ^^ mushroom and the milk mushroom are the only ones you don't have to remove the poison from. All the others, people remove their poison {before eating}. Expr: kāsɨ̄-ɓèe (=njà-ɓèe) -mushroom stem Ndì lòo kɨ́rā ndùm njà ɓèe.{Proverb} Sitting in one place caused the mushroom stem to rot. Expr: dɔ̀-ɓèe (=mbī ɓèe) -head of mushroom Dɔ̀-ɓèe tátɨ́ tɔ̀ӯ kāsɨ̄-ɓèe.The head of a mushroom is wider than its stem.
ɓēe NT hole for/of [s.t.]. M-úr ɓēe kɨ̀ m-údɨ́ kāgɨ̄ ndògɨ̄ tɨ́. I dug a hole to stick the pole for supporting the grass fencing in. Expr: ɓēe-ngúl̄ -hole for planting yams
ɓēe NI village, town. ɗóo gāng ɓēe lò-ḿ. The road cuts through my village. NI home; house. M-āw ɓēe-é tā. I'm going home now. NI homeland, country. Yòo ì gír kósɨ̄-gɨ̄ ɓēe-é lò Mbáӯ-gɨ̄. There are many types of fetishes among the Mbay [lit: Fetish is type many homeland-LOC of Mbay-PL] Expr: ndā ɓēe -establish a home or village òō rō-ǹ ndā ɓēe kàm ɓēe tɨ́ nà ndā ɓēe kàm mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́.He refused to set up house in town, and established a home in the countryside. Expr: ì ɓēe ndì àĺ. -it's not a place where you feel at home. Expr: ì dèē ndā ɓēe àĺ. -he's not someone you want to live with Expr: ɓēe lò-í à ɓēe lò nām-í hō. -your home is your friend's home as well. {said after refusing s.o. s.t. because you have given him too much before} Expr: ɔ̀r̄ ɓēe dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -leave [s.o.] Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɔ̀r̄ ɓēe dɔ̀ ngàw-ǹ tɨ́.The woman left her husband. Expr: ɓày ɓēe -move, change homes ɓày ɓēe àw̄ ngōn ɓēe tɨ́ màdɨ̄ kɨ́ kété.They changed homes and went to a small village up on ahead. Expr: ɓēe mbāa -village to which one is traveling Expr: àw̄ ɓēe [lòo] tɨ́ -go live in [place] Expr: gótɨ́ ɓēe -place where a village or home used to be Gótɨ́ ɓēe lò bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ ì ngɔ̀r tà-jī-tɨ́ nèē.The place where my father's house was is right nearby now. Expr: ndā ngōn kɨ́ ɓēē -to have a child out of wedlock Expr: kɨ́ tèē ɓēe-é lò dèē làā àĺ -extraordinary, very special J-à j-ò̰o̰ mbùr̄ kɨ́ tèē ɓēe-é lò dèē làā àĺ ɓó-làā.We're going to eat an extraordinary 'boule' today.
ɓēé N to the village; home {loc. of ɓēe-é} (common pronunciation of ).
ɓèe-bàtɨ̄ NI type of reddish mushroom.
ɓèe-bàý NI type of mushroom.
ɓèe-búsūḿ NI type of mushroom. ɓèe-búsūḿ à ɓà sùpɨ̀. This type of mushroom grows in clusters.
ɓēe-ɓōo-pèń NP Bebo Pen {Gor town near Bediondo}. ɓēe-ɓōo-pèń ì ɓēe lò Gōr-gɨ̄. Bebopen is a town where 'Gor' people live.
ɓēe-ɓɔ̄rɔ̄ɔ́ NP Beboro {major town on road between Moissala and Koumra; capital of Nar canton; Mbays refer to it as Dīlí}. ɓēe-ɓɔ̄rɔ̄ɔ́ ì ɓēe lò Nà̰r-gɨ̄. Bebore is a town where the 'Nar' people live.
ɓèe-dà-kàa-ḿ-hṵ̀r̄ NI type of inedible mushroom.
ɓèe-dà-tànjɨ̀ [ɓèedàtà̰njɨ̀] NI type of mushroom.
ɓēe-dàyá NP Bedaya {important Sar town between Koumra and Sarh}. ɓēe-dàyá ì ɓēe lò Sàr̄-gɨ̄. Bedaya is a Sar town. ɓēe-dàyá ì ɓēe kɨ́ ɗà mbɨ̀nā Kūmráa kɨ̀ Sár̀. Bedaya is a town between Koumra and Sarh.
ɓēe-dēgé NP bedege subgroup of Mbay. ɓēe-dēgé-gɨ̄ ndì-n̄ kàndō̰o̰ tɨ́ kɨ́ Dàng-bòō. The Bedege live in the Canton of Dembo.
ɓèe-dɔ̀gɨ̀ NI type of mushroom.
ɓèe-gṵ́ṵ-dér NI type of light blue mushroom.
ɓèe-hṵ́r NI type of brown mushroom.
42
ɓēe-jōndɨ̄ [ɓēejō̰ndɨ̄] NP Mbay Bediondo {Sara people living near Bediondo}; language spoken by them.
ɓēe-jōndō̰ó̰ [ɓēejō̰ndō̰ó̰] NP Bediondo {town near Doba, center of Mbay-Bediondo}. ɓēe-jōndōó ì ɓēe lò ɓēe-jōndɨ̄-gɨ̄. Bediondo is the town of the Bediondo people.
ɓēe-jùu NP Beju, dominant dialect of Mbay. Mbáӯ ɓēe-jùu gèr̄-n̄ tàa mbáӯ jée-jée. The Mbay of Beju speak a pure, genuine form of Mbay.
ɓèe-kāgɨ̄ NI type of mushroom. ɓèe-kāgɨ̄ ì ɓèe kɨ́ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé kḭ̄ḭ lám̄. ____ is a mushroom used as a medicine for the disease of the kidneys.
ɓèe-kàsɨ̀ NI type of mushroom, first of season to appear.
ɓèe-kàw-kɨ̄njá NI type of mushroom.
ɓèe-kílē NI type of yellow mushroom. ɓèe-kílē ì ɓèe kɨ́ dɔ̀-á tátɨ́ ngá̰y àĺ nà̰ rō-á kìrē tītɨ̄ rō kílē bè. ____ is a mushroom whose head is not very wide, and its color is like that of the weaver.
ɓèe-kɨ́-ngà-másɨ́-ngār [ɓèekɨ́ŋgàmásɨ́ŋgār] NI type of light red mushroom.
ɓēe-kōnjɨ̄ [ɓēekō̰njɨ̄] NP Bekonje subgroup of Mbay {dialect said to be similar to Bedege dialect}. ɓēe-kōnjɨ̄-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ nápàr Mbáӯ kɨ́ màdɨ̄-gɨ̄. The Beekonje are a subgroup of the Mbay.
ɓēe-kò̰o̰ (Syn: kò̰o̰-ɓēe) NI heaven. Rō-nèl̄ lò dèē-gɨ̄ ń dà-n̄ rō-dɨ́ ndòō kɨ̀tɔ̄ yá̰a̰ kɨ́ màjɨ̀ sèw: ɓēe-kò̰o̰ kɨ́ dà-rā̰a̰ tɨ́ ì lò-dɨ́. {Matthew 5:10} Blessed be those who suffer for a just cause: heaven above is theirs.
ɓèe-mùdɨ̀-mbāa-ndèr̄ NI type of reddish mushroom.
ɓèe-mùndó NI type of dark-colored mushroom.
ɓèe-mbàa NI type of whitish mushroom.
ɓèe-ndīngā-ɓāl [ɓèendīŋgāɓāl] NI type of whitish mushroom.
ɓèe-ndɔ̀l-kàdɨ̀-kàbɨ̀ NI type of reddish mushroom.
ɓèe-ngár̄ [ɓèeŋgár̄] NI type of white mushroom.
ɓēe-ngàw [ɓēeŋgàw] NI family, home. ā ī-ndì tà ɓēe-ngàw tɨ́ kám-tā̰á̰ lā ngán-í-gɨ̄ à ngà-n̄ dɔ̀-dɨ́ yé. Provide a strong home and then your children will succeed. [lit: AUX you-sit before home first and child-your-pl. AUX find-pl. heads-their EC] NI conjugal house, house for husband and wife. NI marriage, married life. ɓēe-ngàw ń ɗà nò, ngé-á-gɨ̄ gèe-n̄ tā àĺ. {Expr.} The parents didn't approve of this marriage. ɓēe-ngàw lò-í màjɨ̀-ī ngàw-í bòo lɔ́w-lɔ́w. Married life is very good, your husband has become nice and fat. Expr: hɔ̀ tà ɓēe-ngàw ndì tɨ́ -stay married to a man for a long time
ɓèe-óríyò-góỳ-góỳ NI type of mushroom.
ɓèe-sám-sōl NI type of mushroom.
ɓèe-tà-ndórí NI type of white mushroom.
ɓēe-yòó NI back of eye. Yá̰a̰ ń sō kùm-ḿ tɨ́ nò àw̄ ɓēe-yòó. What fell in my eye slipped behind the eye.
43
ɓèr̄ NI slave. Nàsár̀-gɨ̄ kɨ́ kìl-gɨ̄ ń ndì-n̄ àmèríkɨ̀ tɨ́ nò ì-n̄ ɓèr̄-gɨ̄. Blacks who live in America are slaves. [lit: White people who are black who live in America are slaves.]
ɓēr VT hammer, nail. ōtɨ́ ɓēr póndē dɔ̀ kújɨ́ tɨ́ nò. Don't hammer the nail in the house there.
ɓér (Syn: =ɓérɨ́r, ɓér-ɓér) IDS straight and narrow. ɗóbɨ́ kɨ́ ɓér A narrow, straight path IDS straight and tall (stand) (desc. of ɗà). ɗà ɓér kàdɨ̀ kɔ́ɔ́-ḿ tɨ́ ɔ̀gɨ̄-m̄ dà kèl tàa. He stood straight next to me and refused to let me say anything. {i.e. he wouldn't give me a fair hearing.}
ɓēr-gɨ̄ (Syn: =Sèptámbèr) NI September.
ɓèsɨ̄ NI disease caused by spell. Expr: ɗāa ɓèsɨ̄ -cure this disease
ɓèsɨ̄ NI presiding over initiation (see mò̰ō̰= mò̰ō̰). Mò̰ō̰ à ɗāa ɓèsɨ̄ dɔ̀ ngán ndòo-gɨ̄ tɨ́. The chief of initiation presides over the initiation of young men. Expr: ngè-ɗāa-ɓèsɨ̄ (=mo̰o̰, ngè hīlē yòo) -chief of initiation
ɓètɨ̄ NI monkey. ɓètɨ̄ tītɨ̄ màdɨ̄ bè nà̰ dūú gō-á tɨ́. The monkey is similar to the baboon but it's smaller. ɓètɨ̄-gɨ̄ tújɨ́-n̄ ngàrì lò-ḿ tàgɨ́-bè kɔ̄ŕ. Monkeys destroyed my casava yesterday in the field.
ɓétɨ̄ (Syn: ==ɓátɨ̄) VT do gradually, bit by bit.
ɓétɨ́ AV pretending otherwise. òō-m̄ ɓétɨ́ nà̰ ùn kùm-ǹ ríw. He pretended he didn't see me and looked the other way.
ɓétɨ́ (Syn: =wétɨ́) AV after, later. ɓétɨ́ m-ā m̄-ɗāa kɨ̀là kɨ̀ màn̄g-gɨ̄ lò-í kám-tā̰á̰ lā m-ā m-ādɨ̄ ngōn àw̄ sè-dɨ́ àdɨ̄-ī yé. Later I'll use your cows and then I'll give them to the boy to bring to you. M-ā m-āw nà ɓétɨ́ m-ā m̄-ɗèē ɓēe-é. I'll go now and later I'll come home. AV later {future marker, often used in warnings}. ī-ɗāa àngérì nà̰ ɓétɨ́ ī-sō hólēe tɨ́ nò. Be careful lest you fall in that hole.
ɓètɨ̀-ɓètɨ̀ IDS barely (escape, avoid) ( tèē tà [yá̰a̰] 'escape [s.t.]'). m̄-tèē tà kòy tɨ́ ɓètɨ̀-ɓètɨ̀. I barely escaped death.
ɓètɨ̄-kàsɨ̀ NI patas monkey. ɓètɨ̄-kàsɨ̀ ngāl tɔ̀ӯ ɓètɨ̄ ndàa à à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ tɔ̀ӯ-á hō. The patas monkey is taller than the white monkey and it moves about faster as well.
ɓétɨ́l ID completely (removed, broken, out of joint}. Tà bɨ̀tīl ɔ̀r̄ ɓétɨ́l. The opening of the bottle is completely broken. Jī-á ɔ̀r̄ tà nà̰ā̰ tɨ́ ɓétɨ́l. His arm is completely out of joint. ID ibid. (freq.). Tɔ́r̄ yá̰a̰ bèlō lò-ḿ tà nà̰ā̰ tɨ́ ɓétɨ́l-ɓétɨ́l. He tore off all the parts of my bike.
ɓēw VT rub with hands. m̄-ɓēw kàm jī-ḿ. I rub my hands together {i.e. to get mud off them}. VT make [rope] {by rubbing back and forth in hands to twist}. VT roll into balls from. m̄-ɓēw ndùjɨ̄ kɨ̀ m-óo bíyā tɨ́ m-ā̰y. I rolled little balls of flour to make porridge with.
ɓīi NTI pus. Jī-á tíī ngá̰y àdɨ̄ ɓīi kɨ́ kèmé ɔ̀gɨ̄-á dɔ̀ ɓīi. His hand was very swollen and the pus inside stopped him from sleeping.
ɓīi VI coagulate, get hard (liquid). Mósɨ́-m̄ ɓīi. Yìbɨ̄ ɓīi. My blood dried. The grease hardened.
44
ɓīi VI sleep. m̄-ɗāa mbētē ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́ ngá̰y m̄-ɓīi àĺ. I study a lot at night, I don't sleep. NI sleep; sleepiness. ɓīi ɗāa-m̄ ngá̰y. I'm very sleepy. m̄-ndól̄ dɔ̀ ɓīi tɨ́. I woke from sleep. Expr: ɓīi hɔ̀ kùm [dèē] -[s.o.] can't keep his eyes open ɓīi hɔ̀ kùm-á àdɨ̄ lòo kàdɨ̄ ndɨ̀ dò̰ó̰ gòtóo.He was so sleepy he couldn't remain standing. Expr: kùm [dèē] ɓīi léwww -[s.o.] have small droopy eyes Expr: ɓīi ɔ̀dɨ̀ kùm [dèē] àĺ -[s.o.] to not sleep a wink Ndɔ̄ɔ́-làā ɓīi ɔ̀dɨ̀ kùm-ḿ àĺ.Last night I didn't sleep a wink. Expr: ɓīi èdɨ̄ [dèē] -[s.o.] be overcome by sleep ɓīi èdɨ̄-m̄.I was overcome with sleep. Expr: à̰ӯ ɓīi -to spin Sōrō à̰ӯ ɓīi léwww.The top spun smoothly. Expr: tél tò ɓīi -fall asleep, go back to sleep ɓó-làā m̄-ndól̄ kɨ̀ tà-gír-lòo-gɨ̄ ngá̰y àdɨ̄ m̄-tél m̄-tò ɓīi.Today I woke up very early so I went back to sleep. Expr: ɓīi yòo-ɓīi -get sleeping sickness, have sleeping sickness Expr: ɓīi dɔ̀ [ngè mò̰y, mò̰y] tɨ́ -take care of [sick person] Kó̰o̰-ḿ ɓīi dɔ̀ ngè-mò̰y tɨ́.My mother is taking care of a sick person. Expr: kújɨ́-ɓīi-mbāa-gɨ̄ -guest house Expr: [dèē] ɓīi léwww -to sleep profoundly, deeply Ngōn nō̰o̰ ngá̰y ndɔ̄ɔ́ kɨ̀tɔ̄-kàdɨ̄ kó̰o̰-á ɓīi léwww nà ɔ̀gɨ̄-á mbàa.The child was crying during the night because his mother was sleeping profoundly and refused to nurse him.
ɓìkɨ̀r IDS extremely (stiff) (desc. of ndèr̄).
ɓìndɨ̄ [ɓḭ̀ndɨ̄] VT wrap around {one time}. m̄-ɓìndɨ̄ jī-ḿ kɔ́ɔ́-á tɨ́. I wrapped my arm around his neck. VI be wrapped around.
ɓíndɨ̄ [ɓḭ́ndɨ̄] VT wind, wrap up; tangled. Ná̰ā̰ ɓíndɨ̄ kɨ̀lā ń-tèń kāgɨ̄ tɨ́? Who wrapped this rope up around the tree? VI be wound, wrapped; be tangled. Kɨ̀lā màn̄g ɓíndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ tɨ́. The rope to the cow is wound up around the tree. Kɨ̀lā kínī lò dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ ɓíndɨ̄ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ àdɨ̄ ɗà ɗāa-n̄-nèé nà̰ā̰ tàa. The rope to the women's bucket got all tangled up and they are arguing about it.
ɓīngā [ɓīŋgā, ɓɨ̄ŋgā] VT tear up [s.t.], pull up. Bɨ̀rà-kɔ̀sɨ̀ ɓīngā gīgɨ̄ kàm ndɔ̀ɔ̄ tɨ́. The farmer tore up the roots in the field. VI be torn up by roots. Kāgɨ̄ kɨ̄rā̰ ɓīngā kɨ̀ gír-ǹ-gɨ̄ bè sō. The cotton tree was pulled up by its roots and fell. VI stumble, lean {before falling}. Dèē ń ɓīi hɔ̀ kùm-á nò ɓīngā kɨ̀ ǹ-sō nà̰ hɔ̀ rō-ǹ dò̰ó̰. The sleepy person stumbled and started to fall but he caught himself. VI move as group. Mbōrōrō-gɨ̄ ɓīngā-n̄ kɨ̀ gír-dɨ́-gɨ̄-bè àw̄-n̄ kɨ̄ dɔ̀ɔ́. The Fulani nomads all moved upstream. VI tip over. Jóo ń ḿ-ndā dò̰ó̰ nò ɓīngā sō. The pot I put up high tipped over and fell. VT drag away. ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ ɓīngā-n̄ màn̄g nò kɨ̀-tà-rókɨ̄-á-gɨ̄ bè. The soldiers dragged away the entire cow.
ɓípɨ̀ (Syn: bópɨ̀) ID heavily (fall) {person or animal}. Màn̄g lā sō ɓípɨ̀ yé. The cow fell heavily and quickly. ID ibid. (freq.). Tɨ́sō-n̄ ɓípɨ́-ɓípɨ́. They fell down heavily. ID ibid. (from anger).
ɓìr NI large clay jar. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ Mbáӯ kɨ́ márí-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ kàsɨ̀ kɨ̀ ɓìr. The Mbay women of the old days made millet beer in large clay jars.
ɓìr̄ (Syn: dūlō) VT wind up, wrap, roll up. ī-ɓìr̄ kɨ̀lā kínī kám-tā̰á̰ lā āw-ň ɓēe yé. Wind up the rope to the bucket first and then take it home. Ndīi à èdɨ̀ àdɨ̄ m-ā m̄-ɓìr̄ pál̄ lò-ḿ kɨ̀ m-àw̄-ň kújɨ́-ú. It's going to rain so I'm going to roll up my mat and put it in the house. VI be wound up, wrapped. VI be curly (hair). Bìsɨ̄-dɔ̀ dèē kɨ́ kìl ɓìr̄ nà bìsɨ̄-dɔ̀ nàsár̀-gɨ̄ ɓìr̄ àĺ. The hair of black people is curly, but white people's hair is not. VT curl up [one's body]. Ngōn ɓìr̄ rō-ǹ kɨ̀ ǹ-ɓīi. The boy curled himself up to sleep. VI coil (snake). Līi ɓìr̄ kɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ tɨ́. The snake coiled around the tree. Expr: kɨ̀lā kɨ́ ɓìr̄ -spool of thread Expr: ɓìr̄-n̄ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ dèē -hug, curl up in each other's arms Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɓìr̄-n̄ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ ngàw-ǹ.The woman curled up with her husband. Expr: ndōm gídɨ́ ɓìr̄ -dance without drums Ndōm gídɨ́ ɓìr̄ dá kɔ̀dɨ̀ gòtóo.The "Dance with the heel wrapped" has no drums.
ɓíríng [ɓírḭ́ŋ] (Syn: ==ɓɨ́ríng) ID tightly (tie). ID ibid.. m̄-dɔ̀ɔ̄ ndògɨ̄ lò-ḿ ngàn̄g ɓīrīng-ɓíríng. I tied my grass fencing extremely tightly.
ɓìrɨ̀r ID extremely (rough and uneven). Mbàng kɨ́ dà ɗóo tɨ́ ngùm ɓìrɨ̀r. The rocks on that road make it terribly rough. ID ibid. (pl.,emph.).
45
ɓìsɨ̀rìii AV fine, well. Rō-í ɗāa ɓìsɨ̀rìii ɓó-làā wà? Are you doing well today?
ɓìtà NI type of large tree [Daniellia oliveri]. ɓìtà ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ à tél kɨ́ bòo ngá̰y tītɨ̄ dīl bè. Nà Dèē-gɨ̄ à ndì-n̄ ndíl-á tɨ́; ndíl ɓìtà màjɨ̀ ngá̰y. ____ is a tree which can get as large as the mahogany. People sit in its shade; it has excellent shade.
ɓìtɨ̀tɨ̀ [ɓÌtɨ̀tɨ̀] ID very thickly (appear {scar,rash}). Ndījá lò-á tèē ɓìtɨ̀tɨ̀. His scars are horribly thick. Rō-ḿ tèē ɓìtɨ̀tɨ̀. A bad rash has appeared on my body. ID ibid. (freq.). Wàsɨ̄ dá bòo ɓítɨ́tɨ́-ɓítɨ́tɨ́. That pumpkin is huge. ID in abundance (fall {from tree}). Mángò ùr̄ ɓìtɨ̀tɨ̀-ɓìtɨ̀tɨ̀. The mangoes fell to the ground in abundance. ID very large (eyes).
ɓíw ID with a shock; with force (bump, crash). Ngābà ɔ̀sɨ̀ dɔ̀-ǹ kāgɨ̄ tɨ́ ɓíw. Ngaba bumped his head hard against the tree. ID ibid. (freq.,pl.).
ɓɨ́ríng [ɓɨ́rḭ́ŋ] (Syn: =ɓíríng) ID tightly (tie). ID ibid. (pl.,emph.). ID solidly (tied,closed). m̄-dɔ̀ɔ̄ ndògɨ̄ lò-ḿ ngàn̄g ɓīrīng-ɓíríng. I tied my grass fencing shut very tightly.
ɓòo VT put [s.t.] together ( ɓòo [yá̰a̰] nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ kɨ̄ [yá̰a̰] 'put [s.t.] together with [s.t. else]'). ā ī-ɓòo bísɨ́ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ kɨ̄ bàtú à à ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ nà̰ā̰. If you put a dog and cat together they'll fight.
ɓōo NI hunger, famine. ɓōo ò̰o̰ ngá̰y kàm ɓēe tɨ́. There was great hunger in the village. NT desire for. ɓōo kò̰o̰ mbùr̄ ɗāa-m̄. I have a strong desire to eat 'boule'. ɓōo kèl tàa ɗāa-m̄ àĺ. I don't feel like talking. Expr: ɓōo ò̰o̰ [dèē] (=ɓōo ɗāa [dèē]) -[s.o.] be hungry Kó̰o̰ ngán-gɨ̄ àw̄-n̄ mbāa lā ɓōo ɗà ɗāa ngán-á-gɨ̄ gògɨ́-nèē ngá̰y yé.The children's mother has gone on a trip, and now the kids are very hungry. Expr: (dèē) gāng ɓōo -(s.o.) stops being hungry ā ī-sá ī-gāng-ň ɓōo.You eat it (and) you stop being hungry. Expr: gāng ɓōo dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -[s.o.] stops being hungry ā ī-sá à gāng ɓōo dɔ̀-í tɨ́.You eat it (and) you stop being hungry.
ɓòō NT waist. Ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dɔ̀ɔ̄ mèdɨ̀ ɓòō-ǹ tɨ́. The young woman tied beads to her waist. NT middle part of. ɓòō gɨ̀mbā dūú ngá̰y. The middle part of the black wasp is very small. Expr: ɓòō gáng -the decorated middle section of the large gáng drum ùn gáng lā ɓòō-á bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ tɨ́.He took the drum and put the middle part on his shoulder. Expr: lā ɓòō -tie up around the middle of Ngè-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ lā ɓòō kádɨ́ àw̄-ň ɓēe-é.The farmer tied up the sugarcane [around the middle] and brought it home. Expr: hɔ̀ tà ɓòō [dèē] -hurts [s.o.]'s stomach Dā̰a̰ bòr̄ ń m̄-sá tàgɨ́-bè nò lā hɔ̀ tà ɓòō-ḿ ngá̰y.The boar's meat I ate yesterday is really hurting my stomach.
ɓó-làā (Syn: =ɓó-nḛ̀ḛ̄) AVE today. Māĺ sà dā̰a̰ ɗāa-m̄ ɓó-làā. I have a strong urge to eat meat today. Expr: ɓó-làā ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́ -tonight {when speaking in morning -- see also ndûû-ô-làä}
ɓó-nèē,ɓó-nḛ̀ḛ̄ (Syn: =ɓó-làā) AV today. AV as of today. Tàā dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɓāl jī-jōó ɓó-nèē. He got married eight years ago.
ɓōo-dów NP Bodo {principal Gor town, south of Doba}. ɓōo-dów ì ɓēe màdɨ̄-gɨ̄ kàdɨ̀ ɗóo kɨ̄ Dòbáa. Bodoo is a town along the road to Doba.
ɓòdɨ̀ NI idiot, fool. ā ī-ndìjè tàa ɓòdɨ̀ à à tél ngè-mbāa lò-í. {Proverb} If you ask an idiot a question, he'll become your guest. ɓòdɨ̀ òjɨ̀ ndɨ̄ɓā. {Proverb} The fool gives birth to an intelligent person. {i.e. you can never tell what children will be like from their parents.} NI stupidity, idiocy. VI mock, laugh at ( ɓòdɨ̀ kɨ̀ [dèē] 'mock [s.o.]'). ḭ̄ḭ kíyē ī-ɗòng ngá̰y àdɨ̄ ngán-gɨ̄ à ɓòdɨ̀-n̄ sè-í. You're the one who plays around so much the children mock you. NI foolish, stupid. Expr: ɓòdɨ̀ kɨ́ sà màn̄ tɨ́ (=ɓòdɨ̀ dèē kɨ́ sàā màn̄ tɨ́) -a total idiot, a complete fool Ngōn-í ì ɓòdɨ̀ kɨ́ sàā màn̄ tɨ́, òō gōsɨ̄ tɨ́dā yá̰a̰ àĺ.Your son is a complete idiot, he doesn't even know how to count. Expr: ɓòdɨ̀ rō [dèē] tɨ́ -play around with [s.o.], mess around with [s.o.] Dèē ń à nò̰ó̰-ǹ ì dèē kɨ́ màjàĺ, ā ī-ɓòdɨ̀ rō-á tɨ́ à à-tɔ̄l-ī.That person over there is bad news; if you mess around with him he'll kill you. Expr: ɓòdɨ̀-àĺ à̰nḛ̄ (=ɓòdɨ̀-àĺ dá, ɓòdɨ̀-àĺ à) -unless i'm mistaken, perhaps ɓòdɨ̀-àĺ ànḛ̄ tàā gúsɨ̀ kújɨ́ sà.Perhaps he took and wasted the house money. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ ndī ɓòdɨ̀-ǹ dò̰ó̰ -cry loudly Expr: tɔ̄ɔ̄-ɓòdɨ̀ (=tɔ̄ɔ̄-lɔ̄kɨ̄) -nickname Expr: tàa ɓòdɨ̀ -foolish words
46
ɓōdɨ̄ NP Gor {Sara people living to the west of the Mbay in areas around towns of Bodo and Bebo Pen, south of Doba}.
ɓōdɨ̄ (Syn: ɓòō) NT waist. Expr: gāng ɓōdɨ̄ [dèē/yá̰a̰] kàā kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ -from the waist up of [s.o.], from the middle up of [s.t.] Expr: gāng ɓōdɨ̄ [dèē/yá̰a̰] ɗèē kɨ̄ bèŕ -from the waist down of [s.o.], from the middle down of [s.t.] Mò̰y ń-há̰ m̄-ɓīi dɔ̀-á tɨ́ nò gāng ɓōdɨ̄-á tɨ́ ɗèē kɨ̄ bèŕ òy njɔ̀ŕ.The sick person I am taking care of is paralyzed from the waist down.
ɓōdɨ̄ NI beginning, start of. Expr: yā ɓōdɨ̄ -begin, start Lòo-ń m̄-sá m̄-tɨ̄gā dá m̄-yā ɓōdɨ̄ tōm pár.When I finished eating it, I immediately began to vomit. Expr: ɓōdɨ̄-ó (=ɓōdōó) -downstream Tòo ndɨ̀ àw̄ kɨ̄ ɓōdɨ̄-ó.The pirogue is going downstream. Expr: yā ɓōdɨ̄ ɗóbɨ́ -begin a journey J-à kɨ̀-yā ɓōdɨ̄ ɗóbɨ́ làā bè.We're going to start our journey right here.
ɓódɨ̄-mbāl INT damn it! (followed by tā̰á̰ when sentence continues). ɓódɨ̄-mbāl tā̰á̰ m-ḭ̄ḭ bɔ̀ɔ̄-á há̰ ɗà njúwā-m̄ tītɨ̄ bè? Damn it, am I his father that he's bothering me like this?
ɓòdɨ̀-nā̰a̰-kāgɨ̄-mbōl (Syn: mɔ́r-m-bà̰ā̰) NP November.
ɓōdōó AV downstream (locative of ɓōdɨ̄ 'beginning'). Tòo àw̄ kɨ̄ ɓōdōó. The pirogue is going downstream. Tòo ɓày ɓōdōó ndɨ̀ à àw̄ kɨ̄ dɔ̀ɔ́. The pirogue is coming from downstream and going upstream.
ɓògɨ̀ (Syn: =ngè-ɓògɨ̀) VT steal, rob. Màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ ɓògɨ̀ yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ bɨ́láng. My neighbor stole everything I own. Bàtàkúmbá-gɨ̄ ɓògɨ̀-n̄ nàr lò kàa-ḿ kàm kàmyō̰o̰ tɨ́ ɗóo-ó. The truck driver's assistants stole my grandfather's money on the road. VT lie, deceive. NI theft, robbery. NI thief. Kɔ̀ɔ̄ ì ngōn dā̰a̰ kɨ́ dūú; ɓòng-á ngāl nà̰ ì ɓògɨ̀. The mongoose is a small animal, it's tail is long and it's a thief. Expr: ɓògɨ̀-tò̰ō̰ -thief who uses brains rather than brawn Expr: tàa kɨ́ ɓògɨ̀ -lies, deceit
ɓókɨ́r ID round and hard. Kàndɨ̄ dṵ̄y ɓókɨ́róoo. The fruit of the tree called ^^ is round and hard. ID ibid..
ɓókɨ́sɨ́ (Syn: ==ɓákɨ́sɨ́) NT hard unripe fruit. Mángò kɨ́ ɓókɨ́sɨ́ màsɨ̄ ngá̰y. An unripe mango is very acidic.
ɓōĺ VT fear, be afraid of. ɓōĺ-m̄ ngá̰y. He's very much afraid of me. Kày yé, ì ɗí há̰ ɓōĺ-ň tītɨ̄-bè wà. That antelope, what is it that has frighted it like that? [lit: Antelope that, it.is what that you-are.afraid-of.it like that] VI be fearful; be skittish. Bɨ́rā̰ý ì yèl̄ kɨ́ ɓōĺ ngá̰y. The blue ^^ bird is extremely skittish. VT respect [elders, father or mother-in-law, etc.]. m̄-ɓōĺ mùm-ḿ. I respect my father-in-law (or mother-in-law) {normally by not eating in their presence}. NI fear. Expr: ā ī-ɓōĺ yá̰a̰ àĺ wà? -watch your step! [lit: are you afraid of nothing?] ḭ̄ḭ ngōn kɨ́ dūú yé ā ī-ɓōĺ yá̰a̰ àĺ wà?You're a small child -- watch your step! Expr: kɨ́ òtɨ̀ ɓōĺ ngá̰y (=tō ɓōĺ ngá̰y) -dangerous, frightening; amazing; a lot Tùbò ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́ òtɨ̀ ɓōĺ ngá̰y.The lion is a dangerous animal. Expr: ngè-ɓōĺ -coward Expr: ɓōĺ ɗāa [dèē] -[s.o.] be/become afraid ɓōĺ ɗāa-á àdɨ̄ tél àw̄ ɓēé gògɨ́.He became afraid so he returned home. Expr: ɗāa [dèē] ɓōĺ -make [s.o.] afraid Dā̰a̰-kɨ́-mṵ̀ṵ-tɨ́ à ɗāa-m̄ ɓōĺ.A wild animal frightens me. Expr: ɓōĺ ndíl [dèē] -be respectful to [s.o.] Ngōn kɨ́ ngè ɓōĺ ndíl dèē àĺ à mà̰a̰ yòo àĺ.A child who is not respectful will not resist death. Expr: ɓōĺ hɔ̀ [dèē] -[s.o.] to be seized by fear ɓōĺ hɔ̀-m̄ àdɨ̄ kàdɨ̀-ḿ ɔ̀sɨ̀ pìi-pìi.I was siezed by fear and my heart beat furiously.
ɓòn̄g [ɓòn̄] NI hyena. ɓòn̄g lā à sáā gō bḭ̄yā̰ yé nà bḭ̄yā̰ à sáā gō ɓòn̄g àĺ. {Proverb} It's the hyena who preys on the goat, and not the goat that preys on the hyena. Kɔ̀jɨ̀ ɓòn̄g dūú wāl. {Proverb} The hyena's distributing left little for the gazelle {i.e. the person serving gives large portions to the guests and ends up with little for himself.} ɓòn̄g lā hɔ̀ bḭ̀yā̰-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ tɨ̄gā yé. A hyena seized all of my goats. NI children's game called 'hyena'. Ngán-gɨ̄ ɗà ɗāa-n̄ ɓòn̄g. The children play 'hyena'. Expr: ɓòn̄g-kɨ́-gójɨ̀-kìl -type of hyena (lit: black kneed hyena) Expr: ī-sá njà ɓòn̄g wà? -you wander about too much. [lit: did you eat a hyena's tail?] ā ī-ndì lòo kɨ́rā àĺ yé ī-sá njà ɓòn̄g wà?You don't stay in the same place, did you eat the leg of a hyena? Expr: ì ɓòn̄g -be it (in children's games) ḭ̀ḭ̄ ń kàm-kàdɨ̀ hɔ̀-á àĺ àdɨ̄ pāa tɨ̄gā dɔ̀-á tɨ́ àĺ dá à ì ɓòn̄g.The one who is unlucky and the song doesn't finish on him will be it.
47
ɓòng [ɓò̰ŋ] NT tail. ɓòng kèdɨ̄ gɔ̀jɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ ɓòng màn̄g. The elephant's tail is shorter than the cow's tail. ɓòng ɓètɨ̄ ngāl tɔ̀ӯ ɓòng bḭ̄yā̰. The monkey's tail is longer than the goat's tail.
ɓòng-dɔ̀gɨ̀ [ɓò̰ŋgdɔ̀gɨ̀] NI type of plant. ɓòng-dɔ̀gɨ̀ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé jár-jálí. ____ is a plant used to make yard brooms.
ɓòng-tòo [ɓò̰ŋgtòo] NI back of pirogue. Ngè-nēl-bándɨ́ ndì ɓòng-tòo tɨ́. The paddler sits in the back of the pirogue.
ɓòoo INJ you hear. Nà̰ Súu àn "Kówàsī kàá ī-yá̰ ndégɨ́-á ɓòoo." But Suu said, "Kowasi, leave the rest of it, you hear?" INJ hey.
ɓóróng [ɓóró̰ŋ] ID straight and (tall). Kāgɨ̄ màr ngāl ɓóróng kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰. The palm tree is perfectly straight and tall. ID ibid. (pl.). ID be thick (body). Rō-í ɓòròngòoo. You have a thick body.
ɓɔ̀ɔ̀ NI little bells on horses. ī-dɔ̀ɔ̄ ɓɔ̀ɔ̀ kɔ́ɔ́ sɨ́ndá tɨ́ kàá nà̰y ànḛ̄ ī-ngá-á ndéré bè. Tie little bells to the horse's neck and if it gets lost you'll find it quickly.
ɓɔ̄ɔ̄ VT2 give to [s.o.] to hold for one. m̄-ɓɔ̄ɔ̄ kūbɨ̄ màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ kám-tā̰á̰ lā m-āw mbāa yé. I left my clothes with my neighbor first and then went on a trip. VT hide. Yá̰a̰ ń m̄-ɓɔ̄ɔ̄ yé kɨ̀tɔ̄-ɗí ī-dá lòo-á ngōn ngār̀ àdɨ̄ ɓògɨ̀ wà? Why did you show the chief's son where I hid that thing so he could rob it? Expr: ɓɔ̄ɔ̄ rō-ǹ -hide {intransitive} Kàn ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ à ɗèē-n̄ dá m-ā m̄-ɓɔ̄ɔ̄ rō-ḿ.If the soldiers come I will hide. Expr: ɓɔ̄ɔ̄ [dèē] dɔ̀ tàa -hide something from [s.o.], keep secret from [s.o.] ɓɔ̄ɔ̄-ī-n̄ dɔ̀ tàa lā m̄-ɗèē kɨ̀ m-él-ī yé.They hid it from you so I came to tell you. Expr: òō kùm kàdɨ̀ ɓɔ̄ɔ̄-ň -have seen one's last day, be about to die m̄-ḭ̄ḭ ń ī-ndá-m̄ nò, ōo kùm kàdɨ̀ ī-ɓɔ̄ɔ̄-ň.You've just hit me, you've seen your last day.
ɓɔ́gɔ̄lɔ́ NI type of edible tuber [Xanthosoma mafaffa] (root virtually identical to màkɨ̀bòo, but plant is different). ɓɔ́gɔ̄lɔ́ ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ làá bè nà̰ kāgɨ̄-á ngāl tɔ̀ӯ kāgɨ̄ làá sḭ́ḭ. à ùr-n̄ gír-á ndīr-n̄ sà-n̄ kàrī, nà̰ làá ā ī-sá kàrī ànḛ̄ à ndò̰ō̰ kàdɨ̀-kɔ́ɔ́-í. ____ is a plant similar to the root called ^^ but its stem is slightly taller. Its root is dug up, cooked and eaten without special treatment, whereas if you were to do that with ^^ it would make your throat itch.
ɓɔ́kɨ́r ID thoroughly (wrap [s.t. small]). Bà̰r̄-ḿ ndòm̄ wúl̄ ɓɔ́kɨ́rɔ́ɔ́ɔ́ là-ň àdɨ̄-m̄ Kūmráa. My paternal aunt wrapped the peanuts up completely and sent them to me in Koumra. ID ibid. (pl.).
ɓɔ̀l NI type of yam [Dioscorea bulbifera]. ɓɔ̀l ì dḭ̀ḭ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ ngúl̄ bè; dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á. ɓɔ̀l kɨ́ kànjɨ́ ndīr àtɨ̄ ngá̰y. ____ is a vine like the yam; people eat its fruit. When it's uncooked it is very bitter. NI type of vine with edible tuber. ɓɔ̀l ì dḭ̀ḭ kɨ́ à àl bèŕ; dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á. Gír ɓɔ̀l bà̰y ngá̰y. It's a vine that grows on the ground; people eat its fruit. There are many types of this plant.
ɓɔ̄ĺ NI type of large tree [Ficus ingens]. ɓɔ̄ĺ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ bòo. Dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á, ngán yèl̄-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ hō. ____ is a large tree. People eat its fruit, and small birds eat them as well.
ɓɔ́l NI sack, bag, basket. Mbūsɨ̄ nàr lò-ǹ kàm ɓɔ́l tɨ́. He stuffed his money into the sack. Expr: ɓɔ́l-kɨ̀rā̰ -quiver
ɓɔ́l (Syn: mbóo) NT cheek. ɓɔ́l ngè-kɔ́r̄-àlgétɨ̀ bòo ngá̰y. The cheeks of the flute player are very big.
ɓɔ̄n NI tree squirrel {gambia squirrel}. ɓɔ̄n àl̄ kāgɨ̄ ngá̰y; dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ kɨ́ mbáӯ-á-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ ɓɔ̄n àĺ. The tree squirrel climbs trees a lot; the woman of the village won't eat it. M-ā m̄-gèe ɓɔ̄n kɨ́ m̄-tíngā m̄-sá hō. I want a squirrel to grill and eat.
ɓɔ̄tɨ̄ NI termite-like insect that eats outside of sweet potato. ɓɔ̄tɨ̄ ì ngōn kùr̄ kɨ́ à sà gìdɨ̀ bāngàw. ____ is an insect that eats the exterior of sweet potatoes.
48
ɓɔ̀w VIA be thick (liquid). Tá̰a̰ ń-ndìn ɓɔ̀w ngá̰y. This sauce is very thick. VI be thick with dirt, mud (see also bùr). Expr: ɓɔ̀w-kàsɨ̀ -thick sediment of beer Expr: ɓɔ̀w nòryòo -be exceedingly foolish
ɓúu NUM one hundred. m̄-ndūgō kānjɨ̄ gúsɨ̀ ɓúu m-ādɨ̄ kó̰o̰-ḿ. I bought 500 CFA worth of fish for my mother.
ɓùkɨ̀ ID vigorously (cook). ID ibid.. ID tasteless; without flour or thickness. Ngàrì ń m̄-ngḭ̄yā̰ m̄-ndā hòr-ó nò ndì ndīr ɓūkɨ̄-ɓúkɨ́. The manioc I peeled and put on the fire came out flavorless.
ɓúkɨ̄ VT dump out. ī-ɓúkɨ̄ màn̄ kàm túkɨ̄ tɨ́. Dump the water into the barrel. Tòo ɓúkɨ̄-jɨ̀ kàm màn̄ tɨ́. The pirogue dumped us into the water. Expr: gà ɓúkɨ̄ -take and throw down Wōng ɗāa-á àdɨ̄ gà sàmbé-gɨ̄ lò-ǹ ɓúkɨ̄.She became very angry and took her enamel plates and threw them down.
ɓùkɨ̀r ID thoroughly (wrap [s.t. big]). Ndòm̄ yá̰a̰ ɓùkɨ̀rùuu. He completely wrapped the thing up. ID ibid. (pl.).
ɓúkɨ́sɨ́ ID twisting off (remove). Ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ hɔ̀ jī ngōn pùpéè lò ngōn-ǹ ɔ̀r̄ ɓúkɨ́sɨ́. My brother took the hand of his child's doll and twisted it off. ID ibid. (freq.). ID be large and thick. Góy-í ɓùkɨ̀sùuu. Your thighs are large and thick.
ɓùĺ NI rainy months, July and August. Ndīi à èdɨ̀ ɓùĺ tɨ́ ngá̰y. It rains alot during July and August.
ɓūl NTI ampleness, size. ɓūl kūbɨ̄ lò-í ì ngá̰y. Your clothes are very ample. NTI deepness of [water]. Náw kɨ́ à ɗāa dà ɓūl tɨ́ à hɔ̀ kānjɨ̄ ngá̰y. A fisherman who works in deep water will catch a lot of fish. Expr: ɓūl-ú -in deep water Náw-gɨ̄ ṵ̀ṵ̄-n̄ bándɨ́ ɓūl-ú lā njà bándɨ́ lò-dɨ́ ɔ̀dɨ̀ nàng àĺ yé.The fishermen threw the net in deep water so that the bottom of the net didn't touch the bottom.
ɓūĺ NI type of grass used to make a type of broom. ɓūĺ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé ndìsā. ____ is a grass women use to make brooms.
ɓùĺ-bòo [ɓùĺbóò] NI August.
ɓùlò (Syn: =ɓèr̄) NI slave. ɓùlò ì dèē kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à ndūgō-n̄-á kɨ̀tɔ̄ ɗāa kɨ̀là lò-dɨ́ nà̰ à ɗāa-n̄-á tītɨ̄ dèē-kìl àĺ. A slave is a person bought by people to do their work and is not treated like a human being. Ngōn gō dèē ì ɓùlò lò-á. A person's younger brother is his slave.
ɓùndùr NI type of tree [Pterocarpus lucens]. ɓùndùr ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ mbī-á à ndīr-n̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́ hō bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ hō. ____ is a tree whose leaf is cooked in sauces or eaten by goats. Expr: tá̰a̰-ɓùndùr -type of sauce made from this plant ā ó̰o̰ tá̰a̰-ɓùndùr à ā ā̰y màn̄ ngá̰y.If you eat this type of sauce you will drink a lot of water.
ɓùr VT carefully search for. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ ngà-tɔ́gɨ́ à ɓùr kɨ́lá yá̰a̰-kōo. An old woman will carefully search for millet left behind.
ɓúr̄ VTF take a little of many things. à ɓúr̄ yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ pàa-bè. He takes a little of everything. VTF carefully search for (many people) {over and over}. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ ɗà ɓúr̄-n̄ kɨ́lá tā̰y. The women are searching the 'small millet' field {for any millet left behind by the reapers}.
ɓùsɨ̀ NT smell. ɓùsɨ̀ tá̰a̰ òtɨ̀-m̄ màjɨ̀ ngá̰y. The sauce smells good to me. [lit: smell-of sauce smells-to-me good very]
ɓūtāá AVE in a group, in orderly groups (locative of ɓūtɨ̄). ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ ndì-n̄ kɨ̀ ɓūtāá. (Ndì-n̄ kɨ̀ ɓūtāá-ɓūtāá.) The soldiers are sitting in a group. (They are sitting in groups.)
49
ɓútí ID thoroughly (know, understand). Dèē kɨ́ gèr̄ yá̰a̰ ɓútí à dà màý àĺ. A person who thoroughly knows a subject can't teach it badly.
ɓútí AV genuine, real. Kó̰o̰ ngōn ɓútí à sà yá̰a̰ ɔ̀gɨ̄ ngōn àĺ. The real mother of a child won't eat and refuse food to the child.
ɓùtɨ̀ NI rain that starts early and lasts all day. ɓùtɨ̀ tɨ́ ɓōo ò̰o̰ ngá̰y. When it rains all day there is hunger {because it's difficult to do shopping and cooking}. NI cool weather caused by clouds in rainy season. ɓàr-á dá lòo à ɗāa ɓùtɨ̀. In the rainy season the weather is cool. Expr: ndīi lā ɓùtɨ̀ -to rain all day ɓó-làā ndīi lā ɓùtɨ̀.Today it rained all day.
ɓūtɨ̄ NT group, crowd. NT herd, flock, school. ɓūtɨ̄ màn̄g-gɨ̄/bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ herd of cattle/goats ɓūtɨ̄ yèl̄-gɨ̄ flock of birds ɓūtɨ̄ kānjɨ̄-gɨ̄ a school of fish Expr: ɓūtɨ̄ dèē-gɨ̄ (=kósɨ̄ dèē-gɨ̄) -crowd of people
ɓùwà NP subgroup of Sar (Madjingay). ɓùwà ì nápàr dèē-gɨ̄ kōkɨ̄ Sár̀ bè. The Buwa are a group of people (living) near Sarh. Dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ́ Kɔ̄r-ɓòl ì-n̄ ɓùwà-gɨ̄. The people in Korbol are Buwa people.
(Syn: =dà-mbī) NT leaf (of a few plants). M-ɔ́sɨ́ dà ngàrì m̄-ndā tá̰a̰ tɨ́. I am pounding the leaf of the manioc to put in the sauce.
PRP on, on top of, over (see dɔ̀).
VT2 show, demonstrate. ōtɨ́ dà lòo ń bàbá yā rō-ǹ tītɨ́ kàm mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ nò. Don't show anyone where Dad is hiding in the grass. VT explain. ī-dá-m̄ kàm tàa ń-tèn. Explain the meaning of that speech. Expr: dà rō-ǹ ndòō -to be miserable, suffer m̄-dá rō-ḿ ndòō kám-tā̰á̰ lā m̄-ngá-ň dɔ̀-ḿ yé.I suffered long before I succeeded. Expr: dà [dèē] tàa -pull a trick on [s.o.], do something bad to [s.o.] ì tàa ɗí há̰ ī-dá-m̄ tītɨ̄ bè, kɔ̀sɨ̀ ń m-ādɨ̄-ī yé àdɨ̄ nà̰y kɨ̀tɔ̄-ɗí à?Why do you do this to me, I gave you a hoe and you go and lose it? Expr: dà tàa kɨ̀ [dèē] -chat with [s.o.] Nām-ḿ-gɨ̄ ɗèē-n̄ kɨ̀ ǹ-dà-n̄ tàa kɨ̀ mbāa.My friends came to chat with the guest. Expr: dà ngà sùngóo -answer a riddle correctly ùr-m̄ sùngóo ngá̰y nà m̄-dá m̄-ngá túu-bè.He asked me a lot of riddles but I answered them all correctly. Expr: dà [dèē] tàa tɨ́ -do all the talking with [s.o.] Tàgɨ́-bè ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́ dá ī-dá-m̄ tàa tɨ́ ngá̰y.Last night you did all the talking with me.
SPC that. EC indicates end of dependent clause. Kàn ḭ̄ḭ-lā ī-túgó jī-í kɨ̀ ī-sá yá̰a̰ dá ā ī-tūdɨ̄ màn̄ jī-í kɔ̄ɔ́. If you wash your hands to eat, you shake off the water. Kūbɨ̄ ń m̄-ndūgō dá dūú-m̄. The clothes I bought are too small for me. CNJ then, and so, well then. Súu kàá ɔ̀sɨ̄ pāa tītɨ̄ bè. Dá, Yèl̄-bòo òō ndī Súu ɓày sá̰y, à ɗèē dɨ̀bà. Suu also sang the same song. And so, Big-bird heard Suu's voice from afar, came close and stopped.
dàa NI type of grass used to make brooms. Dàa ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé ndìsā nà̰ ndìsā dàa ngàn̄g ngá̰y àĺ. ____ is a grass used to make brooms, but a broom made of it is not sturdy.
dāa NI type of tree [Sterculia setigera]. Kāgɨ̄ dāa à tɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ kɨ̀lā ɗāa-n̄-nèé kújɨ́ hō à hétɨ̄-n̄-nèé ndògɨ̄ hō. This tree is used to make rope for roofs as well as for weaving grass fencing.
dà-bānjāng-gɨ̄,dà-bānjāng [dàbā̰njā̰ŋggɨ̄,dàbā̰] NI type of small grasshopper. Dà-bānjāng-gɨ̄ ì ngōn kɨ́-dāa kɨ́ dūú. Mbáӯ-gɨ̄ èl-n̄ àn màn̄-tà-á à ɔ̀dɨ̀-ī à rō-í à gāng bānjɨ̄. ____ is a small grasshopper. The Mbay say that if its saliva touches you, you'll catch leprosy from it.
dà-bòo-dɔ̀ý NI person with a large head ( dɔ̀-bòo-dɔ̀ý is also possible). Dà-bòo-dɔ̀ý à ndà ngāng-í kɨ̀ dɔ̀-ǹ à à ndà tètɨ̀. If a person with a big head hits your teeth with his head your teeth will break.
50
dà-bóy NT end of, finish of, last of ( kɨ́ dà-bóy 'the last'). Dà-bóy súu lā m̄-ndì m̄-dá yé. I'm telling the end of the story. dà-bóy ngán-kó̰o̰-ḿ-gɨ̄ - the last born in my family. Ná̰ā̰ òō dà-bóy dà-nàng? Who has seen the end of the earth? Expr: dà-bóy ɓēe -limit of village Kāgɨ̄ mángò ń ī-ɗà ōo nṵ́ṵ nò ɗà dà-bóy ɓēe tɨ́.That mango tree you're looking at over there stands at the limit of the village. Expr: dà-bóy tɨ́ -in the end, after everything else Dà-bóy tɨ́ dùbɨ̄-n̄ bùĺ.At the end they planted cotton. Expr: dà-bóy ndīi -last rain of the season ɓèe-ndīngā-ɓāl à ɓà kɨ̀ dà-bóy ndīi.The "covet the dry-season" mushroom grows with the last rain of the season. Expr: dà-bóy-ndɔ̄ɔ̄ -the last day Dà-bóy-ndɔ̄ɔ̄ lò-ḿ ì ɓó-làā.Today is my last day. Expr: dà-bóy dúnyà -the end of the world Ndɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄ ń à tɔ́ӯ-n̄ kɨ́rā kɨ́rā nò ì-n̄ dà-bóy dúnyà.The days pass one by one leading to the end of the world.
dà-bɔ̄gɨ̄ NT upper arm. Yá̰a̰ ɔ̀sɨ̀ dà-bɔ̄gɨ̄-ḿ ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́. Something stung me in the upper arm during the night.
dà-búu-bḭ̄yā̰ (Syn: gìdɨ̀-bɨ̀là) NI tobacco. Bɨ́lá kóo dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à à̰ӯ-n̄ dà-búu-bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ tòŕ. Old women smoke tobacco in a pipe.
dà-būu-lòo NI ash pile. Yá̰a̰ kɨ́ dùbɨ̄ dà-būu-lòo tɨ́ à ɓày ngá̰y. Something planted on an ash pile will grow very well.
dà-ɓádɨ́ NI tomb, burial mound. à dùbɨ̄-n̄ nīń dà-ɓádɨ́ tɨ́. They bury the corpse in its grave. NT mound [for sweet potatoes]. NT top of [mound]. àl̄ dà-ɓádɨ́ dīí-í kɨ̀ ǹ-hɔ̀ dà-jī màsɨ̄. He went to the top of the mound to get a branch from the tamarind tree. NT cranium, top of head. Expr: dà-ɓádɨ́-kóo-súu -small dry mound out of which nothing grows [lit: the tomb of Suu's mother] Dèē à gà ɓēe dùbɨ̄ yá̰a̰ dà-ɓádɨ́-kóo-súu tɨ́ àĺ.People don't dig holes and then plant things on one of these small dry mounds. Expr: dà [dèē] dà-ɓádɨ́ kó̰o̰-á -do s.t. really shocking to [s.o.] {lit: show [s.o.] his mother's tomb} ā ī-ɗòng kɨ̀ ngōn kɨ́ dūú dá à dà-ī dà-ɓádɨ́ kó̰o̰-í.If you play around with a small child, he'll do something really shocking to you.
dà-ɓádɨ́-mbòý NI worn out old tennis shoes. Yá̰a̰ lò-í gòtóo ànḛ̄ à ò̰ō̰ dà-ɓádɨ́-mbòý. If you don't own anything then you will wear old worn-out sneakers.
dà-ɓēe NI foreign place (see dɔ̀-ɓēe).
dà-dèē NI type of climbing plant with grape-like fruit ( dɔ̀-dèē is also possible). Dà-dèē ì kám kɨ́ à àl bèŕ. Kàndɨ̄-á yīkɨ̄ hō màsɨ̄ hō. ____ is a bush that grows along the ground and that has a bittersweet fruit.
dà-dòr̄ (Syn: =dòr̄-lòo) NI small mound, slight elevation. Bḭ̄yā̰ ɗà dà-dòr̄ tɨ́. The goat stood on top of the little mound. ī-ɗāa kɨ̀ngā màn̄g-gɨ̄ dà-dòr̄-lòo tɨ́ kàá ndīi èdɨ̀ à nṵ̄ṵ kɨ̀-dò̰ó̰ tɨ́. Build the fencing for the cattle on the slope, and that way when it rains, the water will run off quickly.
dà-dòr̄-lòo NI small mound (see dòr̄-lòo).
dà-dōw NI type of plant. Dà-dōw ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ à àl bèŕ nà hútɨ̄-á ndàa hō. ____ is a plant that grows on the ground; its flower is white.
dà-gàjɨ̀ (Syn: ==dɔ̀-gàjɨ̀) NI place where initiation occurs. Ngán ndòo-gɨ̄ à tò-n̄ dà-gàjɨ̀ tɨ́. The boys being initiated stay in the place of initiation. NI agrarian altar.
dà-gòjɨ̀-bìī NI big sore on knee. Dà-gòjɨ̀-bìī-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-ī à ā ā̰y ngɔ̄dɨ̄ sétɨ́. If you get huge sores on your knee, you can't run.
dà-góy NT hip. m̄-ngá dòo dà-góy-ḿ tɨ́. I have a sore on my hip.
dà-gūm-gōrí NI peanut with single grain. Kùm-á ì kɨ́rā kòo-ń, dá ì wúl̄ dà-gūm-gōrí. It has but one grain, that's what a one-grained peanut is. Wúl̄ dà-gūm-gōrí kɨ́ tɔ̄ɔ̄ kɨ̀ jī-í tōo rō ngá̰y. Breaking a one-grained peanut with your hand is very difficult.
51
dà-jī NT compensation, reward ( dɔ̀-jī is also possible). Kɨ̀là ń ḿ-ɗāa nò àdɨ̄-m̄-n̄ dà-jī-ḿ. They gave me compensation for the work I did.
dà-jī NT first (wife) (only in expression dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dà-jī 'first wife'). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dà-jī-í à òy ànḛ̄ dāng à ɗāa-ī ndájāĺ. If your first wife dies, you will suffer a great deal.
dà-jī NT known areas, familiar neighborhoods. à ndīyā dà-jī-ǹ tɨ́. He walks in familiar neighborhoods. Expr: dà-jī-lòo -area, neighborhood ī-gèr̄ dà-jī-lòo àĺ à ōtɨ́ tèē kàw̄ ndīyā.If you don't know the neighborhood, don't go out for a walk. Expr: dà-jī-ɓēe -part of town, area, neck of the woods ī-gèr̄ dà-jī-ɓēe ń-tèń wà?Do you know this area?
dà-jī NT {one's} right (see also kò̰). kōkɨ̄ dà-jī-ǹ tɨ́ to one's right
dà-jī-ɓēe NE customs, traditions. Yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ túu-bè dèē-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ kɨ̀ dà-jī-ɓēe-dɨ́. People do everything in accordance with their customs.
dà-jī-jōó NUM eighty (see dɔ̀-jī-jōó).
dà-jī-kāgɨ̄ NI branch {of tree}. ī-yéē dà-jī-kāgɨ̄ kḭ̄yā̰ nà̰ ādɨ̄ ùr̄ àdɨ̄ j-ò̰o̰. Shake the karite branch so that [the fruit] falls down and we can eat it.
dà-jī-kɨ́rā NUM nine (see dɔ̀-jī-kɨ́rā). Bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ ì-n̄ dà-jī-kɨ́rā. I have nine goats. [goats-my is-PL nine]
dà-jī-ɗóbɨ́ NE side of road. dà-jī-ɗóbɨ́ kōkɨ̄ làā/nṵ́ṵ on this/that side of the road Lòo-kɨ́-sɔ̀lé dá ɗà-n̄ tàng-tàng dà-jī ɗóo kō jōó. In the evening they stand in a line on both sides of the road. Expr: ndà dà-jī-ɗóbɨ́ gāng -cross road, cross to other side of road Yégɨ̄-sèe à ndà dà-jī-ɗóbɨ́ gāng àĺ.The rat called ^^ doesn't like to cross a road.
dà-jóo NUM twenty (see dɔ̀-jōó).
dà-kàdɨ̀ (Syn: dɔ̀-kàdɨ̀) NT period of, time for [s.t.]. Dà-kàdɨ̀ ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ndòo àsɨ̀ àĺ tɔ̀ɔ̄. The time for initiation has not yet arrived. Dà-kàdɨ̀ dùbɨ̄ yá̰a̰-kōo à ɗèē ngɔ̀r. It's almost the time for planting millet. NT proper period of time for [s.t.].
dà-kāgɨ̄ NIN season for (see dɔ̀-kāgɨ̄).
dà-kám (Syn: =dɔ̀-kám) NI bunch of leaves used in potions or fetishes. Ngè-yòo à là dà-kám àdɨ̄-ī ànḛ̄ ā ī-bámbā àĺ. If a sorcerer sends you a bunch of fetish leaves then you won't long survive. à sáā dà-kám tɨ́ kɨ̀ ǹ-dám̄-ň ngōn-ǹ. He's looking for a bunch of leaves to cure his son.
dà-kàsɨ̀ NT first quality of [drink]. Dà-kàsɨ̀ yérgɨ̀ òng tɔ̀ӯ kɨ́ gògɨ́. The first brewing of manioc alcohol is stronger than later brewings.
dà-kɨ́-bòy-dètɨ́ [dàkɨ́bóỳdètɨ́] NUM sixty (see dɔ̀-kɨ́-bòy-dètɨ́). ādɨ̄-m̄ gúsɨ̀ lò-ḿ dà-kɨ́-bòy-dètɨ́. Give me my 300 CFA (60 x 5).
dà-kɨ́-mbīr-yóò NI type of oriole (can be shortened to kɨ́-mbī-rīyóò). Dà-kɨ́-mbī-rìyóò ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ dūú sḭ́ḭ, à sà kàndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ yīkɨ̄-gɨ̄, à sà ngōn kùr̄-gɨ̄ hō. ɓōĺ ngá̰y. ____ is a rather small bird, and it eats sweet fruits as well as insects. It's very skittish.
dà-kɨ́-ɗōrī NI type of plant. Dà-kɨ́-ɗōrī ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ ɗàr bè nà̰ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-nèé jár-jálí. ____ is a plant similar to the ^^ plant and women use it to make yard brooms.
52
dà-kóy NI resurrected men. Dà-kóy-gɨ̄ ɓēe lò Mbáӯ-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dèē-gɨ̄ ń òy-ǹ nà̰ lā tél ɗèē-n̄ yé. The resurrected among the Mbay are people who have died and then returned. Dà-kóy-gɨ̄ ndōm-n̄ nà̰ā̰ tàgɨ́-bè ngá̰y àdɨ̄ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ̄-gɨ̄ tèē-n̄ àĺ. The "resurrected" were dancing a lot yesterday so the women couldn't go out. NI male ceremonial dance and associated rites. Ndōm dà-kóy ì ndōm lò yòo. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ à tèē lòo-á tɨ́ àĺ. ì ndōm ɗāa kɔ́l-ɓēe. The male ceremonial dance is a dance of spirits. A woman can never be present. It's a ritual dance. NI dancer of this dance. Dà-kóy-gɨ̄ à tèē-n̄ ɓàr-á dà-kāgɨ̄ lòo tɨ́ ń-há̰ yá̰a̰-kōo-gɨ̄ à òjɨ̀-n̄ nò. The male ritual dancers appear in the rainy season at the time when the millet crops are ripening.
dà-līi-gɨ̄ NI toe sore. Dà-līi-gɨ̄ ì dòo kɨ́ tōo ngá̰y. ____ is a very painful sore.
dà-lūu (Syn: ==dɔ̀-lūu) NI fertile area where trees have been burned. Dà-lūu lòo ì lòo kɨ́ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ à ṵ̀ṵ̄ búu hòr tɨ́. ā-ī-dùbɨ̄ yá̰a̰ dà-lūu lòo tɨ́ à à ɓày ngá̰y. An ash pile is a place where women dump ashes. If you plant a crop in a fertile area it will grow very well. NT ash pile.
dà-mḭ́ḭ NUM fifty (see dɔ̀-mḭ́ḭ).
dà-mɨ̀tá NUM thirty (see dɔ̀-mɨ̀tá).
dà-mbī (Syn: =dà) NT leaf (of a few plants). dà-mbī ngàrì (=dà-ngàrì), dà-mbī bāngàw (=dà-bāngàw) Manioc leaves, sweet potato leaves
dà-nàng [dà̰nà̰ŋ] (Syn: =dɔ̀-nàng,dà-nìng) NI the ground, the earth. Gúsɨ̀ lò-ḿ sō dà-nàng tɨ́. My money fell on the ground. NI territory, land. Tùbò-gɨ̄ à̰ӯ-n̄ nà̰ā̰ pétɨ́ kɨ̄ dà-nàng tɨ́ lò Bāyā-gɨ̄. The lions have all fled to the land of the Gbaya. NI world. Dèē kɨ́ à òy àĺ gòtóo dà-nàng tɨ́ làā. There is nobody in the world who is not going to die. Expr: tél gír dà-nàng -turn over the soil Bɨ̀rà-kɔ̀sɨ̀ à tél gír dà-nàng kám-tā̰á̰ lā à ndɔ̀ɔ̄ yá̰a̰ tītɨ́ yé.The farmer first turns over the earth and then plants the crop.
dà-nā̰a̰ N season, period, time.
dà-nìng [dà̰nḭ̀ŋ] NI ground, earth; territory (see dà-nàng).
dà-ndògɨ̄ (Syn: =hálɨ́m,kāgɨ̄-mbōgɨ̄) NI type of tree [Moringa oleifera].
dà-ngōn-dànyél̀ [dàŋgō̰ndà̰nyél̀] (Syn: yérgɨ̀,kòlíngò) NI used whiskey bottles (empty bottles of 'Daniels'}. Dèē-gɨ̄ à ùtɨ̄-n̄ yérgɨ̀ dà-ngōn-dànyél̀ tɨ́. People pour cassave fire-water into old whiskey bottles.
dà-ngóy [dàŋgóy] NT end of a closed area ( dɔ̀-ngóy is also possible). m̄-hɔ́ yégɨ̄ dà-ngóy ɓēe tɨ́. I caught the rat at the bottom of his hole.
dà-njà (Syn: dà-jī) gift, present. Ngōn kɨ́ dàw à ngà yá̰a̰ dà-njà àĺ. A disobedient child won't be getting any presents.
dà-rā̰a̰ NI sky. Ndīi tàā dà-rā̰a̰ hóy-hóy. The clouds completely cover the sky. ɓó-nḛ̀ḛ̄ ndīi ìl àĺ dà-rā̰a̰ àӯ tā. Today there are no clouds, the sky is clear now. Dà-rā̰a̰ ndàa búng. The sky is amazingly clear.
dà-rō AVE pure, unmixed. ādɨ̄-m̄ ndùjɨ̄ ngàrì dà-rō. I want pure manioc flour.
dà-sɔ́ɔ́ NUM forty (see dɔ̀-sɔ́ɔ́).
dà-tènɨ̀-mɨ̀tá NUM seventy (see dɔ̀-tènɨ̀-mɨ̀tá). ɓó-làā m-ɔ̄r bɨ̀ríkɨ̀ dà-tènɨ̀-mɨ̀tá. Today I made seventy bricks.
53
dà-yìdè [dàyÌdè] NT gums. Dà-yìdè-ḿ tíī. My gums are swollen.
dàa-jī NT palm of hand. Dàa-jī-ḿ lā sòĺ. I have calluses on the palms of my hands.
dāa-jī-gɨ̄ NI type of monkey (see also ɓètɨ̄). Dāa-jī-gɨ̄ ndì sà-m̄-n̄ bùĺ kɨ̀ ǹ-tɨ̄gā-n̄. The monkeys are eating all my cotton.
dàa-njà NT sole of foot. Dàa-njà-ḿ hílē kɨ̀ dòo-gɨ̄. The sole of my foot got a blister that turned into a sore.
Dābāá NP Doba {prefecture capital between Koumra and Moundou}.
dáabà Arabic AV now, it's now that (clause following must end in .). Dáabà lā ī-ɗèē yóō? So it's now that you're coming?
Dàbɨ̀ NP Daba (ethnic group); language spoken by Daba.
dábɨ̀,dábà Arabic NI gold earrings. Dábà ì yá̰a̰ lò nḛ̄ḛ́ ngé-yá̰a̰-gɨ̄. Gold earrings are what is worn by the wives of the rich.
Dájò NP Dajo, or more generally, any 'Hadjerai' people from mountainous area near Mongo.
dàl VT remove bran from [millet] (see also gán̄g). Ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dàl yá̰a̰-kōo kɨ̀ kèē. The girl is winnowing the millet with a basket.
dálā NI horse hobbles. Sɨ́ndá kɨ́ lā dálā njà-á tɨ́ à ndīyā ngá̰y àĺ. A horse with hobbles attached to its legs won't walk far. Expr: ì dèē kɨ́ là-n̄ dálā njà-á tɨ́ -be all tied up, busy M-ḭ̄ḭ dèē kɨ́ là-n̄ dálā njà-ḿ tɨ́.I'm all tied up.
dàlál̀ Arabic NI umbrella. Ndīi èdɨ̀ m-ā m̄-hɔ́ dàlál̀ dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́ m-āw-ň ndīyā. It's raining so I'm going to grab my umbrella and go for a walk. Tèē/ùtɨ̄ dàlál̀ open/close an umbrella
dàlì NI type of two-sided drum. Dàlì ì kɔ̀dɨ̀ kɨ́ à lā-n̄ nò̰ mbāa-dɨ́ tɨ́ kám-tā̰á̰ lā ndà-n̄ yé. ____ is a drum that's placed between the legs and then played. Dàlì lā ì kɔ̀dɨ̀ kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀ nò. ____ is a short drum.
dàlɨ̀m NI type of bean sauce. Dàlɨ̀m ì ngór mùnjò kɨ́ à ndīr-n̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́. ____ is young green beans cooked in a sauce.
dàm NI granary. Dàm ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à ṵ̀ṵ̄-n̄ yá̰a̰-kōo tītɨ́. A granary is something used to keep millet in.
dám NI type of game played with rocks in holes.
dám NI male initiation mask. Ndòo-gɨ̄ là-n̄ dám dɔ̀-dɨ́ tɨ́ ndōm-n̄-nèé. The young men being initiated wear a mask on their faces and dance with it.
dám̄ VT treat, cure. Ngōn-á ɗāa mò̰y ngá̰y àdɨ̄ m̄-dám̄-á ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́ làā. His child was very sick and I treated him during the night. Expr: dám̄ mò̰y dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -to cure [s.o.] of a sickness Ngè-dám̄-dèē-gɨ̄ dám̄ mò̰y kíl̄ dɔ̀ ngōn tɨ́.The shaman cured the boy's epilepsy.
dàm-nàr NI government treasury (from where salaries are paid). Kɔ́r̄-n̄ dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ̄ tà dàm-nàr tɨ́ ɓó-nèē. They summoned the people to the treasury today {to receive their salaries}. Nàr lò-í ì ngá̰y kàá lā él áǹ n-ḭ̄ḭ ngè dàm-nàr wà? You have that much money, you say your the owner of the government treasury or what? Expr: ngè-dàm-nàr -treasurer, person in charge of distributing state funds Ngè-dàm-nàr gòtóo, kàlbátɨ̀ kàrī.There is no treasurer, it is just a lie.
dàmjān French (Syn: =dàmjēn) NI large round glass container used to store and sell gasoline. à ùtɨ̄-n̄ èsá̰à̰s dàmjān tɨ́. Gasoline is stored in large round jars.
54
dàn [dà̰n] (Syn: =dèn) NT middle of, center of (see also ndān). Dèē-gɨ̄ ndā-n̄ mbùr̄ dàn-á lā kɨ̀ n-ò̰ō̰-n̄ yé. The people put the 'boule' in the middle to eat. Expr: dàn lòo tètɨ̀ -in the middle of the night Dàn lòo tètɨ̀ à dèē-gɨ̄ à ɓīi-n̄ túu-bè.In the middle of the night everyone sleeps. Expr: dàn-dɔ̀ -the top of one's head Kāgɨ̄ ndà dàn-dɔ̀-ḿ.A stick hit me right on the top of my head. Expr: kàdɨ̀ ɗà dàn ɓēe tɨ́ -it's mid afternoon Ndɨ̀ m-āw kɔ̄ŕ nà kàdɨ̀ ɗà dàn ɓēe tɨ́ àdɨ̄ lòo-tīi lā m-ā m-āw yé.I was going to the field but it was mid afternoon, so I'll go tomorrow.
dān [dā̰n] VT accompany. m̄-dān-ī kɨ̄ ɗóo-ó. I'll accompany you to the road. m̄-dān dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ ɗèē ɓīi gō-ḿ tɨ́ ndɔ̄ɔ-ɔ́ lā ɓēé yé. I accompanied the woman who came to my house last night home.
dàn-á [dà̰ná] (Syn: dèn-é) AVE in the middle (formed from locative of dàn 'middle'). Expr: dèē-kɨ́-dàn-á -a fair, just person m̄-gèe dèē-kɨ́-dàn-á séw lā kɨ̀ m̄-là-á yé.I want a completely honest person to send.
dàn-dèē [dà̰ndèē] AVE normal sized (person) (often with gɔ̀jɨ̀). Nān-ḿ gɔ̀jɨ̀ dàn-dèē. (=nān-ḿ ì dàn-dèē.) My uncle is of average height.
Dàn-dɨ́ [Dà̰ndɨ́] NP woman's name given to girl who has many brothers but no sisters. Dàn-dɨ́ ì tɔ̄ɔ̄ ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ tèē kɨ́ kɨ́rā-ǹ bè kàm ngán-kó̰o̰-ǹ-gɨ̄ tɨ́ kɨ́ dìngá-gɨ̄. 'Dande' is the name given to a single girl born among many brothers.
dàn-màndɨ̀ [dà̰nmà̰ndɨ̀] NE lovely young woman {lit: the center of loveliness}. Dàn-màndɨ̀, ɔ́dɨ́ màn̄ ādɨ̄-m̄ tɨ́ m-ā̰y. Lovely woman, please fetch me water to drink. Ngōn-í ì dàn-màndɨ̀. Your daughter is a lovely girl.
dànìng-bɨ̀rám [dà̰nḭ̀ŋgbɨ̀rám] NI malachite kingfisher [Alcedo cristata]. Dànìng-bɨ̀rám ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ dūú, à ɗāa ɓēe dà-nìng tɨ́; à sà ngán kùr̄-gɨ̄ hō ngán kānjɨ̄-gɨ̄ hō. ____ is a small bird, it makes a hole in the ground; it eats small insects and small fish.
dāng [dā̰ŋ] NI crowned crane [Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis]. Dāng ì yèl̄ kɨ́ à kōo à dèē à ndájɨ̄ ndī-á àĺ. The crowned crane is a bird which when it calls nobody imitates its cry. Dāng ì yèl̄ kɨ́ bāa-á. ì yèl̄ kɨ́ bòo nà. ɓà bèl̄ dɔ̀-ǹ-tɨ́ ngá̰y. Dèē-gɨ̄ èl-n̄ àn à kōo-n̄ nà ì ndájɨ̄ ndī-á à ngāng-í à ɓà gìdɨ̀ nà̰ā̰ tɨ́. The crowned crane is a river bird. It's a big bird. It has a lot of feathers on its head. People say if you imitate its cry your teeth will grow crooked.
dàng [dà̰ŋ] ID up and down (bounce). Bál̀ tál̄ dàng-dàng. The ball bounced up and down.
dàng [dà̰ŋ] NI large one [monkey]. Dàng ɓètɨ̄ à ndīyā kɨ̀ kɨ́rā-ǹ. A large old monkey goes about alone.
dàng [dà̰ŋ] NI type of plant. Dàng ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ à ɗà lòo tɨ́ nà̰ ā ī-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ wúl̄ tɨ́ à à àndɨ̄ ngá̰y. ____ is a grass which if it's growing in a certain place and you plant peanuts there, they'll produce very well.
dāng [dā̰ŋ] (Syn: dɔ̀tɨ́) NI misery, suffering (see also). Dāng ɗāa-m̄ ngá̰y. I'm truly miserable. Expr: ngè-dāng (=dèē kɨ́ dāng tɨ́) -miserable person, poor person Kāgɨ̄ ɓēe-ḿ tɨ́ dá ngé-dāng-gɨ̄ ìn̄ ngá̰y.In my village there are a lot of poor people.
dāng [dā̰ŋ] NI brush, thick grass. Ndòm tèē kàm dāng tɨ́ kɨ̀-ngɔ̄dɨ̄-gɨ̄ àdɨ̄ bísɨ́ hɔ̀-á. The squirrel came running out of the thick brush so that the dog caught it. Expr: dāng-kɔ̄r, dāng-kɔ̄r-wày -deep in the countryside Tàgɨ́bè m-āw dāng-kɔ̄r-wày tɨ́ m̄-gá kāgɨ̄ ngá̰y.Yesterday I went deep into the countryside and cut a lot of wood.
dáng [dá̰ŋ] ID completely (cut).
dáng [dá̰ŋ] AV different. Gír-dɨ́ ì dáng-dáng. Their origin is different. PRP different from. AV apart, far from others. Kújɨ́ lò-ḿ ndì kɨ́ dáng. My house is set apart {from the others}. Expr: dèē-kɨ́-dáng -stranger, foreigner Nà ḭ̄ḭ dèē-kɨ́-dáng Mā̰ysālāá.But you are a stranger in Moissala.
55
Dàng-bòō [Dà̰ŋgbòō] NP Dembo (Mbay 'Bedege' town, canton capital approx. 30 kms. south of Moissala}. Dàng-bòō ì ɓēe lò Mbáӯ ɓēe-dēgé-gɨ̄. Dembo is the home of the Bedege Mbay.
dàng-dàng [dà̰ŋgdà̰ŋ] ID giving little (bear fruit), here and there. Kò̰nḭ̄-làā kāgɨ̄ làmíǹ lò-ḿ àndɨ̄ dàng-dàng. This year my lemon tree has borne very little fruit. ī-gá ɓēe dàng-dàng ādɨ̄ m̄-dùū-ň yá̰a̰. Dig holes spaced apart so I can plant millet in them. ID up and down (bouncing ball). Bál̀ lò ngán-gɨ̄ ɓày dàng-dàng. The children's ball bounced up and down. ID ibid. (more bounce).
dàng-mbàlà [dà̰ŋgmbàlà] NI type of dance done on stilts. Dàng-mbàlà ì nápàr ndōm màdɨ̄ kɨ́ tèē kɨ́ kìjɨ̀ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ dà kāgɨ̄ tɨ́ lā ndōm-ň yé The "Dangmbala" is a new dance that people stand on sticks and dance.
dàngá̰ỳ,dàngá̰y Arabic NI prison, jail. ì dèē kɨ́ màjàĺ, hɔ̀-n̄-á dàngá̰y tɨ́. He's a bad person, they put him in prison. à̰ӯ-n̄ nà̰ā̰ dàngá̰ỳ tɨ́. They escaped from prison. ī-ɗāa ɗí há̰ dèē-gɨ̄ hɔ̀-ī-nèé dàngá̰y tɨ́ wà? You did what that made the people put you in prison? Expr: ngè-dàngá̰ỳ -prisoner Expr: ɗāa [dèē] dàngá̰ỳ tɨ́ -punish [s.o.] Expr: ḭ̀ḭ̄ dàngá̰y -be all tied up M-ḭ̄ḭ dàngá̰y ɓó-làā.I'm all tied up today. Expr: ɗāa dàngá̰y -go to jail, be in jail m̄-gèe kɨ̀ m̄-ɗāa dàngá̰y àĺ.I don't want to go to jail.
dàpɨ̀ ID with pitter-patter (run). Ngōn à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ dàpɨ̀-dàpɨ̀. The child's feet sounded pitter-patter as he ran.
dápɨ̀ (Syn: dúsɨ̀) ID without much noise (break, cut through). Hɔ̀ gāng dápɨ́. He sliced it.
dár̀ Arabic NT birth place, country of origin. Dár̀-ḿ ì sá̰y kɨ̀ Mā̰ysālāá. My birthplace is far from Moissala.
dàsá AV first. Kàmyō̰o̰ à tèē Mā̰ysālāá dàsá. The truck will leave Moissala first. M-ḭ̄ḭ lā m̄-ɗà ɓēe nèē dàsá yé Me, I live in this first village here. AV in front, ahead. à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ dàsá. He ran in front. Expr: kɨ́ dàsá -first, the one which is first M-ā m̄-gèe kɨ̀ m̄-ndìjè dèē kɨ́ dàsá ń m-ā m̄-ngá-á dà ɗóo tɨ́ nò.I'll ask the first person I meet on the road.
dásɨ́ ID suddenly {break}. ɔ̀r̄ kɨ̀lā kùӯ gāng dásɨ́. He pulled the fishing string and broke it with a snap. ID ibid. {freq.}. Kɨ̀lā gán̄g dásɨ́-dásɨ́. The rope broke in several places snap-snap.
dàw NI small section of field that has been plowed previously (in expression lā dàw 'plough a small section of a field'). Dàw ń m̄-lā tàgɨ́-bè lòo-kɨ́-sɔ̀lé nò ùn tà jī-ḿ ɓó-nḛ̀ḛ̄. The small section of the field I plowed yesterday afternoon helped me a lot today.
dàw VT show disrespect to, lack respect for {as by not listening to an elder}. ī-ndì dàw-m̄ wà? ōtɨ́ dàw dèē-kɨ́-bòo. Are you being disrespectful to me? Don't be disrespectful towards an adult. Ngōn kɨ́ dūú ì ɗí há̰ à dàw dèē-kɨ́-bòo lò-ǹ wà? How is it a small child shows disrespect towards his elders? Expr: ngōn kɨ́ dàw -recalcitrant child Ngōn kɨ́ dàw à nà̰y kɔ̀lɔ́.A disobedient child remains in the hut. (refers to a tale of warning about a child who refuses to listen to his father) Expr: dàw [dèē] dá̰a̰ -refuse to listen to [s.o.] m̄-dàw-dɨ́ dá̰a̰, m-ōo dɔ̀ tàa lò dɨ́ àĺ.I categorically refused, I didn't listen to what they said.
dàw NI structure consisting of four to six poles with a cover, used to dry foods on. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ṵ̀ṵ̄ yá̰a̰-kōo dɔ̀ dàw tɨ́. The woman put the millet on the drying structure. Expr: kāgɨ̄ dàw -poles for supporting drying structure Kāgɨ̄ dàw lò ngār̀ yé tètɨ̀ tàgɨ́-bè ndɔ̄ɔ́.A pole supporting the chief's drying structure broke last night.
dàw NT flat of back. Kāgɨ̄ mángò tètɨ̀ ndà dàw dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ tɔ̄l-á. A branch of the mango tree broke and hit a woman in the flat of her back and killed her.
dáwā Arabic (Syn: kḭ̄ḭ) NI medicine. M-āw lòpìtál̀ tɨ́ lā dòktór̀ àdɨ̄-m̄ dáwā yé. I'm going to the hospital so the doctor can give me medicine. Dáwā ń àdɨ̄ m-úr tàgɨ́-bè dá àjɨ̀-m̄ máràwày. The medicine I took yesterday completely cured me.
56
Dày NP Day {neighbors of Mbay living to north and west}. Dày-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dèē-gɨ̄ ń ndì-n̄ dà-nàng tɨ́ kɨ́ Bɨ̀nā kɨ̀ Ngàlóō hō. The Day are the people who live in the area around Bouna and Ngalo. Expr: tàa Dày -Day language Tàa Dày ì síkɨ́ kɨ̀ tàa nàsár̀.Day is different from French. Expr: ī-dày -you never say what you think {the Day are known for this}
dāy (Syn: =dāy-gɨ̄) AV unaware. m̄-ɗèē dāy m̄-tèē dà yòo tɨ́. I came unaware that I was arriving at the time of someone's death.
dáӯ VI waste time, do nothing. Kɨ̀là ɗāa-á gòtóo, à dáӯ kàrī. He has no work to do, he's just wasting time. Expr: dáӯ yòo-ǹ -suffer Ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ kɨ́ mò̰y dáӯ yòo-ǹ ngá̰y.My sick brother is suffering a great deal.
dāy-gɨ̄ (Syn: =dāy) AV unaware, not knowing. à̰ӯ kàsɨ̀ dāy-gɨ̄ àdɨ̄ kàsɨ̀ ɗāa-á àdɨ̄ sō bùlò tɨ́. He was unaware how much he drank and he got drunk and fell in the well. AV by accident, without meaning to. M-ōo dɔ̀ dāy-gɨ̄. I heard by accident. AV by chance, by coincidence. M-ōo dɔ̀ dāy-gɨ̄ kàdɨ̄ nān-ḿ ɗèē kɨ́lá-ḿ tɨ́. I chanced to hear that my uncle had come in my absence. Expr: àw̄ dāy-gɨ̄ -not realize Tájɨ̄ nām-ǹ nà̰ nām-á àw̄ dāy-gɨ̄.He insulted his friend but his friend didn't realize.
dàyà NI type of small grasshopper. Dàyà ì nápàr kɨ́-dāa kɨ́ bòo kɨ́ ngán-gɨ̄ à tíngā sà-n̄. ____ is a type of grasshopper that children grill and eat. Tà ɓàr tɨ́ dàyà-gɨ̄ à téē-n̄ ngá̰y. At the start of the rainy season grasshoppers abound.
dā̰a̰ NT flesh (followed by 'body'). m̄-já dā̰a̰ góy-ḿ kɨ̀ kìyā. I cut the flesh of my thigh with a knife. NTI meat. m̄-gèe tá̰a̰ kànjɨ́ dā̰a̰. I like sauce without meat. NI animal. Ngà-tɔ́gɨ́-ḿ àw̄ tɔ̄l dā̰a̰-gɨ̄ tɨ́. My older brother went out hunting animals. NI meaty, having a lot of meat. Ngòsɨ̀-kɨ̄njá ì dā̰a̰ ngá̰y. Chicken breast has a lot of meat on it. NI body. Dā̰a̰ kɨ́-ngūtɨ́ ìl hō bèl̄-á ìl hō. The body of the ^^ termite is black and so are its wings. Expr: ngè-ngōm-dā̰a̰-gɨ̄ -animal raiser Ngé-ngōm-dā̰a̰-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dèē kɨ́ à ndɨ̀-n̄ lòo kɨ́rā àĺ.Animal raisers are people who don't stay in the same place. Expr: dā̰a̰-tɔ́gɨ́ -dangerous animal {due to strength -- elephants, buffalo, etc.} Kèdɨ̄ hō dɔ̀gɨ̀ hō ì-n̄ dā̰a̰ tɔ́gɨ́.The elephants and the buffalo are big strong animals. Expr: dā̰a̰-ngāng -dangerous animal {with teeth -- lions, leopards, etc.} Tùbò kɨ̀ kàgɨ̀ ì-n̄ dā̰a̰ ngāng-gɨ̄.The lion and the leopard are fierce animals. Expr: dā̰a̰ màn̄g -beef M-āw súkɨ̄-ú m̄-ndūgō dā̰a̰ màn̄g m̄-ɗèē-ň ɓēe-é ɓó-làā.
dá̰a̰ AV categorically (refuse) (in expression dàw dèē à 'categorically refuse to listen'). Ngōn ń m-él-á tàa nò dàw dá̰a̰. The child I spoke to categorically refused [to listen]. Expr: dàw [dèē] dá̰a̰ -to refuse categorically
dā̰a̰-rō NT very one. Dā̰a̰-rō-í ń ì ń-ndìn! You there! Dā̰a̰-rō kɔ̀sɨ̀ lò-ḿ lā tèn. It's my hoe that's here. NI body {biblical}. à tél-n̄ dā̰a̰-rō kɨ́ kɨ́rā bè. They will become as one body. Expr: dā̰a̰-rō-tàa -the truth, absolute truth Ngè-kùn-kɔ́ɔ́ à èl dā̰a̰-rō-tàa wàlá à èl yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ àĺ.A Christian will tell the truth and not a pack of lies. Expr: tɔ̀ӯ dā̰a̰-rō [dèē] -more than is necessary for [s.o.] M-ngōm ngōn màjɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ dā̰a̰-rō-ḿ mḭ̄ḭ-kíyē.I watch over my son more than it is necessary (for me to do).
dā̰a̰-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-ngōn-àĺ [dā̰a̰ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ŋgō̰nàĺ] NE tough-guy, strong and ruthless person. ì dā̰a̰-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-ngōn-àĺ, ā ì ɗòbɨ̀ sì-á à à ndà tɔ̄l-ī. He's a real ruthless fellow, if you mess around with him he'll beat you to death.
dà̰rḭ̀ (Syn: ==lāw-dà̰rḭ̀) NI type of flock bird.
-dé (Syn: ==dɨ́) PRA them (with when pronounced ; thus, , but ). Ngōn-kó̰o̰ ngōn-kɨ́-màndɨ̀ nò kɨ́-dūú kɨ́ dìngá àn kɨ̀ n-àw̄ sè-dé. The younger brother of the girl said he would go with them.
57
dèē NI person. A human is a person who will die. Expr: dèē kɨ́ sɔ̀l̄ -kind gentle person Màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ ì dèē-kɨ́-sɔ̀l̄ ngá̰y à sáā tàa àĺ.My neighbor is a gentle person, he doesn't look for trouble. Expr: dèē kɨ́ ngàn̄g -strong person not easily fooled Ngāró ì dèē kɨ́ ngàn̄g, à ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ kɨ̀ dèē-gɨ̄ mḭ́ḭ kɨ̀ kɨ́rā-ǹ.Ngaro is a strong guy, he can fight five people by himself. Expr: dèē kɨ́ kɨ́-ɗíngɨ̄ -honest person Expr: dèē kɨ́ jī-á ngàn̄g -selfish person; rich person Nān-í ì dèē kɨ́ jī-á ngàn̄g, à àdɨ̄ yá̰a̰ dèē àĺ.Your uncle is a selfish person, he won't give anything to anyone. Expr: dèē màdɨ̄ -someone {unknown} Expr: dèē kɨ́rā -someone {known} Expr: dèē-kɨ́-dɔ̀-ǹ-tɨ́ -poor person Dèē-kɨ́-dɔ̀-ǹ-tɨ́ à sà tàa àĺ.A poor person won't look for trouble. Expr: dèē-kɨ́-njà-dɔ̀ɔ̄ -paralyzed person Expr: dèē-gɨ̄-lò-nà̰ā̰ -team Expr: dèē-kɨ́-tɔ̀ӯ -impossible person who is always doing s.t. wrong Ngōn-í dá ì dèē-kɨ́-tɔ̀ӯ, à ɗāa yá̰a̰ kɨ́ yáā-gɨ̄.Your child is impossible, he does amazing things. Expr: dèē-ndā-ɓēe-àĺ -difficult or impossible person to live with Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ kɨ́ ngè kà̰ӯ kàsɨ̀ ì dèē-ndā-ɓēe-àĺ.A woman who drinks a lot is someone who is impossible to live with. Expr: dèē kɨ́ dèn-é sèw -an honest, upright person, fair person Expr: dèē-á {from dèē ɗāa yá̰a̰} (=ngè-á) -who does/did it, the person who does/did it òō gèr̄ dèē-á àĺ.He doesn't know who did it. Expr: dèē-dɔ̀-rō-ǹ -independent, self-reliant person ájɨ́bà-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dèē-rō-dɔ̀-dɨ́.Prostitutes are self-reliant people. Expr: dèē [kɨ́ ɗāa yá̰a̰] gòtóo -there be nobody [to do something] Dèē kɨ́ dà kɔ́ɔ́-á gòtóo.There was nobody who pleased her. Expr: dèē kɨ́ ngàn̄g -strong person not easily fooled Dèē ń àw̄ nò̰ó̰-ǹ ì dèē kɨ́ ngàn̄g, hál-á là nà̰ā̰ ngá̰y.That person there is a strong person, his character is very complicated. Expr: dèē kɨ́ jī-á ngàn̄g -rich person Ngàmbɔ̀r ì dèē kɨ́ jī-á ngàn̄g ngá̰y, dèē kɨ́ ngà yá̰a̰ tɔ̀ӯ-á gòtóo ngōn ɓēe tɨ́ lò-jɨ́.Ngambor is a very rich person, there is nobody richer than he in our little town.
dèē-gɨ̄-lò-nà̰ā̰ NE team. Dèē kɨ́ màdɨ̄-gɨ̄ à ì-n̄ kōkɨ̄-nṵ́ṵ, ì-n̄ dèē-gɨ̄-lò-nà̰ā̰. The people on one side form a team. [lit: person that some-PL AUX are one-side, they-are team]
dèē-kìl NI human being, person. Dèē-kìl ì dèē kɨ́ à òy. A human being is a person who will die. Màr à sà dèē-kìl àĺ. Crocodiles do not eat people.
dèē-kɨ́-bòo [dèēkɨ́bóò] NI adult. Ngōn kɨ́ dūú à ɗāa àngérì dèē kɨ́ bòo àĺ. A small child shouldn't point his finger at an adult. NI elder.
dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ NI woman. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ nā̰a̰ tá̰a̰ nò nèl̄ tà-á péléng à nīńg túu-bè. The woman tasted the sauce and she liked it so much she ate it all. NI girlfriend. Expr: ndɔ̄ɔ̄ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ -fine for having committed adultery Ndɔ̄ɔ̄ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ à ɗāa dèē-kɨ́-dìngá.The fine for adultery is paid for by the man. Expr: tàā dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ -get married (a man) Expr: ɗāa dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ -1) sleep with a woman; 2) court a woman m̄-ɗāa dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́-làā.I slept with a woman last night.
dèē-kɨ́-tíī NI person with disease that causes body to swell. Dèē-kɨ́-tíī à mà̰r yòo àĺ. A person with this disease will not long resist death.
dèē-kɨ́-wákɨ̀kɨ̀ NI master thief. NI tough guy, dangerous person. Dèē ń-há̰ àw̄ nò̰ó̰ ì dèē-kɨ́-wákɨ̀kɨ̀, ā ī-ɗòbɨ̀ sì-á ā tɔ̄l-ī. That fellow there is a tough guy, you mess around with him and he'll kill you.
dēgɨ́ NT big one [hoofed animal]. Dēgɨ́ bàtɨ̄ ì bàl bàtɨ̄ kɨ́ bòo. A large ram is a big male sheep.
dégɨ́r AV responsible. Expr: ndā kɨ̀ [dèē] dégɨ́r -be a rival with Ndā kɨ̀ nḭ̀ḭ-ǹ dégɨ́r.She is a great rival of her co-wife. Expr: ndā rō-ǹ dégɨ́r -be responsible ī-ndā rō-í dégɨ́r kàá él-ň tàa bèlō lò-á.Be responsible, you must tell what happened to his bike.
dèjɨ̀ AV often, a lot (doubled dèjɨ̀-dèjɨ̀ for emphasis). Ngè-ɗāa-gātɨ̄ à àw̄ mbāa dèjɨ̀. A merchant travels often.
dél NT tiny grain of. dél ngár̄/jíngá A grain of sand/a tiny piece of broken up grain
58
dél ID extremely (tiny).
dèl-dèl IDS supple, flexible (desc. of ). Kāgɨ̄-kùӯ nò tō dèl-dèl. The fishing pole is extremely flexible. IDS at breaking point. Gà kāgɨ̄ nò mbá̰a̰ àdɨ̄ tō dèl-dèl. He chopped the tree until it was ready to break.
dél-dél IDS extremely (light) (with ).
dèn (Syn: ==dàn) NT middle, center. Kāgɨ̄ mángò ɗà dèn ɓēe tɨ́ lò bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ. A mango tree stands in the middle of my father's compound.
dèpɨ̀ IDS very (near) (in expression ndā dɔ̀ lòo à 'be very near a place'). m̄-ɓáy ɓēe-é m-āw m̄-ndā dɔ̀ súkɨ̄ dèpɨ̀ à gúsɨ̀ nà̰y àdɨ̄ m̄-tél. I left home and went close by the market but my money got lost and I went back.
dépɨ́ ID be short. Rō-ḿ dépéee nà̰ m-ḭ̄ḭ ngōn àĺ. I'm a short person but I'm not a child. ID extremely (short). ID ibid. (pl.). ID extremely (talk briefly). ID ibid. (pl.). ID of average height. Ngè-ɓògɨ̀ ì dèē kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀ dèpɨ̀ bè nà̰ là yá̰a̰ tà-kùm-ǹ tɨ́. The thief was of average height and he wore a mask.
dèr NI shield. ùr nìngà nà̰ nà̰y dèr tɨ́. He threw the spear but it stuck in the shield.
dèr̄ NT firstborn child. Dèr̄-ḿ ì ngōn-kɨ́-dìngá. My firstborn is a boy.
dēr VT cross (see also gāng). Dèē-gɨ̄ à dēr-n̄ bāa kɨ̀ tòo. People cross the river in a pirogue. Expr: lā dēr [dèē] -move ahead of [s.o.], cut in front of m̄-lā m̄-dēr-á kɨ̀-ngɔ̄dɨ̄-gɨ̄.I moved ahead of him as we ran.
dér NI dove, pigeon. āw ī-tūwā dér-gɨ̄ dà gɔ̀jɨ̀ tɨ́ nà sà tɨ̄gā-n̄. Go chase the pigeons away from the sorghum lest they eat it all. Expr: dér-kùl̄ (=dér-sìī-gɨ̄) -domestic pigeon Dér-kùl̄-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dér-gɨ̄ kɨ́ à ùl̄-n̄-dɨ́ ɓēe-é.Domestic pigeons are pigeons that are raised in the village. Expr: sō nà̰ā̰ dér-gɨ̄ -fall down together while wrestling Ngán-gɨ̄ ùn-n̄ nà̰ā̰ mɨ̀là tɨ́ sō-n̄ nà̰ā̰ dér-gɨ̄.The boys grabbed one another and wrestled to the ground.
dér ID exactly (the same).
dér-kétē-gɨ̄ (Syn: dóró-ndīi-gɨ̄) NI twirls in circles, whirls (commonly in expression ɗāa dér-kétē-gɨ̄ 'spin around in circles; ɗāa dér-kétē-gɨ̄ also possible). ī-ɗāa dér-kétē-gɨ̄ àĺ nà̰ kùm-í ìl-ī. Don't turn around in circles or you'll get dizzy.
dér-kūŕ NI yellow breasted fruit pigeon [Treron australis] or [Treron waalia]. Dér-kūŕ ì dér kɨ́ mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́, à sà kàndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ yīkɨ̄. Bòo tītɨ̄ gìtè bè. The fruit pigeon is a bird of the countryside, it eats sweet fruit. It's about the size of the mourning dove.
dér-màr [dérmár̀] NI type of light blue dove. Dér-màr ì dér kɨ́ à tér rō-ǹ ɓēe-é. à ɓīi bòo màr tɨ́ hō dɔ̀-kújɨ́ tɨ́ hō. ____ is a dove that likes to hang around villages. It sleeps in the leaves of the palm tree or in rooftops.
dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄ [dérŋgɔ̄tɨ̄] NI type of small dove. Dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄-mósɨ́ bòo sḭ́ḭ tɔ̀ӯ dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄-ndàa. à sà-n̄ túu jōó yá̰a̰-kōo kɨ̀ gòwúr̄-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ kùm mṵ̀ṵ-gɨ̄. The laughing dove is slightly larger than the vinaceous dove. They both eat millet, squash, and grass seeds. Dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄ ì gír jōó: dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄-mósɨ́ hō dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄-ndàa hō. There are two types of "Ngote" doves: "blood" doves and "white" doves. Expr: dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄-mósɨ́ -laughing dove [streptopelia senegalensis] Expr: dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄-ndàa -vinaceous dove [streptopelia vinacea] Dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄-ndàa à tér rō-ǹ ɓēe-é ngá̰y tītɨ̄ dér-ngɔ̄tɨ̄ mósɨ́ àĺ.The white dove hangs around town a lot, unlike the "blood" dove.
dèrɨ̀ngēl Arabic NI brick. Dèrɨ̀ngēl ń ɗà ɗāa-n̄-nèé kújɨ́ nò ngàn̄g ngá̰y. The bricks being used to make this house are very strong.
59
dèsámbɨ̀r French NP December. Kūl ò̰o̰ dèsámbɨ̀r tɨ́ ngá̰y. It's very cold in December.
déw (Syn: =dów) VI hide, hide out. ɓāl ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄ tɨ́ m-ā̰y m-āw m̄-déw kàm mṵ̀ṵ-gɨ̄ tɨ́. During the war years I fled and hid in the countryside. VT cover with. ī-déw yá̰a̰ tà jóo tɨ́. Put a cover on the pot. VT dump over, overturn, reverse. m̄-déw ngóo bèŕ. I turned the gourd over on the ground. VI be turned over, reversed. Sàmbé déw bèŕ. The basin is dumped over on the ground. Expr: déw kàm-ǹ kɨ̄ bèŕ (=déw tà-wùr-ǹ kɨ̄ bèŕ) -lie on one's stomach Kàm-á tōo-á àdɨ̄ déw kàm-á kɨ̄ bèŕ.His stomach is hurting, so he is lying on his stomach.
dḛ̀ḛ ID extremely (full). Sà yá̰a̰ ngá̰y àdɨ̄ kɔ̀dɨ̀-á ndān dḛ̀ḛḛ. He ate so much his stomach was completely full. ID ibid. (pl.).
dḛ̀ḛ̄ Kan (Syn: ==dòrōng) NI insect that eats yams.
dḛ̀ḛ́ NI female (always kɨ́ dḛ̀ḛ́ 'who is female'). Expr: kàa kɨ́ dḛ̀ḛ́ -grandmother Expr: ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ -girl Ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ì mò̰y.The girl is sick. Expr: dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ -woman Expr: dḛ̀ḛ́-tàa -woman who talks a lot, chatterbox ā ī-tàā dḛ̀ḛ́-tàa à à ngɔ̀ɔ̀ dɔ̀-í.If you marry a chatterbox, she'll oppress you. Expr: ngōn-kó̰o̰ [dèē] kɨ́ dḛ̀ḛ́ -sister [of s.o.]
dìi ID extremely (fat); be extremely fat. Dɔ̀-í bòo dìii. You have a big fat head. ID be fat, solid. Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ ì dèē kɨ́ dīi-díi (or) dèē kɨ́ dìi-dìi. My father is a fat, solid person.
dīí NI termite hill. NI mound. Wàsɨ̄ kɨ́ dà dīí tɨ́ à àndɨ̄ ngá̰y. Pumpkin grown on a mound produces very well. Expr: dīí bāngàw -mound in which sweet potatoes have been planted {see also ßàÿ-bängàw}
dìbɨ̀ VT grab with hand, seize (see dùbɨ̀). Ngōn dìbɨ̀ nām-ǹ hɔ̀-á. The boy seized his companion with his hand.
dìbɨ̀r-kàsɨ̀ NI grasshopper, locust (very large, edible). Dìbɨ̀r-kàsɨ̀ ì kɨ́-dāa kɨ́ bòo; rō-á kìrē nà̰ dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄. ____ is a large grasshopper; its body is red and people eat it.
dígà Arabic NI digging pole, pick. m̄-gá ngár̄ kɨ̀ dígà. I broke up the dirt with a pick. Dèē-gɨ̄ à gà-n̄ bùlò kɨ̀ dígà. People dig wells with a pick.
dìgɨ̀ ID with difficulty, heavily (walk). Màn̄g kɨ́ ndān ngōn ndīyā dìgɨ̀-dìgɨ̀. The pregnant cow walks heavily and with difficulty.
díkɨ́ ID patiently (control self). íré kàm-í díkɨ́ dɔ̀ tàa tɨ́ lò-á. Control yourself patiently in regards to his problem.
díkɨ́ (Syn: dɨ́ríng, díng, gíng) ID tightly (fill) {dry things}). Yá̰a̰-kōo ɗòsɨ̀ sákɨ̄ díkɨ́-díkɨ́. The sack is filled to the brim with millet.
dìkɨ̀só̰ò̰,dìkɨ̀sō̰o̰ (Syn: dùwsó̰ò̰) NI beer house, local bar. Dìkɨ̀sō̰o̰ ì kújɨ́ ɗáw̄ bíl̄-bìl. A local bar is a house where millet beer is made. Expr: ngè-dìkɨ̀sō̰o̰ -owner of beer house ā ādɨ̄ ngè-dìkɨ̀sō̰o̰ gúsɨ̀ ɓúu.You give the beer house owner 500 CFA (women making beer pay for use of beer house for the day).
dīl NI mahogany tree [Khaya senegalensis]. Kāgɨ̄ dīl bòo ngá̰y, kàdɨ̀-á àtɨ̄ ngá̰y. Ndíl dīl màjɨ̀ ngá̰y. Kāgɨ̄-á à tɔ́sɨ̄-n̄ tòo tɨ́. ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ ndíl-kɨ́-yèr-gɨ̄ à ɗà-n̄ tɨ́ ngá̰y. The mahogany is very large, its bark is very bitter. Its shade is excellent. Its wood is used for carving pirogues. It's a tree in which many evil spirits live. ā ī-nā̰a̰ dīl kám-tā̰á̰ lā ā ōo kàtɨ̄-á yé. {Saying} Taste the mohagony first before you know what bitterness is. {i.e. you think I'm someone you can walk over, but you'd better watch out.}
60
dīl-ɓēe NI type of bush ( dīl-wēe is also used). Dīl-ɓēe ì kám sà bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄. ____ is a bush eaten by goats.
dīl-dōw-gɨ̄ NI ancestral spirits (in expression à kɨ̀ jèl-gàr-gɨ̄). Dīl-dōw-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ jèl-gàr-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ ì-n̄ gō-ḿ tɨ́ nò. The good spirits are watching over me. Dīl-dōw-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ jèl-gàr-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ à yà̰-m̄-n̄ àĺ. My ancestral spirits won't desert me.
dìlé NI type of parasitic plant. Dìlé ì kám kɨ́ à ɓà bāa-á. à ɗāa-n̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ tá̰a̰ gòm bè. ì tá̰a̰ kò̰o̰ Kābɨ̄-gɨ̄. ____ is a bush that grows by the river. It's used to make a sauce similar to okra sauce. It's a sauce commonly eaten by the Sara Kaba.
Dīlīí NP Beboro {major town on road between Moissala and Koumra; capital of Nar canton}. M-ā m-āw Mā̰ysālāá kɨ́ ɗóo kɨ́ Dīlīí. I'm going to the market at Dili.
díḿ French NI donation (to church) (see also òprándɨ̀ 'donation given at church service'). Dím̀ ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ ngé-kàdɨ̀-rō-tàa-gɨ̄ à ṵ̀ṵ̄-n̄ kàm ngóo tɨ́ làmsō̰ tɨ́. A donation is something that believers put in the collection gourd at the mission.
dínɨ́n [dḭ́nɨ́n] (Syn: =bínɨ́n) ID extremely (sweet). Gèe sáӯ kɨ́ yīkɨ̄ dínɨ́n. He likes tea that is very sweet.
díng [dḭ́ŋ] (Syn: gíng,díkɨ́,dɨ́ríng) ID tightly (stuff {in single motion}).
dìngá [dḭ̀ŋgá] NI male (always kɨ́ dìngá 'male'). Expr: ngōn-kɨ́-dìngá -boy, lad Expr: dèē-kɨ́-dìngá -man
dìngàm Sar AVE in vigilance, on guard (in expression ndì dìngàm 'be vigilant, be on guard'). Jàng-í mā̰r-ī ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ àdɨ̄ ī-ndì dìngàm. Your rival is stirring up trouble against you so be vigilant. Expr: gɔ̀jɨ̀ dìngàm -type of sorghum with dark reddish brown grains; recently introduced in area from Central Africa
dìngɨ̀r [dḭ̀ŋgɨ̀r] ID be heavy and rigid. ID rigid and (heavy). Gìndɨ̄ kàmyō̰o̰ ɔ̀ӯ dìngɨ̀rìii. A piece of metal from a truck is solid and heavy.
díngɨ́r [dḭ́ŋgɨ́r] ID refusing to move (remain). M-ā m̄-ndì díngɨ́r tà tɨ́ nḛ̀ḛ̄ mbá̰a̰ kàdɨ̄ ādɨ̄-m̄ yá̰a̰ lò-ḿ. I'm not moving from this spot until you give it to me. ID ibid. (pl.).
dīngɨ̀ŕ-kɨ́-hīl-yō̰o̰ [dīŋgɨ̀ŕkɨ́hīlyō̰o̰] (Syn: kɨ́-hīl-yō̰o̰) NI termite hill with rounded top. Ngán-gɨ̄ tɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ dà dīngɨ̀ŕ-kɨ́-hīl-yō̰o̰ hɔ̀-n̄ yō̰o̰-gɨ̄ tɨ́ lā-n̄-nèé kùӯ dōĺ-gɨ̄. The children broke off the top of the termite hill and caught termites to use for fishing for ^^ fish.
dīngɨ̀ŕ-lòo [dīŋgɨ̀ŕlóò] NI small rounded mound.
dípɨ̀ ID with a snapping noise (whip, break). Màn̄g gāng kɨ̀lā dípɨ̀. The cow broke the rope with a snap. ID ibid. (freq., pl.). Ndée-gɨ̄ tèē-n̄ ndà-n̄ dèē-gɨ̄ dìpɨ̀-dìpɨ̀. Whips appeared and hit the people with a whacking sound. ID ibid. {with greater force}.
dípɨ́ ID exactly (the same). Kāgɨ̄ àsɨ̀ nà̰ā̰ dípɨ́-dípɨ́. The sticks are exactly the same size.
dìr-dìr IDS put-put (sound of motor). Kàmyō̰o̰ kōo dìr-dìr. The truck goes put-put.
dìrèktér̀ French NI principal {of school}. Dìrèktɨ́r̀ lò-jɨ́ ì Dày. Our director is a 'Day' person.
dírɨ́r ID completely (cold, cool). Sáӯ dá sɔ̀l̄ dírɨ́rɨ́, tíngā àĺ. The tea is completely cold, it's not hot.
61
dírɨ́r ID completely (tasteless). Tá̰a̰ kɨ́ sà dírɨ́rɨ́r ì tá̰a̰ kɨ́ mɨ́rá̰-á gòtóo tɨ́ màjàĺ. A tasteless sauce is a sauce with no flavor in it, it is bad. sáӯ kɨ́ sà dírɨ́rɨ́r tea with no sugar ID ibid. (pl.).
dìsè VT sprinkle [into a liquid]. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dìsè wàā kàm màn̄ tɨ́. The woman sprinkled the millet into the water.
dīw (Syn: ==dūu) VIA be dark, be nighttime. Expr: nā̰a̰ dīw tìl -the moon will be rising very late {1 - 3 a.m.}
dḭ̀ḭ NI vine. Dḭ̀ḭ mùnjò à ɗāa-n̄ múró màn̄g-gɨ̄ tɨ́. Bean vines are used to make bales of cattle feed. Expr: dḭ̀ḭ-sūr-kānjɨ̄ (=kāgɨ̄-sūr-kānjɨ̄) -stick on which fish are strung Ngé ɗāa náw kɨ̀ kùӯ-gɨ̄ à sūr-n̄ kānjɨ̄-gɨ̄ lò-dɨ́ kɨ̀ dḭ̀ḭ-sūr-kānjɨ̄ tɨ́.People who fish with a fishing pole string their fish with a 'fish vine'.
dḭ̀ḭ ID very (dark); very (angry) (in expression kùm [dèē] dūu à 'to be very angry, see red'). Kùm ngé-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄ dūu dḭ̀ḭḭ. The warriors were very angry. ID ibid. (pl.).
dḭ̀ḭ VI start up (trotting) (always with ngɔ̄dɨ̄). VT make trot [horse]. Ngé kàl̄ sɨ́ndá-gɨ̄ à ɗà dḭ̀ḭ-n̄ sɨ́ndá-gɨ̄. The horsemen will make the horses trot.
dḭ̀ḭ VT take a handful. ī-dḭ̀ḭ wúl̄ ādɨ̄-m̄. Take a handful of peanuts for me. VT grab with hand. Ngé-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄ dḭ̀ḭ-n̄ nìngà nà̰ tɔ̀ӯ-n̄. The warriors picked up their spears and left.
dḭ̀ḭ-kɨ́-dìsé (Syn: ==dḭ̀ḭ-ndàa) NI type of vine. ā ī-gāng dḭ̀ḭ-kɨ́-dìsé ūtɨ̄ kɔ́n-í tâ údɨ́ kɨ́-dìsé ngá̰y. If you cut this vine, hold your nose lest you start sneezing.
dḭ̀ḭ-ndàa (Syn: =dḭ̀ḭ-kɨ́-dìsé) NI type of vine. Dḭ̀ḭ-ndàa ì dḭ̀ḭ kɨ́ ā ī-gāng kāgɨ̄-á ī-lā màn̄-á kɔ́n-í tɨ́ à ā úr kɨ́-dìsé. ____ is a vine which if you cut its stem and place its water in your nose, you'll sneeze.
-dɨ́ PRA them {obj. form}. àdɨ̄-dɨ́ kɨ́rā kɨ́rā. He gave them one each. PRA them. Tàgɨ́-bè j-àw̄ sè-dɨ́ nām-ḿ-gɨ̄ bāa-á. Yesterday I went with my friends to the river. PRA their. Ngōn-dɨ́ kɨ́ dḛ̀ḛ́ ì mò̰y. Their daughter is sick.
dɨ̀bà (Syn: dùbà) VT stop [an action] ( dɨ̀bà tà ḛ [activity] 'stop doing s.t.'). m̄-dɨ̀bà tà kɨ̀là lò-ḿ. I stopped my work. ī-dɨ̀bà-n̄ tàa ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ lò-sɨ́ nà. You (pl.) stop all that arguing. [you-stop-PL words fighting of-you that] VI stop. Kàmyō̰o̰ dɨ̀bà bɔ̄gɨ̄-bāa-á tɨ́. The truck stopped by the side of the river. Expr: dɨ̀bà tà-ǹ -be quiet, shut up ī-dɨ̀bà tà-í.Be quiet! Expr: tél dɨ̀bà -drop the idea, forget about it m̄-gāa tàa bèé kàdɨ̄ m-āw mbāa nà̰ m̄-tél m̄-dɨ̀bà.I thought in vain about taking a trip but I finally dropped the idea. Expr: dɨ̀bà gō [dèē] tɨ́ -not to follow [s.o.] ī-dɨ̀bà gō-ḿ tɨ́ ādɨ̄ m-ḭ̄ḭ kíyē m-āw lòo lò-ḿ.Don't follow me so I alone go to where I'm going. Expr: gà-n̄ dɨ̀bà wúl̄/yá̰a̰-kōo/bùĺ -dig little holes for peanuts/millet/cotton
dɨ̀là NT empty space. Expr: dɨ̀là-ngár̄ -desert {consisting of sand} m̄-ndIyā dɨ̀là-ngár̄ tɨ́ àdɨ̄ dàa njà-ḿ hílē.I walked in the desert and so I got a blister on the sole of my foot. Expr: dɨ̀là-ɓēe -empty area in front of house Dèē-gɨ̄ kán̄-n̄ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̄ dɨ̀là-ɓēe tɨ́ kɨ̀ n-òō-n̄ dɔ̀ tàa.The people assembled in the area in front of the house to listen. Expr: dɨ̀là-mbōo -desert, dry arid area Màn̄g-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dɨ̀là-mbōo tɨ́ kɨ́ Bāngúlūú ngá̰y.There are a lot of cows in the desert area by Bangulu.
dɨ̀mà [dɨ̀mà̰] NI honey beer. Dɨ̀mà ì kàsɨ̀ kɨ́ à ɗāa-n̄ kɨ̀ tèjɨ̀. ____ is an alcoholic drink made of honey.
dɨ̀másɨ̀ French NI week. Kàm dɨ̀másɨ̀ tɨ́ ndìn m-ā m-āw mbāa. This week I'm going to travel. NP Sunday. Ndɔ̄ɔ̄ dɨ̀másɨ̀ ì ndɔ̄ɔ̄ tàā kòō. (Nà m-ā m̄-ɗāa kɨ̀là ɓáy-tɔ̀ɔ̄.) Sunday is a day of rest. (But I will still be working.) Expr: dɨ̀másɨ̀ kɨ́ kété (=dɨ̀másɨ̀ kɨ́ tɔ̀ӯ) -last week Dɨ̀másɨ̀ tɨ́ kɨ́ kété j-ḭ̀ḭ̄ kɨ̀ ngán nām-ḿ-gɨ̄ j-àā bàng tɨ́.Last week my young friends and I went to the dance. Expr: dɨ̀másɨ̀ kɨ́ gògɨ́ -next week Dɨ̀másɨ̀ kɨ́ gògɨ́ dá m-ā m-āw mbāa ɓēé lò mùm-ḿ-gɨ̄.Next week I'm going to take a trip to the village of my parents-in-law.
62
dɨ̀nà [dɨ̀nà̰] NI type of bush with tiny sweet red fruit. Dɨ̀nà ì kám sà bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄. ____ is a bush eaten by goats. Dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄ dɨ̀nà. Bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ mbī-á, kàndɨ̄-á dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄. People eat the fruit of this bush. Goats eat its leaf, people eat its fruit.
dɨ̀ndìr ID with no feeling, numb. Njà-ḿ tò dɨ̀ndìrìii àdɨ̄ ā úgɨ́ à à tōo-m̄ àĺ. My feet have no feeling so that if you pinch them it won't hurt me. Kɨ́-nān-bísɨ́ à ɗāa njà-í à à tò dɨ̀ndìrìii. If you get pins and needles in your leg it'll have no feeling. ID ibid. (pl.). ID have no feeling, be numb. Njà-ḿ dɨ̄ndīr-dɨ́ndír. My leg has no feeling.
dɨ̀njìng [dɨ̀njḭ̀ŋ] ID extremely (tall). ID ibid. (pl.).
dɨ̀pā NI type of catfish [Bagrus bayad]. Dɨ̀pā ì kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ ndèl̄ bè nà̰ ndàa; dɔ̀-á dūú tɔ̀ӯ dɔ̀ ndèl̄. Mbāý-á ì ngá̰y. It's a fish similar to the ^^ catfish, but it's light-colored; its head is smaller then that of the ^^ catfish. It has a long beard. Dɨ̀pā ì kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ màjɨ̀ tá̰a̰ ngá̰y. The catfish is a fish which is excellent in sauces.
dɨ̀rà (Syn: =dɨ̀rà-dépɨ̀) NI taste (of drink before buying). ādɨ̄-m̄ dɨ̀rà ādɨ̄-m̄ m-ōo ké màjɨ̀ wà. Give me a taste {of the millet beer} so I can see if it's any good.
dɨ̀rā VI pass away, die. Ngōn màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ dɨ̀rā ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́-làā. My neighbor's son died during last night.
dɨ̀rà-dépɨ̀ NI taste (of drink before buying) (see dɨ̀rà).
dɨ́ríng [dɨ́rḭ́ŋ] (Syn: ==díng, gíng, díkɨ́) ID tightly (stuff {in single motion}).
dɨ́wíl ID completely (pierced). Gír túkɨ̄ mbùtɨ̀ dɨ́wíl. The bottom of the barrel has a good hole in it. Gír kínī lò-á mbùtɨ̀ dɨ́wíl. The bottom of his bucket has a big hole in it. ID ibid. (freq.).
dòo NI cut, sore, wound. NI hurt, injured. Njà-ḿ kɨ́ dòo my injured foot My right hand is hurt so I eat with my left hand. Expr: ngà dòo -cut oneself, get a wound or sore m̄-tèē m̄-sō àdɨ̄ m̄-ngá dòo kíl-ḿ tɨ́.I went and fell and got a sore on my elbow. Expr: tèē dòo -become a sore, wound Ngōn lā gár-gō nām-ǹ kɨ̀ mbàng àdɨ̄ tèē dòo.The boy hit his friend in the back of the neck with a rock and it became a sore. Expr: kɨ̀ dòo-gɨ̄ -creating a sore or wound as a result Mòm̄ kāgɨ̄ ùy jī-ḿ kɨ̀ dòo-gɨ̄.The bark of the tree scraped my hand creating a sore. Expr: sà dòo -get sores all over Dòngɨ̀r ì yòo kɨ́ à ndā-n̄ yá̰a̰ tɨ́ nà̰ ā ī-ɓògɨ̀ yá̰a̰ ànḛ̄ ndòm-í à sà dòo.'Donger' is a fetish placed on crops and if you steal anything there then your testicles will be attacked by sores. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ [rō dèē] kɨ̀ dòo-gɨ̄ -cause a sore or wound on [somebody's body] Tà tàwá kɨ́ tíngā ɔ̀r̄ jī-ḿ kɨ̀ dòo-gɨ̄.The hot pot caused a sore on my hand.
dóo ID perfectly (white). ID ibid. (emph.,pl.).
dóo-dóo IDS short and squat (in expression tíī à, used to describe a dwarf). Dèē kɨ́ tíī dóo-dóo a dwarf
Dòbáa NP Doba (Major oil town between Koumra and Moundou).
dògɨ̀r ID extremely (wide). Bɨ̀rà-ɓēe ì kám kɨ́ mbī-á tátɨ́ dògɨ̀ròoo. 'Bera-Bee' is a bush with a very wide leaf. ID ibid. (pl.,freq.).
dòjɨ̀ NI type of basin ( sàmbé dòjɨ̀ is also common ?? get ss).
dòktór̀ French NI doctor. Dòktór̀ gòtóo lòpìtál̀ tɨ́ kɨ́ Mā̰ysālāá. There is no real doctor in the Moissala hospital.
63
dōĺ NI type of fish [Alestes baremoze] (dried it is known as àmpúl̀). Dōĺ ì kānjɨ̄. Màn̄-kò̰o̰ tɨ́ dá dōĺ-gɨ̄ à ɔ̀sɨ̀-n̄ ngá̰y. The 'dol' is a fish. In flooded areas it abounds. Dōĺ ì kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ tátɨ́ tɔ̀ӯ wōó, nà kɨ̄ngā-á ì ngá̰y hō. Mèy kúl̄-n̄-nèé tá̰a̰ hō ndīr-n̄ kàrī sà-n̄. The 'dol' is a fish wider than 'woo', but it also has a lot of bones. It is cooked in sauce or cooked plain and eaten.
dōĺ NI type of tree [Ficus polita]. Kāgɨ̄ dōĺ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ bòo nà̰ ndíl-á ì ngá̰y. Ngán yèl̄-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á. Kāgɨ̄-á à ṵ̀ṵ̄ ngán ngɨ̀rà kɨ̄ bèŕ. Màn̄-kò̰o̰ tɨ́ dá dōĺ-gɨ̄ à ɔ̀sɨ̀-n̄ ngá̰y. ____ is a large tree that gives a lot of shade. Birds eat its fruit. Its trunk is very gnarled. In marshy areas this tree abounds.
dòng [dò̰ŋ] NI karite nuts carried to another tree by bats. Kāgɨ̄ mātɨ̄ ń ɗà kàm ndɔ̀ɔ̄ tɨ́ lò-ḿ nò sà dòng ngá̰y. There are a lot of karite nuts beneath the Parkia africana tree in my field.
dòngɨ̀r [dò̰ŋgɨ̀r] NI fetish against theft. Dòngɨ̀r ì yòo kɨ́ à ndā-n̄ yá̰a̰ tɨ́ nà̰ ā ī-ɓògɨ̀ yá̰a̰ ànḛ̄ ndòm-í à sà dòo. ____ is a fetish placed on crops and if you steal any then your testicles will be attacked by sores.
dòr NI ancient money equivalent to 1000 kúl. Gúsɨ̀ dūbɨ́ lò dèē kɨ́ márí-gɨ̄ ì dòr. Five-thousand CFA for the people of old was called 'dor'.
dòr̄ NI small mound (see dòr̄-lòo).
dór NI type of fish {flat and diamond shaped} [Citharinus citharus]. Dór ì kānjɨ̄ kɨ́ tátɨ́ tɔ̀ӯ wōó, nà̰ kɨ̄ngā-á ì ngá̰y. It's a fish that is wider than the ^^ fish, but it has a lot of bones.
dór NI type of tree. Dór ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ ngāl; mbī-á tátɨ́; à ùr-n̄ gír-á ndīr à̰ӯ-n̄ kɨ̀tɔ̄ kàm-tōo. ____ is a tall tree; its leaf is wide; its root is dug up, cooked and drunk as a remedy for stomach problems.
dòr̄-lòo (Syn: =dà-dòr̄-lòo) NI small mound. Hɔ̀r-hɔ̀tɨ̀ ɔ̀r̄-m̄ dà dòr̄-lòo tɨ́ lā-m̄. I slipped and fell in the mud on the small mound.
dórkɨ́ ID to the brim (full). Tá̰a̰ njòr kɨ́ kúl̄ màjɨ̀ kò̰o̰ yá̰a̰-kōo ngá̰y, ā ó̰o̰-ň yá̰a̰ ànḛ̄ ā ī-ndān dórkɨ́-dórkɨ́. Eggplant sauce with millet is delicious, you eat something with it and you are stuffed to the brim.
dóró AV after the rain (in expression ɗèē à dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ 'visit [s.o.] after the rain'). Ndīi èdɨ̀ dá ɓétɨ́ m-ā m̄-ɗèē dóró dɔ̀-í tɨ́. It is raining, later I will come visit you after the rain.
dóró-ndīi-gɨ̄ (Syn: dér-kétē-gɨ̄) NI whirl, circles. Ngōn ɗà ɗāa dóró-ndīi-gɨ̄, ɓétɨ́ kùm-á ìl-á. The child is twirling around in circles, later he gets dizzy.
dòrōng [dòrō̰ŋ] (Syn: =dḛ̀ḛ̄) NI type of beetle that destroys yams. Dòrōng ì ngōn kùr̄ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ kɨ́-bḭ̀ḭ́ bè nà̰ à sà ngúl̄ nújɨ́-á. Dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄-á nà̰ yèm ngá̰y. ____ is an insect similar to the dung beetle but it destroys yams. People eat it, but it's very greasy.
dōsɨ́ VT cross, go across. Yòo kùtɨ̄ ndɔ̀ɔ̄ ì ngán kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ à dōsɨ́ nà̰ā̰. The spell for protecting a field {against theft} is crossed sticks. Expr: kɨ́ dōsɨ́-ó-gɨ̄ -across ī-lā kāgɨ̄ nò kɨ́ dōsɨ́-ó-gɨ̄.Lay the stick across it.
dòw NI type of broad-leafed tree [Uapaca togoensis]. Dòw ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ kɨ́ mbī-á tátɨ́ ngá̰y. Kāgɨ̄-á à ɗāa-n̄-nèé kújɨ́ hō yá̰a̰-ndì hō kɨ̀tɔ̄ ngàn̄g-á. ____ is a tree found in the bush with a very wide leaf. Its wood is used in building houses and chairs because of its strength.
dōw NI large fruit bat. Dōw-gɨ̄ nújɨ́-n̄ mángò lò-á. The fruit bats are destroying his mangoes. Dōw-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ à sà mángò kòo-ń. Dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄-á. Mɨ́rá̰-á màjɨ̀. Dā̰a̰ ì ngá̰y àĺ, kɨ̄ngā-á ngá̰y. The fruit bat is a small bird that just eats mangoes. People eat it. It tastes good. It does not have a lot of meat, it is very bony.
64
dów VTI duck; cover; dump; overturn, etc. (see déw). ī-dów n wétɨ́ ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ à òō-ī-n̄. Duck lest the soldiers see you.
dów̄ NI type of bush. Dów̄ ì kám kɨ́ gír-á bòo ngá̰y; à ùr-n̄ ndā-n̄ tígé àdɨ̄ ngán-gɨ̄ à túr̄-n̄ kɨ̀ ngásī. ____ is a bush whose root is very large. It's dug up and placed outside so that the children can throw their toy spears at it.
dòy (Syn: ==lòy, ndìng) AV peaceful, quiet. Lòo tò dòy. It's quiet and peaceful.
dóy (Syn: ==bóy) AV stopped up.
dò̰o̰ VT bite. Bísɨ́ tɔ̀ӯ yèrɨ̀rɨ̀ dò̰o̰ mbāa. The dog snuck up and bit the guest. Bísɨ́ dò̰o̰-m̄. Līi dò̰o̰-m̄. A dog bit me. A snake bit me. VT sting. Túr̄/yētɨ̄/tèjɨ̀ dò̰o̰-m̄. The ant/wasp/bee stung me. Yētɨ̄ dò̰o̰ tōo tɔ̀ӯ túr̄. The sting of the wasp hurts more than that of the ant. NT bite, sting. Dò̰o̰ ngīr-ngē-tēgɨ̄ tōo ngá̰y. The sting of the insect called ^^ hurts a lot.
dò̰ó̰ N up. Ndīyā dò̰ó̰, à̰ӯ dò̰ó̰, àl̄ dò̰ó̰ walk up, run up, climb up AV in the air. Yèl̄-gɨ̄ tɔ̀ӯ-n̄ dò̰ó̰. The birds flew by in the air. Expr: dò̰ó̰ nèē -still here; still alive āw dò̰ó̰ nèē-è?Are you still alive? {i.e. long time, no see} Expr: ɗà [kɨ̀ dèē] dò̰ó̰ -force [s.o.] ɗāa sɨ̀ḿ dò̰ó̰ kàdɨ̄ kɨ̀ m-āw m̄-ɗāa kɨ̀là lò-á.He forced me to do his work. Expr: ùn [yá̰a̰] dò̰ó̰ -pick [s.t.] up, lift [s.t.] Expr: ndì dò̰ó̰ -sit up Bàtú ndì dò̰ó̰ tà kújɨ́ tɨ́.The cat sat up in front of the house. Expr: ɓày ɗà dò̰ó̰ -stand up ɓày ɗà dò̰ó̰ ɗà ɗāa ɗí wà?He got up to do what? Expr: ùdɨ̀ dò̰ó̰ -to land on the ground m̄-ɓáy bàlà m-údɨ́ dò̰ó̰ jàtàng.I jumped and landed on the ground, one foot and then the other. Expr: gáw̄ [yá̰a̰] dò̰ó̰ -catch [s.t.] falling Expr: kɨ̀ ndī-ǹ dò̰ó̰ (=kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ bè) -out loud, loudly èl tàa kɨ̀ ndī-ǹ kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰. él tàa kɨ̀ ndī-í kɨ́ dò̰ó̰.He spoke outloud. Speak up! Expr: hɔ̀ rō-ǹ dò̰ó̰ -catch oneself {from falling} Expr: dò̰ó̰ dɔ̀ [lòo] tɨ́ -up on [place] Bàtú ndì dò̰ó̰ dɔ̀ kújɨ́ tɨ́.The cat is up on the house. Expr: lā ùdɨ̀ dò̰ó̰ -flee Expr: ɔ̀sɨ̀ nà̰ā̰ dò̰ó̰ -meet, run into one another Expr: kɨ́ kàw̄ dò̰ó̰ -loose, untied, free; unguided Ngōn kɨ́ kàw̄ dò̰ó̰ tél ngè-ɓògɨ̀.An unguided child becomes a thief. Expr: kɨ̄lā dò̰ó̰ ùdɨ̀ -jump down Ngè-ɓògɨ̀ kɨ̄lā dò̰ó̰ dɔ̀-kújɨ́ tɨ́ ùdɨ̀ à̰ӯ tɔ̀ӯ dɨ́.The thief jumped down from the roof and got away from them. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ ndī/dà ndī ɓòdɨ̀-ǹ dò̰ó̰ -cry loudly Ndà-n̄-á ngá̰y àdɨ̄ kōo ɔ̀r̄ dà ndī ɓòdɨ̀-ǹ dò̰ó̰.They beat him until he cried out incredibly. Expr: kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ -scattering them about Ngōn ɗà ndúū mbētē-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰.The boy was searching through my papers scattering them about. Expr: sō/ɗìsɨ̀ dò̰ó̰ [lòo] tɨ́ -fall/climb down from [a place] Sō dò̰ó̰ mángò tɨ́.He fell down from the mango tree. Expr: ndūgō [yá̰a̰] dò̰ó̰ -buy [s.t.] from a street vendor m̄-ndūgō bāngàw dò̰ó̰ ɗóbóo kànjɨ́ kàdɨ̄ m̄-tèē súkūú.I bought sweet potatoes on the street without ever arriving at the market. Expr: ɗáw̄ dò̰ó̰ -sell in the streets Expr: kɨ̀ njà-ǹ dò̰ó̰ -all over creation, everywhere {without reaching goal} m̄-sán̄gá kɨ̀ njà-ḿ dò̰ó̰.I looked for him all over the place. Expr: ùn kùm-ǹ kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ -look up, lift up one's eyes ún kùm-í kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ ōo-ň kɨ́-mḛ̄ḛ gɨ̄.Look up and see the stars. Expr: ɗāa [dèē] jálálá -to harass [s.o.] terribly ɗāa sè-ḿ dò̰ó̰ jálálá àdɨ̄ m-ōo lòo ndā njà-ḿ bèŕ àĺ.He harassed me so much that I didn't know where I to set my feet on the ground.
dó̰ō̰ VTF bite {sev. times} (freq. of dò̰o̰). Tḭ́yā̰-gɨ̄ dó̰ō̰-m̄-n̄ kāgɨ̄ mángò tɨ́. The red ants bit me all over in the mango tree.
dò̰ó̰-dò̰ó̰ AV at times, from time to time. M-ā m-ōo nōjɨ̄-ḿ-gɨ̄ dò̰ó̰-dò̰ó̰. I see my relatives from time to time. ɗà m̄-ɗāa ngán-mùsō dò̰ó̰-dò̰ó̰ ngán súkɨ̄ gɨ̄ tɨ́. At times I do small commerce in the small markets.
dò̰nò̰nò̰ AV still, without moving. ɔ́dɨ́ rō-í àĺ ī-tò dò̰nò̰nò̰. Don't move a muscle, sit perfectly still.
65
dɔ̀ NT head. Dɔ̀-ḿ gà-m̄ ngá̰y. (=dɔ̀-ḿ tōo-m̄ ngá̰y.) I have a headache. ī-tél dɔ̀-í. Turn your head around. Ngōn ndɨ̀ tùlò dɔ̀ bḭ̄yā̰. The boy is charring the goat's head (to get the fur off). NT top of, upper part of. NT bundle [of grass]. Dɔ̀ mṵ̀ṵ/dɔ̀ bùndḭ̄/dɔ̀ gàgɨ̀r a bundle of straw/^^ grass/^^ grass NT pile of. NT piece of. Dɔ̀ kūbɨ̄ piece of cloth NT hair. Dɔ̀-á hútɨ̄. His hair is white {from age}. Expr: dɔ̀ [dèē] mbùjɨ̀ -[s.o.] be old Dɔ̀-í mbùjɨ̀ àĺ tɔ̀ɔ̄.You are not old yet. Expr: dɔ̀ [dèē] ngàn̄g -[s.o.] be stubborn Ngōn-ḿ-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dɔ̀-á ngàn̄g ngá̰y, à òō dɔ̀ tàa lò dèē-gɨ̄ àĺ.My daughter is very stubborn, she doesn't listen to people. Expr: dɔ̀-dɨ́ kɨ́ mɨ̀tá/sɔ́ɔ́/etc. -all three/four/etc. of them Ngán-ḿ-gɨ̄ ɗèē-n̄ dɔ̀-dɨ́ kɨ́ mɨ̀tá.All three of my children came. Expr: ndà dɔ̀-ǹ tɨ́ -defend oneself ī-hɔ́ rō-í tɔ̀gɨ̀ ī-ndá-ň dɔ̀-í tɨ́.Pull yourself together and defend yourself. Expr: dɔ̀-ǹ -alone ōtɨ́ ndīyā ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́ dɔ̀-í, dèē à tɔ̄l-ī kàrī.Don't walk alone at night, somebody will kill you. Expr: ḭ̀ḭ̄-n̄ dɔ̀-dɨ́ kɨ́ [jōó, mɨ̀tá, etc.] -be [three, four, etc.] J-ḭ̀ḭ̄ dɔ̀-jɨ́ kɨ́ mɨ̀tá. (but: j-ḭ̀ḭ̄ dɔ̀-jɨ́ jōó lā kɨ̀-ɗāa kɨ̀là nà yé.)There are three of us. (but: There are two of us doing the work.) Expr: kɨ̀ dɔ̀-ǹ-gɨ̄ -independent, depending on one's self Expr: dɔ̀ [dèē] tèē -[s.o.] be understanding Ngār̀ lò-jɨ́ ì dèē kɨ́ dɔ̀-á tèē, à òō dɔ̀ tàa lò dèē-gɨ̄ lò-ǹ ngá̰y.Our king is a very understanding person, he really listens to his people. Expr: dɔ̀ [dèē] tèl̄-á -[s.o.] have a headache Dɔ̀-ḿ tèl̄-m̄ àdɨ̄ m̄-ndóō yá̰a̰ sétɨ́.My head hurts so I can't study. Expr: ngà dɔ̀-ǹ -succeed Expr: ɗāa dɔ̀ [dèē] (=hɔ̀ [dèē]) -braid [s.o.'s] hair M-āw m̄-ndèē ɗāa dɔ̀-ḿ ngán-mbáӯ-gɨ̄.I'm going to have someone braid my hair in the style with no strings. Expr: dɔ̀-hútɨ̄ -white hair, grey hair Expr: dɔ̀-hútɨ̄-kàa -white hair on a young man {normally a few white hairs} Dɔ̀-hútɨ̄ lò-á ì dɔ̀-hútɨ̄-kàa.His white hairs are those of a young man. Expr: dɔ̀ [dèē] gà-á -[s.o.] to have a headache
dɔ̀ (Syn: dà) PRP on, on top of. ī-ndā jóo dɔ̀ nà̰ā̰ tɨ́. Put the pots on top of one another. Kìyā lò-á ɗùgɨ̀ kɨ̄ dɔ̀ dā̰a̰ tɨ́, dā̰a̰ ngɨ̀rà ngá̰y. His knife was bent (cutting) the meat, the meat was very tough. ṵ̄ṵ kūbɨ̄ dɔ̀ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́. Pile up the clothes (on top of themselves). PRP over. PRP about, over. Bíī-m̄-n̄ dɔ̀ pòtō tɨ́ lò-ḿ ngá̰y. They threatened me a lot about my pictures. M-ā m̄-gāa dɔ̀-í tɨ́ kɨ̀-ndɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄ bè. I'll always think about you. PRP with. íré kàm-í ngàn̄g dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́ nà̰ ī-yá̰-m̄ ādɨ̄ m̄-sáā gúsɨ̀ lò-í m-ādɨ̄-ī. Be patient with me and let me look for your money for you. Expr: ɗóbɨ́ kɨ́ dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -by [s.o.'s] house ī-ɗèē kɨ̀ ɗóbɨ́ kɨ́ dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́.Pass by my house. Expr: ndā kàm-ǹ dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -trust in [s.o.], have confidence in [s.o.] ī-ndā kàm-í dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́.Trust in me.
dɔ̀ɔ̄ VT tie. āw ī-dɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ kɔ́ɔ́ bḭ̄yā̰ ī-ɗèē-n̄ sì-á. Go and tie the goat (by its neck) and bring it here. VT put on, wear [clothes that are put on by tying, such as wrap-around skirts]. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dɔ̀ɔ̄ ngòō dɔ̀ dɔ̀-ǹ tɨ́ ùn-ň kīr. The woman put the head cloth on her head to carry the firewood on. VT gather [grass]. M-āw dɔ̀ɔ̄ mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ kɨ̀ m-ādɨ̄ bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄. I'm going to gather grass for the goats. Expr: dèē-kɨ́-njà-dɔ̀ɔ̄ -paralyzed person Dèē-kɨ́-njà-dɔ̀ɔ̄ ì ngè-kɨ́-njà-mòtɨ̀.A person with a 'tied leg' is a cripple. Expr: dɔ̀ɔ̄ mṵ̀ṵ -gather grass into bales for animal feed {by tying it} ɓàr ùdɨ̀ dá dèē-gɨ̄ à dɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ mṵ̀ṵ tà kújɨ́ tɨ́ gɨ̄ lòdɨ́.In the rainy season people bundle grass up in front of their houses.
dɔ̀ɔ́ AV upstream. Nēl tòo kɨ̄ dɔ̀ɔ́ ngàn̄g tɔ̀ӯ nēl tòo kɨ̄ ɓōdōó. Paddling a pirogue upstream is more difficult than paddling it downstream.
dɔ́ɔ̄ VTF tie {several times} (freq. of dɔ̀ɔ̄). ī-dɔ́ɔ̄ njà bḭ̄yā̰ ī-lā-á kújɨ́-ú. Tie up the legs of the goat and throw it in the house.
dɔ̀-bāngàw [dɔ̀bā̰ŋgàw] NI stalk of sweet potato. Dɔ̀-bāngàw ì mbī kám bāngàw. à àl̄ bèŕ. Sà-n̄ mbī bāngàw ndīr-n̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́. The stalk of sweet potato is the plants leaf. It grows along the ground. People eat the leaf of sweet potato cooked in a sauce.
dɔ̀-bēl NI hitching post ( dà-bēl is also possible). Dɔ̀-bēl ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ à ùdɨ̀ ń dɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ sɨ́ndá tɨ́ nò. A hitching post is a pole stuck in the ground for tying up horses.
dɔ̀-bòo Day NI huge drum {of day origin} (see also kɔ̀dɨ̀,dàlì,gáng). Dɔ̀-bòo ì kɔ̀dɨ̀ kɨ́ bòo tɔ̀ӯ gáng. ì kɔ̀dɨ̀ nō̰o̰ yòo lò Dày-gɨ̄. ____ is a drum larger than the ^^ drum. It's a drum of mourning {used at funerals} among the Day.
dɔ̀-ɓēe (Syn: =dà-ɓēe) NI foreign country/place. m̄-ɓáy dɔ̀-ɓēe tɨ́ lā m̄-ɗèē yé. I've come back from a foreign land. Ngán-gɨ̄ kɨ̀lá-gìdɨ̀-kɨ̀-sɔ̄ɔ́ àw̄-n̄ làkól̀ dɔ̀-ɓēe tɨ́. Fourteen children go to school in a town away from home.
66
dɔ̀-dā̰a̰ NI brain disease. Dɔ̀-dā̰a̰ ì mò̰y kɨ́ à ɗāa kɔ́l-gɨ̄ ngá̰y. This brain disease is something which frequently attacks hunters. Kàa-á tɔ̄l dā̰a̰-gɨ̄ ngá̰y àdɨ̄ dɔ̀-dā̰a̰ ɗāa-á. His grandfather killed a lot of animals and now he has the brain disease.
dɔ̀-dūu NT big pile (see dūu 'pile'). M-ɔ̄r dɔ̀-dūu ngár̄ kɨ̀ m̄-ɗāa-ň bɨ̀ríkɨ̀. I made a big pile of sand to make bricks with.
dɔ̀-gàjɨ̀ (Syn: =dà-gàjɨ̀) NI place where initiation ceremony takes place. Ngōn kɨ́ àw̄ dɔ̀-gàjɨ̀ tɨ́ àĺ ì kɔ̀ӯ. A child who goes not to the place of initiation is an 'owl' {person who has not been initiated}.
dɔ̀-jī (Syn: dɔ̀-njà) N recompense, reward.
dɔ̀-jī-jōó (Syn: dà-jī-jōó) NUM eighty. M-ndūgō yìbɨ̄ dɔ̀ ngōn-ḿ gúrsɨ̀ dɔ̀-jī-jōó. I bought 400 cfa (80 units of 5) worth of oil from my son. ɓāl kàa-ḿ ì dɔ̀-jī-jōó. My grandfather is eighty years old.
dɔ̀-jī-kɨ́rā (Syn: =dà-jī-kɨ́rā) NUM ninety. Bísɨ́ lò-á òy ndɔ̄ɔ̄ dɔ̀-jī-kɨ́rā ɓó-nḛ̀ḛ̄. His dog died ninety days ago.
dɔ̀-jōó (Syn: =dà-jóo) NUM twenty. Mángò kɨ́ kìrē ì gúsɨ̀ dɔ̀-jōó. A ripe mango is 100 CFA (20 x 5).
dɔ̀-kàdɨ̀ NT period of time for (see dà-kàdɨ̀).
dɔ̀-kāgɨ̄ (Syn: =dà-kāgɨ̄) NIN season for, time of. Dà-kāgɨ̄ dùbɨ̄ yá̰a̰-kōo à ɗèē ngɔ̀r. The season for planting millet will soon be here. Yá̰a̰ túu-bè ì kɨ̀ dɔ̀-kāgɨ̄-ǹ. For everything there is a season. [thing all is for season-its]
dɔ̀-kāgɨ̄-lòo NI moment for s.t.. Dɔ̀-kāgɨ̄-lòo tɔ̀ӯ ngá̰y wòy. The moment for that passed long ago.
dɔ̀-kám (Syn: =dà-kám) NI bunch of leaves used for fetishes or traditional medicine. ā ī-ngòm sè-ḿ à m̄-lá dɔ̀-kám m-ādɨ̄-ī. If you mess around with me I'll fix up a fetish for you. [lit: ... I'll send a bunch of fetish leaves to you.]
dɔ̀-kɨ́-bòy-dètɨ́ [dɔ̀kɨ́bóỳdètɨ́] (Syn: =dà-kɨ́-bòy-dètɨ́) NUM sixty. Ngán ngār̀ kɨ́ Mā̰ysālāá ì-n̄ dɔ̀-kɨ́-bòy-dètɨ́. The chief of Moissala has sixty children. [Children chief at Moissala are sixty]
dɔ̀-kó-jī AVE on hand, nearby. m̄-lá bíkɨ̀ lò-ḿ dɔ̀-kó-jī-ḿ. I put my pen where I could quickly find it.
dɔ̀-kɔ́ɔ́ NT desire, wish. Tàa kɨ́ kèl sḛ̀ḛ ì dɔ̀-kɔ́ɔ́-ḿ àĺ. Talking all the time is not my desire.
dɔ̀-kɔ̄r NI chiefdom, area controlled by a chief ( dà-kɔ̄r is also possible). Ngār̀ à ò̰o̰ dɔ̀-kɔ̄r lò-ǹ. The chief rules over his chiefdom. NI native country or region. ā ī-ɗāa kɔ́l dɔ̀-kɔ̄r tɨ́ lò-í tā̰á̰. Hunt in your own land first. {Hunting in a foreign chiefdom leads to trouble.}
dɔ̀-kūbɨ̄ (Syn: tópɨ̀) NI section of cloth. Ngè-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ ndūgō dɔ̀-kūbɨ̄ àdɨ̄ nḛ̄ḛ́-ǹ. The farmer bought a section of cloth for his wife.
dɔ̀-kùm NE area above and between eyes. Nām-á ɔ̀sɨ̀ dɔ̀-kùm-á kùdɨ̀bó̰ò̰ tàgɨ́-bè. His friend punched him between the eyes yesterday. Bàtàkúmbá sō dà kàmyō̰o̰ tɨ́ àdɨ̄ dɔ̀-kùm-á tíī. The driver's assistant fell of the truck and the area between his eyes is swollen.
dɔ̀-lūu (Syn: =dà-lūu) NI fertile area where trees have been burned. m̄-sáā dɔ̀-lūu lòo kɨ̀ m̄-dùbɨ̄ wàā tɨ́. I'm looking for a fertile area to plant millet. NI ash pile.
dɔ̀-lūu-lòo (Syn: ==dà-lūu-lòo) NI fertile area. Nɨ́má kɨ́ dɔ̀-lūu-lòo tɨ́ à ndūu ngá̰y. Okra planted in a fertile area grows very well.
67
dɔ̀-mḭ́ḭ (Syn: =dà-mḭ́ḭ) NUM fifty. ādɨ̄-n̄-dɨ́ ndì-n̄ dɔ̀-mḭ́ḭ dɔ̀-mḭ́ḭ. Have them sit in groups of fifty. Gúsɨ̀ dɔ̀-mḭ́ḭ lā m-ndūgō-ň yá̰a̰-kɨ́-njà-ḿ tɨ́ yé. Fifty (250 CFA) and I bought myself some shoes with it.
dɔ̀-mɨ̀tá (Syn: =dà-mɨ̀tá) NUM thirty. àw̄-n̄ kɨ̀ ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ dɔ̀-mɨ̀tá Dīl-ngāl-á. They went with 30 soldiers in Dilngala. Dèē-gɨ̄ dɔ̀-mɨ̀tá ɗèē-n̄ yòo ngōn ngār̀. Thirty people came to the funeral of the chief's son.
dɔ̀-mòm NI stomach illness attacking children. Ngōn màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ nō̰o̰ tītɨ̄ dɔ̀-mòm ɗāa-á bè. The child of my neighbor cries as though he had this bad stomach illness.
dɔ̀-nàng [dɔ̀nà̰ŋ] NI ground, earth; territory (see dà-nàng). ásɨ̀gàr kɨ́ Sádɨ̀ tɨ́ ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-n nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ ásɨ̀gàr kɨ́ Lìbīi kɨ̀tɔ̄ dɔ̀-nàng. Chadian soldiers are fighting Libyan soldiers over territory. Dɔ̀-nàng à sà dèē-gɨ̄. The earth eats people. (Everyone dies and is buried) Expr: tɔ̄ɔ̄ gír-ǹ -sit down Ngōn tɔ̄ɔ̄ gír-ǹ dɔ̀-nàng tɨ́.The boy sat down on the ground.
dɔ̀-nā̰a̰ NT period of harvest for [a crop]. Nā̰a̰ ń-ɗàn ì dɔ̀-nā̰a̰ kɨ́-mbéré. This month is the season for harvesting corn. NT season of, period of. Dɔ̀-nā̰a̰ lòo tíngā àsɨ̀ wòy. The period of hot weather has arrived.
dɔ̀-ngàn̄g [dɔ̀ŋgàn̄] NE stubbornness (literally 'hard head'). ī-ɗāa dɔ̀-ngàn̄g rō ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ tā ànḛ̄ à ndà tɔ̄l-ī. You act headstrong with the soldiers then they'll shoot and kill you. Expr: ngè-dɔ̀-ngàn̄g -stubborn person Dèē kɨ́ ngè-dɔ̀-ngàn̄g ì dèē kɨ́ mbī-á à òō dɔ̀ tàa àĺ.A stubborn person is someone who doesn't listen to what is said.
dɔ̀-ngúl̄ [dɔ̀ŋgúl̄] NI yam from second harvest.
dɔ̀-njà (Syn: dɔ̀-jī) NT reward, recompense. Ngè-gātɨ̄-yá̰a̰ gā dɔ̀-njà ngé-kɨ̀là-gɨ̄ lò-ǹ. The merchant paid his workers their salary.
dɔ̀-nján̄g [dɔ̀nján̄] (Syn: dɔ̀-rō) AVE unmixed with anything else. m̄-gèe wúl̄ dɔ̀-nján̄g kànjɨ́ yá̰a̰ màdɨ̄ kàm tɨ́. I want pure peanuts without anything else in it.
dɔ̀-rō (Syn: dɔ̀-nján̄g) AVE unmixed with anything else. m̄-gèe wúl̄-dùm dɔ̀-rō. I want pure peanuts (unmixed with groundnuts, etc.)
dɔ̀-sɔ́ɔ́ (Syn: =dà-sɔ́ɔ́) NUM forty. ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ dɔ̀-sɔ́ɔ́ òy-n̄ tà ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ tɨ́. Forty soldiers died in the battle.
dɔ̀-tèl̄ NI fever. NI headache. Expr: Dɔ̀-tèl̄ ɗāa [dèē] -[s.o.] to have a fever Dɔ̀-tèl̄ ɗāa-m̄ ngá̰y. M-ōo lòo ndì ndíl-í àĺ.I have a terrible fever. I don't see a place in the shade to sit.
dɔ̀-tènɨ̀-mɨ̀tá (Syn: =dà-tènɨ̀-mɨ̀tá) NUM seventy. Dīí bāngàw lò-ḿ ì dɔ̀-tènɨ̀-mɨ̀tá. I have forty sweet potato mounds.
dɔ̀-tɨ́ AVE in addition, on top of it all. àsɨ̀-m̄ àĺ, m-ā m̄-gèe kɨ́ dɔ̀-tɨ́. It's not enough for me, I want some more. Expr: kɨ́ dɔ̀-tɨ́ -more; again ā ādɨ̄-m̄ mángò kàá ànḛ̄ m-ā m̄-gèe kɨ́ dɔ̀-tɨ́ kɨ́ dɔ̀-tɨ́.Even if you give me a mango I'll always want more.
dɔ̀-wúl̄ NI stalk of peanut. Bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ dɔ̀-wúl̄ ngá̰y. Goats eat a lot of peanut stalk.
dɔ̀-yòo NI first drink {traditionally to ensure that it has not been poisoned} ( dà-yòo is also possible). Bɨ́gá à ùn dɔ̀-yòo nò̰ ngán-gɨ̄ tɨ́. The old take the first sip before the young.
dɔ̀gɨ̀ NI buffalo. Dɔ̀gɨ̀ ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́ bòo tītɨ̄ màn̄g bè nà ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́ mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́; ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ngá̰y. The buffalo is an animal about the size of a cow, but it's a wild animal; it's very aggressive. Expr: dɔ̀gɨ̀ tɔ̄l hīl -there's nothing to eat [lit: the buffalo broke the hearthstone.] ɓó-làā dá dɔ̀gɨ̀ tɔ̄ɔ̄ hīl ɓēe-é lò-jɨ́.There's nothing to eat in our village today.
dɔ̀gɨ̀ NI caution. Expr: ndì dɔ̀gɨ̀ tɨ́ -stay up all night on guard ī-ndì dɔ̀gɨ̀ tɨ́, kòtɨ́ ɓīi.Be on guard all night, don't sleep.
68
dɔ̀gɨ̀ NI morning star (see kɨ́-mḛ̄ḛ-dɔ̀gɨ̀).
dɔ̀gɨ̀-dɔ̀gɨ̄m (Syn: dɔ̀gɨ̄m) NI rabbit. Dɔ̀gɨ̀-dɔ̀gɨ̄m ì ngōn dā̰a̰ kɨ́ dūú kɨ́ mbī-á ngāl ngá̰y nà̰ àw̄ kɨ̀ tèr ngá̰y. The rabbit is a small animal with long ears but which is very clever. Dɔ̀gɨ̀-dɔ̀gɨ̄m-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dɔ̀gɨ̀-dɔ̀gɨ̄m-gɨ̄ túu-bè. {Proverb} All rabbits are rabbits {i.e. people are all the same.}
dɔ̀gɨ̀-dɔ̀gɨ̄m-ndùū NI type of large rabbit or hare.
dɔ̀gɨ̄m NI rabbit, hare (abbr. of dɔ̀gɨ̀-dɔ̀gɨ̄m). Dɔ̀gɨ̄m ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ kɨ́rā kɨ̀ dɔ̀gɨ̀-dɔ̀gɨ̄m. It's the same thing as a rabbit.
dɔ̀tɨ́ (Syn: dāng) NI poverty, misery. Dɔ̀tɨ́ ɗāa-m̄ kɨ́ m-ā m-ɔ́dɨ́ yá̰a̰ lò dèē àĺ. I'm so poor I can't touch anybody's things {because if I break them, I can't replace them}.
dɔ̀w̄ (Syn: =dùwā) VT stare at, give [s.o.] dirty look. Bɔ̀ɔ̄ ngōn dɔ̀w̄ ngōn-ǹ kɨ̀tɔ̄ kɨ̀là-ɗāa-á kɨ́ màjàĺ. The boy's father gave him a dirty look because of his bad conduct.
dūu (Syn: ==dīw) VI be dark, be late at night. Tìl dūu múrɨ́r ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́-làā. It's pitch dark out tonight. Expr: lòo dūu ngá̰y -it's very late (at night) Expr: nā̰a̰ dūu tìl -the moon will be rising late {1 - 3 a.m.}
dūu NT pile of, stack of. Ngè-ɗáw̄-yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ àw̄ kɨ̀ dūu yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ kàm màgàjā tɨ́ lò-ǹ. The merchant had his merchandise in piles in the store.
dúu NT junction [of grass fencing]. NT dense area. Bàtú yā rō-ǹ dúu mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́. The cat hid in the area with thick grass. dúu kāgɨ̄/dḭ̀ḭ area thickly grown with trees/vines Expr: hɔ̀ dúu [dèē] -count on [s.o.], depend on [s.o.] for help ōtɨ́ hɔ̀ dúu-ḿ.Don't count on me.
dùū (Syn: ==dùbɨ̄) NI plant, bury. Njòr ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ à dùū-n̄. Eggplant is something that is planted. Dɔ̀-kàdɨ̀ dùū ì ngɔ̀r. The season for planting is near.
dūú NT childhood. Kɨ̀ dūú-ḿ-gɨ̄ dá m-ā m̄-ɓògɨ̀ bāngàw lò dèē-gɨ̄. In my childhood I used to steal people's sweet potatoes.
dūú VIA be small. Kújɨ́ kɨ́ dūú bè lā j-à kɨ̀-tò tɨ́ kɨ̀-bàa yé. We're going to be awfully crowded in this little house. [lit: house that is-small only it's-that we-will we-lie LOC we-be-numerous EC. VT be lacking to [s.o.]. Kūbɨ̄ dūú-m̄. I don't have enough clothes. VT be too small for. Kūbɨ̄ ń-há̰ m̄-ndūgō dá dūú-m̄. The clothes I bought were too small for me. VIA be quiet; fine (sound). Ndī màsàng dūú ngá̰y gō lò gáng tɨ́. The sound the of the ^^ drum is much softer than that of the large ^^ drum.
dùbà VTI stop (see dɨ̀bà). Kàmyō̰o̰ dùbà súkɨ̄-ú. The truck stopped in the market.
dùbɨ̀ (Syn: =dìbɨ̀) VT grab with hand, get hold of, seize. m̄-dùbɨ̀ ngōn-í m-ādɨ̄-ī wà? Should I grab your child for you? Màsīn-ndà-bùĺ dùbɨ̀ bùĺ túpɨ̀ ɔ̀y kɨ̄ tà ngāng-ǹ tɨ́. The cotton machine grabbed the bail of cotton and pulled it into its teeth. VT burn, burn down. Hòr dùbɨ̀ kújɨ́ lò-ḿ. The fire burned down my house.
dùbɨ̄ (Syn: =dùū) VT bury. Ngán-gɨ̄ dùbɨ̄-n̄ nàr bèŕ. The children buried the money in the ground. VT plant [certain crops]. Dèē-gɨ̄ dùbɨ̄-n̄ yá̰a̰-kōo wòy. The people have already planted the millet. VI be buried, stuck in. Kàmyō̰o̰ lò ngār̀ dùbɨ̄ kàm bɔ̀r tɨ́. The chief's truck got stuck in the mud. Expr: kɨ́ nō̰o̰ dùbɨ̄ -completely (dead, kill) {used only with people} M-ā m̄-tɔ̄l-ī kɨ́ nō̰o̰ dùbɨ̄!I'm going to destroy you! Expr: dùbɨ̄ yòo kɨ̀ [dèē] -help out with a funeral m̄-dùbɨ̄ yòo kɨ̀ nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ.I helped my wife out with the costs of the funeral of one of her relatives
dūbɨ́ NUM thousand. m̄-ndūgō kó̰o̰ bḭ̄yā̰ nò gúrsɨ̀ dūbɨ́. I bought that female goat for 5000 CFA (1000 units).
69
dúbɨ̄ VT try to catch. Bɨ́gá dúbɨ̄ kɨ̄njá lò-ǹ sétɨ́-sétɨ́. The old man tried in vain to catch his chicken.
dùdɨ̄ VT crush {with hand}. m̄-dùdɨ̄ gìdɨ̀-bɨ̀là m-ṵ̄ṵ tòŕ tɨ́ m-ā̰y. I crushed up the tobacco and put it in my pipe and smoked it.
dùdɨ̄ NI type of fish spear.
dùdɨ̄ NI eland (type of large antelope: [Tragelaphus oryx]. Dùdɨ̄ ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ nàsɨ̄ bè nà̰ gàjɨ̀-á à tɔ̄ɔ̄ ngá̰y. ____ is an animal similar to the antelope, but its horns branch. Dùdɨ̄ ń kɨ̀-tɔ̄l-á ɓó-làā dá ì dùdɨ̄ kɨ́ bòo ngá̰y. The antelope we killed today was a huge antelope.
dùdɨ̄ NI name used collectively for two insects { kúr̄-wúl̄-sàr̄ and kúr̄-wúl̄-sàr̄} that attack the nut crop. Kùr̄ wúl̄-sàr̄ kɨ̀ kùr̄ mùnjò ì dùdɨ̄ The ground nut bug and the bean bug are called 'dude'.
dúdɨ̄ VT crush [s.t. dry]. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dúdɨ̄ kèē lò nḭ̀ḭ-ǹ. The woman crushed her rival's basket. VI be crushed (s.t. dry). VT trample; break up; tear up. m̄-dúdɨ̄ ngèl̄ m̄-ɗāa-ň hòr. I broke up the straw to build a fire with it. VI trampled; broken up; torn up. Kèē dúdɨ̄ wòy. The basket is all torn up. Kújɨ́ lò-ḿ dúdɨ̄. My house has collapsed.
dúgà Arabic NI powdered hot pepper. Dúgà ì ndùjɨ̄ sìtā kɨ́ à kìrē tá̰a̰. ____ is hot pepper powder that turns the sauce red.
dújɨ̀ ID heavily, with a thump (fall). Mángò sō dújɨ̀ bèŕ. The mango fell to the ground with a thump. ID ibid.. ID ibid. (freq.). Mángò tɨ́sō dùjɨ̀-dùjɨ̀. The mangoes fell with thumping noises. ID hugely fat {insult}. Dɔ̀-í bòo dùjùuu, dɔ̀-ḿ bòo àĺ. You have a big fat head, my head is not fat.
dúkɨ́ ID tightly, completely (fill {hard things}). Kùm-àlmétɨ̀ ɗòsɨ̀ ngɔ́ɔ́-á dúkɨ́-dúkɨ́. The matchbox is tightly filled with matches.
dùl AV different (most commonly ɗóo kɨ́ dùl 'different road'). Ndà-m̄ ɗóo-ó kɨ́ dùl. He passed me on another road.
dùl NI common or grey duiker [Cephalophus grimmia]. Dùl ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́ mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ tītɨ̄ bḭ̄yā̰ bè nà̰ à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ ngá̰y hō ɓày bàl ngá̰y hō. The duiker is a wild animal similar to the goat but it runs fast and jumps high. ī-hɔ́ dùl àĺ à ī-tɔ̄ɔ̄ kɨ̀lā wà? {Proverb} If you didn't catch a duiker, did you cut the rope? {Don't count your chickens before the eggs are hatched.} Dùl kòo-ń yé à àsɨ̀ mbāa-gɨ̄ kɨ́ làā ndìn-ndìn wà? Is it that only a duiker will satisfy these guests? [lit: Duker only EC will be.enough.for guests-PL that here these QU]
dúl ID completely (twisted). Njà tábɨ̀l lò-ḿ ɗùgɨ̀ dúl. The leg of my table is badly bent. ID ibid. (freq.,pl.). Ngán-gɨ̄ ɗúgɨ̄-n̄ njà tábɨ̀l lò-ḿ dúl-dúl. The children completely bent the leg of my table.
dūlō VI be wound up/wrapped up. VT wrap, wind. Dòktór̀ dūlō jī-ḿ kɨ̀ bāndɨ̄. The doctor wrapped up my hand with a bandage. VT thatch, make a thatched roof. M-ā m̄-dūlō dà-kújɨ́ lò-ḿ kɨ̀ bùndḭ̄. I'll thatch my roof with ^^ grass.
Dùm NP Muslim; Arab. Dùm-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ gātɨ̄ ngá̰y. Arabs do a lot of commerce.
70
dùm̄ (Syn: tɔ̀ӯ) VT surpass, go beyond. Kāgɨ̄ dá ɔ̀ӯ ngá̰y dùm̄ tɔ́gɨ́-ḿ. That log is too heavy for me. VT be too much for, too difficult for. Yá̰a̰-kɨ́-sà dùm̄-jɨ̀. There was too much food for us. VI be too much. Gātɨ̄-á dùm̄-m̄. It's too expensive for me. [lit: price.its surpasses-me.] VI be misbehaved, disobedient. Ngōn-á dùm̄ ngá̰y. His child is extremely misbehaved. VI be impossible, very difficult. Tà ndɔ̀ɔ̄ nò dùm̄ ɓó-nèē tɔ̀ɔ̄. It's impossible to finish this field today. VI be surprising. Expr: yá̰a̰ kɨ́ dùm̄ tā dùm̄ -miracle; amazing, astonishing Kɨ̀là-ɗāa ngán-gɨ̄ kɨ́ tā-jī-gɨ̄-làā ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ dùm̄ tā dùm̄.The conduct of children nowadays is astonishing. Expr: kɨ́ dùm̄ bítɨ́ -incredible, amazing Expr: kɨ́ dùm̄ bítɨ́ -utterly amazing, surprisingly Yáā-dɨ́ kɨ́ dùm̄ bítɨ́.It utterly amazed them. Expr: dùm̄ kàdɨ̄ -it's impossible that Dùm̄ kàdɨ̄ ɗèē ɓó-làā.It's impossible that he come today. Expr: màjɨ̀ dùm̄ (=màjɨ̀ kɨ́ dùm̄) -very interesting Ngōn kūbɨ̄ ń m̄-ndūgō màjɨ̀ kɨ́ dùm̄.That little shirt that I bought is just wonderful!
dúm ID with a snatch (take with fingers). ID ibid. (freq.,emph.). m̄-túgɨ̄ yír lò-á dúm-dúm m̄-ndīr m̄-nīńg. I snatched his hibiscus and cooked and ate them.
dúm ID badly (have eye disease). ID ibid. (emph.,pl.). Kùm-á sà dúm-dúm. Serious eye problems (i.e. conjunctivitis) have attacked his eyes. Kùm ngè-kà̰ӯ-yérgɨ̀ sà dúm-dúm. The eyes of heavy 'yerge' drinkers are diseased.
dùm̄-kèdɨ̄ (Syn: ==kɨ́-kèdɨ̄-ngà-ndán̄g) NI type of tree. Dùm̄-kèdɨ̄ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ kèdɨ̄ à ɔ̀r̄ sétɨ́. ____ is a tree that an elephant cannot pull up. [____ is tree that elephant pulls.up in.vain]
dùm̄-ngōn-tíngā [dùm̄ŋgō̰ntḭ́ŋgā] NE breast of goat {considered most delicious portion}. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ndīr-n̄ dùm̄-ngōn-tíngā kɨ̀-ndāńg-àĺ kɨ̀tɔ̄ dèē-kɨ́-dìngá-gɨ̄ à tíngā-n dà hòr tɨ́ sà-n̄. Women don't often cook breast of goat because men usually roast it over a fire and eat it [right away]. Dùm̄-ngōn-tíngā ì dā̰a̰ kɨ́ yàm ngá̰y. Breast of goat is a very greasy meat.
dùm-sùwà NI nomadic Muslim herder. Dùm-sùwà-gɨ̄ à ndì-n̄ lòo kɨ́rā àĺ. Nomadic herders never stay in the same place.
dùm-tél NI Muslim by conversion, Mbay or southerner who has become Muslim. Dùm-tél-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄ tàa sálā tɔ̀ӯ-n̄ ngé-á-gɨ̄. Converted Muslims pray more than real Muslims.
dūn NT spinal cord. m̄-sō dò̰ó̰ kāgɨ̄ tɨ́ àdɨ̄ dūn-ḿ tètɨ̀. I fell out of the tree and broke my spinal cord. NT kidney; lower back. Expr: dūn kújɨ́ -the furthest corner of the house Expr: ɓōĺ gāng dūn [dèē] -[s.o.] is overcome with fear
dūn NT last (child) (in expression ngōn-dūn 'last child {in a family}'). Kùm ngōn dūn à tɔ̀gɨ̀ ngá̰y. The youngest child is very intelligent.
dúnyà Arabic NI life. Dúnyà kɨ́ gògɨ́ nḛ̀ḛ̄ ngàn̄g ngá̰y. Life in the recent past has been very difficult. NI the world. Yá̰a̰ kɨ́ m-ásɨ́ ɗāa dúnyà tɨ́ làā gòtóo. There's nothing I can do in this world.
dúndɨ́r ID be dull, blunt. Tà kìyā lò-ḿ dúndɨ́r. The blade of my knife is dull. ID ibid. (emph.).
dùndō NT web [of spider]. Kón̄g ndūr rō-ǹ gúrí-gúrí kàm dùndō súu tɨ́. The fly wiggled about in the spider's web. Súu lā yā dùndō tà-kújɨ́ tɨ́ ń-ɗàn nò. The spider made a web across that doorway there. Expr: kùm [dèē] jō dùndō -have cloudy vision, not see clearly Kùm bɨ́gá à jō dùndō.Old people have cloudy vision. Expr: jō dùndō -to weave a web Expr: lā dùndō kàm kùm [dèē] tɨ́ -to cloud [s.o.'s] vision with magic
dúndō NI dragonfly. Dúndō ì ngōn kùr̄ kɨ́ à àw̄-n̄ gō nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ dò̰ó̰, à sà ngán kùr̄-gɨ̄. Dragonflies are insects that fly around after each other in the air and eat insects.
dūngɨ̄r-kāgɨ̄ [dūŋgɨ̄rkāgɨ̄] NI stick, pole. Dèē-gɨ̄ à ndà-n̄ yá̰a̰-kōo kɨ̀ dūngɨ̄r-kāgɨ̄. People knock millet off its head with a stick.
71
dùnjɨ̀l ID long and ugly (snout). ID ibid. (pl.).
dúr̀ NI meanness. Dúr̀ lò bɔ̀ɔ̄-á ì ngá̰y. His father is very mean. NI trick. Nām-á nò òō gèr̄ kàdɨ̄ ì dúr̀ lā gèe kɨ̀ ɗāa sè-í yé. His friend knows that it's a trick he wants to play on you. Expr: dúr̀ tɨ́ -out of malice, with the intention of harming M-ōo rō-ḿ sà yá̰a̰ dúr̀ tɨ́.I refused to eat (with someone not mentioned) out of malice.
dúr-dùr [dúrdúr̀] NI rectangular house with mud roofs made by Arabs (normally kújɨ́ dúr-dùr). Kújɨ́ dúr-dùr ì kújɨ́ lò Dùm-gɨ̄, à ɗāa-n̄ dɔ̀-á kɨ̀ bɔ̀r. The rectangular house is an Arab house, its roof is made with mud.
dùrbálī French NI type of pants. Ngé-kàl̄-sɨ́ndá-gɨ̄ kɨ́ márí gèe-n̄ dùrbálī ngá̰y. The horse riders of olden days wore this type of pants a lot.
dùrì ID round and very (big). Kɔ̀ӯ ì yèl̄ kɨ́ kùm-á bòo dùrì-dùrì. The owl is a bird with big round eyes. ID be big and round. Kùm-í dùrìyùuu. You have big round eyes.
dùrò NI wager, bet ( ndà dùrò 'to wager'). Kɨ̀-ndà-n̄ nà̰ā̰ dùrò gúrsɨ̀ jōó jōó. Let's bet 10 CFA. NI defiance, disrespect ( ndà à [dèē] 'do defy, show disrespect to [s.o.]'). Ngōn dá ndà dùrò bɔ̀ɔ̄-ǹ. That boy shows disrespect to his father.
dùrò-nàm̄ NI type of tree [Combretum glutinosum]. Dùrò-nàm̄ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ à gāng-n̄ mbī-á. ___ is a tree whose leaves people cut off.
dúrú NI type of large hornbill (see also tíyāng). Dúrú ì yèl̄ kɨ́ bòo tɔ̀ӯ tànjɨ̀, nà̰ kɨ̄ngā-tà-á tītɨ̄ kɨ̄ngā-tà tíyāng bè. Rō-á ì kɨ́ kìl. The large hornbill is a bird that is larger than the guinea fowl, but its beak is like that of the small hornbill. Its body is dark colored.
dùsɨ̄ VT concern, be of concern to. Tàa lò-í dùsɨ̄-m̄ àĺ. Your problem is not of my concern.
dúsɨ̀ (Syn: dápɨ̀) ID without much force or noise (break). m̄-hɔ́ kɨ̀lā m̄-gāng dúsɨ̀. I took the thread and broke it.
dúsɨ̀,dúsɨ́ ID vigorously (boil) {with substance churning in a liquid}. Màn̄-kḭ̄ḭ lēgɨ́ dúsɨ́-dúsɨ́. The medicinal water bubbles with the herbs churning.
dūsūwár̀ French NI trouble, problems. M-āw kɨ̀ dūsūwár̀ kɨ̀ dèē àĺ. I don't have any problems with anyone.
dùwà (Syn: bàrà) NI narrow hole in ground made for planting peanuts. ī-gá dùwà ādɨ̄ m̄-dùbɨ̄-ň wúl̄. Poke a hole in the ground so I can plant peanuts in it. Expr: kāgɨ̄-dùwà -pole for making hole
dùwā (Syn: =dɔ̀w̄) VT stare at, give [s.o.] dirty look. m̄-dùwā ngōn-ḿ kɨ́ mbèl lā ɓày tɔ̀ӯ yé. I gave my naughty child a dirty look and he got up and left.
dúwɨ́l ID completely (pierced}. Gír kínī lò-á mbùtɨ̀ dúwɨ́l. The base of his bucket has a big hole in it. ID ibid.(freq.). Túkɨ̄-gɨ̄ mbútɨ̄ dúwɨ́l-dúwɨ́l. The barrels all have holes in them.
dùwsó̰ò̰,dùwsō̰o̰ (Syn: =dìkɨ̀só̰ò̰) NI small bar where local beer is sold and drunk. Dùwsō̰o̰ ń ɗà súkɨ̄-ú nò kàsɨ̀ à nàl-á àĺ. There is never a lack of drink in the bar by the market.
dṵ̄y NI type of tree [Strychnos sp.]. Dṵ̄y ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ à ɓà dɔ̀ dīí tɨ́. Kàndɨ̄-á tītɨ̄ ɓákɨ́sɨ́ làmíǹ-tèjɨ̀ bè, nà̰ kàn tùtɨ̀ à dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄. ____ is a tree that grows on mounds. Its fruit is like a hard unripe grapefruit, but people eat it when it's dried.
72
(Syn: =à̰,ḭ̀,ò̰,ɔ̀,ṵ̀,à̰,ḭ̀,ò̰,ṵ̀) AF particle marking an interrogative sentence {assimilates to preceding vowels} (becomes when following word in high tone). Mápà ń ī-ɗāa-n̄ yé sɔ̀l̄-è? Is the bread you (pl.) made soft?
(Syn: ==-è) AF particle marking an interrogative sentence.
AF in, at {locative suffix} (follows stems containing 'e'; see also -á,-í,-ó,-ɔ́,-ú). ɓēe-é in the village
é INJ what?! {surprise}.
è-ké NI or (becomes ē-ké when following word in high tone, ē-ké when following the vowel 'a'). J-àw̄ kɨ̀-jà kō dà gèl tɨ́ ē-ké kō dà kò̰o̰ tɨ́ wà? Do we turn to the left or to the right?
èdéè French VT help. ī-ɗèē ī-èdēe-m̄. Come and help me. M-ā m-èdēe màdɨ̄-kɨ́rá-ḿ. I going to help my friend.
èdɨ̀ VI come down (rain). Ndīi èdɨ̀ ngá̰y. It's raining hard. VT defecate (obj. is kḭ̀ḭ 'excrement'). VT urinate (obj. is kédɨ́-màn̄ 'urine'). èdɨ̀ kédɨ́-màn̄ to urinate VT make [s.o.] defecate, urinate. Mángò kɨ́ kìrē ngá̰y à èdɨ̄-ī. Overripe mangoes will make you defecate a lot. Kòsɨ́ à èdɨ̀-ī kédɨ́-màn̄ ngá̰y. Cucumbers make you urinate a lot. Expr: èdɨ̀ kḭ̀ḭ kɨ́ màn̄ (=èdɨ̀ ngá̰y) -have diarrhea Ngōn ɗà èdɨ̀ ngá̰y àdɨ̄ dòktór̀ àdɨ̄-á kḭ̄ḭ-kèdɨ̀.The child is having a lot of diarrhea and so the doctor gave him some medicine for it. Expr: èdɨ̀ kḭ̀ḭ kɨ́ mósɨ́ -have blood in stool Expr: èdɨ̀ kḭ̀ḭ kɨ̀ ndɔ̀l -have pus in stool
èdɨ̄ VIA be ground finely (flour). Mbī ngàrì ń-há̰ m-úr yé èdɨ̄ wà? Are the manioc leaves I'm grinding fine enough yet? ɓīi èdɨ̄-á mbúrúng. He was completely overcome by sleep. VIA be cooked sufficiently. Dā̰a̰ èdɨ̄ wòy, ī-já àdɨ̄ kɨ̀-sà. The meat's done, cut it so we can eat. VT be ground into [flour] (obj. ndùjɨ̄ 'flour'). Tā̰y èdɨ̄ ndùjɨ̄ tɔ̀ӯ kɨ́-mbéré. 'Small millet' makes a finer flour than does corn. VI close, get better (wound). ī-gāa tàa àĺ nà̰ dòo lò-í à èdɨ̄ ndéré kàrī. Don't worry, your sore will soon be better. VIA be supple, soft; pounded down (ground). Kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ èdɨ̄ ngúlɨ́m-ngúlɨ́m. My clothes are as soft as silk. VT overcome [s.o.] completely (sleep). Expr: kùm [dèē] èdɨ̄ pákɨ́r -[s.o.] be intelligent, farsighted Kùm ngōn-á èdɨ̄ pákɨ́r à ɓògɨ̀-á rō-tɨ́-àĺ.His son is farsighted, it's impossible that he would rob him. Expr: kɔ́ɔ́ [dèē] èdɨ̄-á -[s.o.] to be nauseous Expr: lòo èdɨ̄ pákɨ́r -the ground is packed down, pounded down Ngán-gɨ̄ ɗòbɨ̀-n̄ nò̰ó̰ bè kɨ́ lòo èdɨ̄ pákɨ́r.The children played there to such an extent that the ground became hard and packed down. Expr: [yá̰a̰] èdɨ̄ màjàĺ -[s.t.] to be insufficiently cooked
èl VI say. èl àn à ɗèē lòo-tīi. He said that he (someone else) would come tomorrow. VT tell, say to [s.o.]. èl-m̄ àn bɔ̀ɔ̄-ǹ ì mò̰y. He told me his father was sick. VT talk, speak (obj. normally tàa). M-ā m-él tàa nà̰ kàn m-óy ànḛ̄ kòo-ń. I'm going to talk, and if I die, well it doesn't matter. VT speak [a language] (obj. always tàa). Ngār̀ kɨ́ Dīl-ngāl-á èl tàa Mbáӯ jée-jée. The chief from Diningala speak a very pure Mbay. Expr: èl tàa ngàw dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ -ask a woman to sleep with one èl tàa ngàw dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ nà̰ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gèe tàa lò-á àĺ.He asked the woman to sleep with him but she refused. Expr: èl kɨ̀là -deliver a message m̄-lá ngōn kàdɨ̄ àw̄ èl kɨ̀là lò-ḿ.I sent a child to deliver my message. Expr: èl [dèē] nà̰ àn [ɗāa yá̰a̰] -tell [s.o.] to [do s.t.] Ná̰ā̰ èl-ī nà̰ àn ī-sá?Who told you to eat?
èm (Syn: yà̰m) VI be greasy (meat), have a lot oil. Dā̰a̰ dá èm ngá̰y. This meat is very greasy.
èngrḛ́ḛ̀ French (Syn: kàtɨ̄-síngà̰/kàtɨ̄-bùĺ) NI fertilizer for cotton. Bùĺ kɨ́ ndɔ̀ɔ̄ kànjɨ́ èngrḛ́ḛ̀ à ndūu àĺ. Cotton planted without fertilizer won't grow well.
érgɨ̀ Arabic (Syn: ==yérgɨ̀) NI strong alcoholic drink made from manioc. ā ā̰y érgɨ̀ ànḛ̄ ɓɔ́l-í à tíī. If you drink 'yerge' your cheeks will swell up. Ngé-kà̰ӯ érgɨ̀-gɨ̄ ndā-n̄ ndūu ngá̰y. The 'yerge' drinkers make a lot of noise.
73
èsá̰à̰s,èsá̰à̰sɨ̀ French NI gasoline. à ùtɨ̄-n̄ èsá̰à̰sɨ̀ dàmjān tɨ́. Gasoline is stored in large round glass bottles. èsá̰à̰s gòtóo mòtōo tɨ́ nà m-ā m-āw kɨ̀ m̄-ndūgō. There's no gasoline in the motorcycle so I'm going to go buy some.
èw (Syn: ndèw,ndàdɨ̄) VI tremble. Lòo-ń ngán-gɨ̄ òō-n̄ kèdɨ̄ dá èw-n̄ ɗùkɨ̀-ɗùkɨ̀. When the children saw the elephant they trembled all over.
ḛ̀ḛ̄ VIA be white. Tɨ́gó jàlàbíyà àdɨ̄ ḛ̀ḛ̄ kár-kár kɨ̀ n-àw̄-ň sálā tɨ́. He washed his long garment so that it was perfectly white and went to pray.
VT chop; cut up with a tool {as with an axe,sickle,etc.}. Kɨ̀ gà sè-í yá̰a̰ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́. Let's put our things together. Gīgɨ̄ gà njà-ḿ. I tripped on a stump. [lit: stump tripped foot-my] ɗà gà kāgɨ̄ kɨ̀ ǹ-ɗāa tòo tɨ́. He's chopping the tree to make a pirogue out of it. VT hit {with a chopping motion}. ī-gá tà-á ādɨ̄ tél kɨ̄ gògɨ́ kɨ̀-tàa ɓòdɨ̀ ń ɗà èl nò. Give him a chop in the mouth so he goes away for the stupid things he is saying. VT bang, hit, catch. m̄-gá njà-ḿ gīgɨ̄ tɨ́. I hit my foot on a stump. VT sting (scorpion). Gɨ́ná gà ngōn-ḿ. A scorpion stung my child. VT strike [match]. ī-gá àlmbétɨ̀ ādɨ̄-m̄. Light a match for me. VT fetch [water]. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gà màn̄ kɨ̀ kínī. The woman fetched the water with a bucket. VT trip. VT hide [oneself]. Ngōn gà rō-ǹ gìdɨ̀ bɔ̀r tɨ́. The child hid behind the wall. VT wear [female undergarment gó̰ӯ]. Lòo-ń kàm dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ tōo-á dá à gà gó̰y. When a woman has her period she wears undergarments. VT hang. Kó̰o̰-ḿ gà kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ dò̰ó̰. My mother hung up my clothes. VT put. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gà ndùjɨ̄ sìtā dà tá̰a̰ tɨ́. The woman put powdered hot pepper over the sauce. VT signal. Gà ngōn kɨ̀ jī-ǹ. He signaled the child with his hand. VT poke; peck; dig {with s.t. sharp}. Yèl̄ gà-m̄. A bird pecked me. Gà-n̄ dɨ̀bà wúl̄/yá̰a̰-kōo/bùĺ. They dug sharp little holes for peanuts/millet/cotton. VT be crooked (teeth). Ngāng-ḿ gà nà̰ā̰ [ngā̰.ŋɨ̄ḿ gá nà̰ā̰]. My teeth are crooked. Expr: gà-n̄ tàa nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ -come to an agreement Expr: gà tōo -hurt {by biting (scorpion{} Gɨ́ná gà tōo ngá̰y.The bite of the scorpion hurts a lot. [lit: scorpion bites hurts a.lot] Expr: dɔ̀ [dèē] gà-á -[s.o.] to have a headache Expr: gà ndìngā-gɨ̄ -perform rites to twin gods Expr: gà [dèē] kɨ́-ngà-kɨ̄lā-gɨ̄ -trip [s.o.] with a stiff leg behind him Expr: gà dɔ̀-ǹ bèŕ (=ɔ̀sɨ̀ dɔ̀-ǹ bèŕ) -bow one's head against ground {as in Muslim prayer} Expr: gà dɔ̀-ǹ kɨ̄ bèŕ -bow one's head Expr: gà ngɔ̄dɨ̄ -gallop Sɨ́ndá gà ngɔ̄dɨ̄ à̰ӯ tɔ̀ӯ-jɨ̀.The horse galloped past us. Expr: gà ngár̄ tà [dèē] tɨ́ -kick up dust by [s.o.] àw̄ kɨ̀ ǹ-gà ngár̄ tà ngè-yá̰a̰ tɨ́.He went and kicked up dust on the rich person. Expr: gà dɔ̀-ǹ kō gèl/kò̰o̰ tɨ́ -veer to the left/right Expr: kùm [dèē] gà bùuu -[s.o.] to not see clearly Expr: gà [dèē] lòo -block [s.o.'s] view ī-gá-m̄ lòo àdɨ̄ m-ōo àĺ.You're blocking the view, I can't see. Expr: gà tà-ǹ kōo tɨ́ -cry for help Lòo-ń m-ōo tùbò dá m̄-gá tà-ḿ kōo tɨ́ ànḛ̄ dèē-gɨ̄ ɗèē-n̄ ngá̰y.When I saw the lion, I called for help and a lot of people came. Expr: ùn [dèē] gà-á bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ tɨ́ -take [s.o.] and throw him across one's shoulders ùn ngōn-ǹ gà-á bɔ̄gɨ̄-ǹ tɨ́.He took his child and threw him over his shoulders. Expr: gà hòr -take hot coals to start a new fire. Expr: gà [dèē] lā-á -throw [s.o.] down hard Tàgɨ́-bè jàng-ḿ gà-m̄ kɨ̀ njà-ǹ gà lā-m̄.Yesterday my rival tripped me with his foot and threw me down hard. Expr: gà kàm-ǹ dɔ̀ [tàa] tɨ́ -remember [s.t.] ī-gá kàm-í dɔ̀ tàa tɨ́ ń-há̰ m-él-ī nò.Remember what I told you. Expr: gà nà̰ā̰ -wander about doing nothing Ngōn kɨ́ ngè-ngḛ̀ḛ tèē àw̄ gà nà̰ā̰ bátɨ́-bátɨ́ nà̰ òō lér̀ mbùr̄ tā̰á̰ lā tél ɗèē yé.The lazy child goes out wandering doing nothing at all hours but when it's time for eating 'boule' he comes back. Expr: gà dɨ̀bà mbím -come to a sudden stop Kàmyō̰o̰ gà dɨ̀bà mbím bɔ̄gɨ̄-ɗóo tɨ́.The truck came to a sudden stop on the side of the road. Expr: gà kɨ̀ dɔ̀-ǹ -nod one's head {to indicate yes} M-áǹ ké m-āw wà lā gà kɨ̀ dɔ̀-ǹ yé àdɨ̄ tɔ̀ӯ-ḿ lā m̄-ɗàn.I asked if I could go and he nodded his head, so now is the time for my leaving. Expr: gà ndògɨ̄ -put up a small circle of grass fencing
(Syn: bā) VT pay, pay for. m̄-gā gɨ̄rā lò-ḿ. I paid my debt. M-ḭ̄ḭ lā m̄-gā sɨ́kɨ̀r hō sáӯ hō àdɨ̄ sùmbā kàdɨ̄ ī-gā yá̰a̰ kɨ́ ɗàng-gɨ̄. I already paid for the sugar and tea so you should pay for the other things.
74
gāa VI reflect, think. ādɨ̄-m̄ gāa sḭ́ḭ m-ōo tā̰á̰. Let me reflect upon it a little first. Bàbá gèe kɨ̀ ǹ-tɨ̄ɓā kó̰o̰-jɨ́ ɓēe-é lā gāa àn ɓétɨ́ ɓōo à ɗāa-jɨ̀ ngá̰y yé. Dad wants to drive Mom away from home only he's afraid that afterwards we'll be very hungry. VT think about [s.o.], consider [s.o.'s] feelings. Ngàw-ḿ à gāa dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́ àĺ. My husband doesn't think about me. VT believe, think. ī-gāa kàdɨ̄ ī-gól̄-m̄ nà ā ásɨ́ gól-m̄ àĺ. You think you're fooling me but you're not able to. Expr: kàm [dèē] gāa kàdɨ̄ -[s.o.] think that, believe that Kàm-ḿ gāa kàdɨ̄ wétɨ́ à ɗèē.I believe he'll come later. Expr: gāa tàa -worry ī-gāa tàa àĺ nà ndīi à èdɨ̀ àdɨ̄ kɨ̀-ndɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄-nèé.Don't worry, it will rain and we'll be able to plant. [lit: you think words not and rain AUX fall so-that we-plow-PL-with-it] Expr: gāa kɨ̄ dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -count on [s.o.] Expr: gāa kàm-ǹ dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -think about [s.o.], think about what's good for [s.o.] ī-gāa kàm-í dɔ̀ ngōn-í tɨ́ sḭ́ḭ.Think a little about the good of your child. Expr: tàa gāa [dèē] -what [s.o.] is thinking à èl-m̄ tàa gāa-ǹ àĺ.He won't tell me what he is thinking.
gà-gō̰o̰ NI chicken disease. Gà-gō̰o̰ ì mò̰y lò kɨ̄njá-gɨ̄. à ɗāa kɨ̄njá à kɨ̄njá à ɔ̀dɨ̀ rō-ǹ àĺ. ____ is a chicken disease. If it attacks a chicken, the chicken won't move. Expr: ngè-gà-gō̰o̰ -sickly person
gà-gɔ̀ĺ NI type of small bird. Gà-gɔ̀ĺ ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ kìl; à tér rō-ǹ dɔ̀ kāgɨ̄ tɨ́ kɨ́ kàndɨ̄-dɨ́ yīkɨ̄; à sà ngón kùr̄-gɨ̄ hō. ____ is a small black bird; it hangs around trees with sweet fruit; it eats insects as well.
gà-gɔ́r-jī (Syn: =kɨ́-gà-gɔ́r-jī) NT knuckles. m̄-dá gà-gɔ́r-jī-ḿ kàdɨ̀ bɔ̀r tɨ́. I hit my knuckles against the mud wall. Gà-gɔ́r-jī-ḿ ɔ̀r̄ àdɨ̄ tōo-m̄ ndájāĺ. My knuckle is sprained and it hurts like mad.
gà-jóo NI piece of broken pottery. m̄-ndā gà-jóo hòr-ó kɨ̀ m-úsɨ́-ň wúl̄-sàr̄ m̄-sá. I put the piece of broken pottery over the fire to grill groundnuts to eat.
gàbàgɨ̄ Bagirmi (Syn: =gàwàgɨ̄) NI type of cloth {hand woven -- no longer made}. Expr: yá̰a̰-jō-gàbàgɨ̄ -loom
gàbɨ̀ NI sore on vagina.
gàbɨ̀rō (Syn: =ɓàbɨ̀rō) VI act tough, intimidating {to get s.t.}. Expr: ngè-gàbɨ̀rō -person who intimidates to get things he wants
Gàdàpíi (Syn: =Gàdàfíi) NP Khadaffi {Libyan leader}. ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ kɨ́ Sádɨ̀ tɨ́ tètɨ̀-n̄ ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ lò Gàdàpíi. The Chadian soldiers defeated the soldiers of Khadaffi.
gàgɨ̀ NI catfish [Synodontis schall, Hemisynodontis membranaceus]. Mbìr̄ gàgɨ̀ ɔ̀sɨ̀ tōo ngá̰y. The fin of the catfish causes a painful wound.
gàgɨ̀ NI type of spear. Gàgɨ̀ ì nìngà kɨ́ ngāl nà̰ mbìr̄-á ì ngá̰y. ____ is a long spear with many barbs.
gàgɨ̄ NT plant let grown too long and which has lost taste as a result. Nɨ́má kɨ́ gàgɨ̄ màjɨ̀ ndīr tá̰a̰ àĺ. Okra left to grow too long is not good for making sauce.
gàgɨ̀-būbúl NI type of catfish [Synodontis batensoda]. Gàgɨ̀-būbúl màjɨ̀ tá̰a̰ tɔ̀ӯ gàgɨ̀ màdɨ̄-gɨ̄. This type of catfish is better to make sauces with than the other types.
gàgɨ̀-gúm-ḿ-ɗòsɨ̀-tòo NI type of catfish [Clarotes laticeps].
gàgɨ̀-ngār̀-dā̰a̰ [gàgɨ̀ŋgār̀dā̰a̰] NI type of catfish [Chrysichthys auratus].
gàgɨ̀-ngò̰y [gàgɨ̀ŋgò̰y] NI type of catfish [Auchenoglanis biscutatus].
gàgɨ̄-rō NT size, large size of [person]. Gàgɨ̄-rō-í kɨ́ bòo bè ń ī-ɗà-ň lā ādɨ̄ ngōn ndà-ī yóō? What with your big size, and you let a little kid hit you? [lit: Size-your which is-big which you-are-with-it and you-let child hit-you EC?]
75
gàgɨ̀r NI type of grass. Gàgɨ̀r ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ ɓà bɔ̄gɨ̄-bāa tɨ́; à jō-n̄-nèé ján̄g hō ndògɨ̄ hō pál̄ hō dàm hō. ____ is a grass that grows by the riverside; it's used to weave baskets, grass fencing, mats and granaries. Expr: jà gàgɨ̀r -to vomit
gàjērē Hausa NI pants worn by Muslims. Gàjērē ì njālā lò Dùm-gɨ̄. They're Muslim pants.
gájɨ̄ VTF branch in several places (tree, etc.) (freq. of gàjɨ̀). Kāgɨ̄ kó-kāŕ à gájɨ̄ ngá̰y. The ^^ tree branches a great deal.
gàjɨ̀ VI branch, be forked. Kāgɨ̄ gàjɨ̀ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́. The stick is forked.
gàjɨ̀ NT pieces of [s.t. broken]. Ngōn-í kɨ́ ngè-mbèl kàá lā ngóo lò-ḿ tɔ̄ɔ̄ ādɨ̄-á ɗèē ɔ̀y gàjɨ̀-á àw̄-ň ṵ̀ṵ̄ kɔ̄ɔ́. Your troublesome child threw my gourd and broke it, so have him come and sweep it up and throw it away. Gájɨ́ wúl̄ broken piece of a peanut Expr: gàjɨ̀-kāa (=gàjɨ̀ ngóo) -piece of broken gourd
gàjɨ̀ NT horn of animal. Gàjɨ̀ màn̄g lò mbōrōrō-gɨ̄ ngāl tɔ̀ӯ kɨ́ lò àrábɨ̀-gɨ̄. The horns of Fulani cows are longer than those of Arab cows. Expr: gàjɨ̀-kāgɨ̄ (=bàjɨ̀-kāgɨ̄, kāgɨ̄-bàjɨ̀) -forked pole or stick M-ā m̄-gèe gàjɨ̀-kāgɨ̄ kɨ̀ m̄-ɗāa-ň dàw.I need forked poles to make a grain dryer.
gājɨ̄ VT split, cut in half. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gājɨ̄ wàsɨ̄ nà̰ ɔ̀r̄ kùm-á kɔ̄ɔ́. The woman split the pumpkin and took out the seeds. VI be split in two. EMP empty.
gájɨ̄ VT break into sections or pieces (freq. of gājɨ̄). m̄-gájɨ̄ pàpáỳ m-ādɨ̄ ngán-gɨ̄. I cut up the papaya for the children. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gájɨ̄ wàsɨ̄ nà̰ ɔ̀r̄ kùm-á kɔ̄ɔ́. The woman broke up the pumpkin into little pieces and took out the seeds. VI be broken into sections or pieces. ōtɨ́ ndòr mùnjò nà̰ wétɨ́ gájɨ̄. Don't pound beans without water lest they break into little pieces. VT gnaw, nibble. Yégɨ̄ à gájɨ̄ wúl̄. Rats like to nibble on peanuts. Expr: gájɨ̄ kɨ̄ kɔ̄ɔ́ -chew on and spit out Wúl̄ ń tò tà-í tɨ́ nò, ōtɨ́ gájɨ̄ kɨ̄ kɔ̄ɔ́!Those peanuts in your mouth -- don't chew them and then spit them out!
gájɨ́ NT part, piece. ī-gāng gájɨ́ mbùr̄ ó̰o̰ nà̰ ī-yá̰ kɨ́ lò Ngāró. Break off a piece of 'boule' and eat it and leave Ngaro's for him. NT side; section; fork. Tábɨ̀l lò-á dá gájɨ́-á màdɨ̄ kìrē nà̰ kɨ́ màdɨ̄ ìl. His table is red on one side and black on the other.
gàjɨ̀-gàjɨ̀ IDS with jerky movements. Ngè-kàsɨ̀-ɗāa ɗà gàjɨ̀-gàjɨ̀. The drunkard stands with jerky movements.
gàjɨ̀-gír NT split in buttocks.
gàjɨ̀-mà̰y NT bald part of monkey's rump. NT buttocks {fig.}. Yá̰a̰ tíī gàjɨ̀-mà̰y-ḿ àdɨ̄ tōo-m̄ ngá̰y. Something is causing my buttocks to swell and it hurts a lot.
gàkɨ̄ VI stop, be stopped (normally implies an obstacle; see also dɨ̀bà). Kàmyō̰o̰ gàkɨ̄ ndì lòo kɨ́rā. The truck stopped and remained where it was. VI get stuck in. Kàmyō̰o̰ gàkɨ̄ kɨ̄ kàm bɔ̀r tɨ́. The truck got stuck in the mud. Ngōn jī-ḿ gàkɨ̄ bɨ̀tīl tɨ́. My finger got caught in the bottle. VI get caught on, stuck to. Kɨ̀lā gàkɨ̄ yá̰a̰ tɨ́. The rope is stuck on something.
gákɨ̀ (Syn: =gákɨ́) AV coincidentally, by coincidence. J-ɔ̀sɨ̀ nà̰ā̰ dò̰ó̰ gákɨ́ màdɨ̄-kɨ́rá-ḿ. I ran into my friend by chance. AV abruptly, suddenly. Tòo dɨ̀bà gákɨ̀ tà-kùm-bāa tɨ́. The pirogue stopped abruptly at the river bank.
gákɨ̄ VTF escape [s.o.] (words) (freq. of gàkɨ̄;). Tàa lò-á gákɨ̄-m̄. His words escape me. {I have trouble understanding him.}
76
gákɨ́ ID exactly (right amount). àdɨ̄-m̄ àsɨ̀ nà̰ā̰ gákɨ́. He gave it to me, and it was exactly the right amount.
gákɨ́ AV coincidentally, by coincidence ( gàkɨ̀ is also possible).
gàl̄ NI type of gourd, used to store seeds or to carry water to field [Lagenaria sp.] (see also ngóo,jànī). Gàl̄ ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ ngóo bè nà̰ à jà-n̄ tà-á lɔ́y nà̰ ɗāa-n̄ kàm-á ùtɨ̄-n̄ màn̄ tɨ́ lā à à̰ӯ-n̄ yé. ____ is something similar to a gourd and its top is cut off a bit and its interior prepared to put water in for drinking. ūtɨ̄ màn̄ ādɨ̄-á ɗòsɨ̀ kàm gál̄ ndìn nà ɓétɨ́ kɨ̀ndā à ɗāa-jɨ̀ ngá̰y. Pour the water so it fills up the gourd or later we'll be very thirsty.
gál NI bowleggedness. Gál ngōn-í ì ngá̰y. Your child is extremely bowlegged. [lit: bowleggedness child-your is a lot] Expr: ngè-gál -bowlegged person Ngōn nām-ḿ màdɨ̄ ì Ambāsānāá tɨ́ nḛ̀ḛ̄ ì ngè-gál nà à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ ngá̰y.A young friend of mine in Ambassana is bold-legged but he runs very fast.
gàm NI type of grass [Hyparrhenia bagirmica]. Gàm ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ hāyā bè nà̰ ndògɨ̄ kɨ́ jō kɨ̀ gàm ngàn̄g àĺ. ____ is a grass similar to ^^ grass, but grass fencing made with it isn't very strong.
gàḿ NI snare. Gàḿ ì gūm kɨ́ à dɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ kɨ̀lā tà kāgɨ̄ tɨ́ nà̰ à ɗāa-n̄ bùlò-á àdɨ̄ ɗà; kàn ngōn dā̰a̰ ùdɨ̀ tɨ́ ànḛ̄ à túy kɨ̄ kɔ́ɔ́-á tɨ́. ____ is a trap made by tying rope to a tree and making a loop in it; when a little animal steps in it, it snaps back catching it by the neck.
gāmsɨ̄ VT cook ['boule'] quickly. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gāmsɨ̄ ngàrì àdɨ̄ ngán ngé-ndɔ̀ɔ̄-gɨ̄ lò ngàw-ǹ. The woman made a quick manioc 'boule' for her husband's young field workers.
gàn [gà̰n] NI to a pulp {in expression ndà kɨ́ báw àl̄-à gìdɨ̀ gàn 'beat to a pulp'}. Gṵ̀mḭ́yà̰-gɨ̄ lò ngār̀ ndà-n̄ ngè-ɓògɨ̀ kɨ́ báw àl̄-à gìdɨ̀ gàn. The king's servants beat the thief to within an inch of his life.
gàn̄ VT visit. M-āw kɨ̀ m̄-gàn̄ bà̰r̄-ḿ kɨ́ mò̰y. I'm going to visit my sick paternal aunt. VT observe, take look at. ī-gàn̄ njālā ń-ɗàn nò ōo. Take a look at those pants over there.
gān [gā̰n] NI abandoned termite hill. Gān ì hólēe kɨ́ bòo kɨ́ ngán dā̰a̰-gɨ̄ à ndì-n̄ tītɨ́. It's a large hole that small animals live in.
gànáǹ Arabic (Syn: =gànéǹ,gànúǹ) NI woven metal charcoal holder. ṵ̀ṵ̄ yāl-hòr kàm gànáǹ tɨ́ kɨ̀ ǹ ndīr-ň sáӯ. He poured the hot coals into the charcoal holder to cook some tea.
gánōr [gá̰nōr] (Syn: ndɔ̀m-kɨ́rá) NI spell preventing merchant from being able to sell anything. Dèē à ndā gánōr tà yá̰a̰-gātɨ̄ tɨ́ lò-í ànḛ̄ dèē à ndūgō àĺ. If someone puts this spell on your merchandise then you won't sell anything.
gàndɨ̄-nɨ́má [gà̰ndɨ̄nɨ́má] NI small okra. Gàndɨ̄-nɨ́má à ɓà tà ɓāl tɨ́. Small okra grow at the beginning of the dry season.
77
gāng [gā̰ŋ] VT cut through. ɗóo gāng ɓēe lò-ḿ. The road cuts through my village. VT break, break through. Ngāró gāng kɨ̀lā bándɨ́ lò Súu. Ngaro broke the rope in Suu's fishnet. VI break {so as to be divided} (optionally with dɔ̀). Kɨ̀lā kínī gāng àdɨ̄ kínī sō bùlò-ó. The rope to the bucket broke and the bucket fell in the well. VT block off. ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ gāng-n̄ dà-bóy ɓēe. The soldiers blocked off the exit to the village. VT fine [money] ( gāng gúsɨ̀ dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ 'fine [s.o.] money'). Gāng-n̄ gúsɨ̀ dɔ̀ ngè-ɓògɨ̀ tɨ́. They fined the thief. VT catch [leprosy] (subj. is rō [dèē] '[s.o.'s] body'). Màn̄ tà dà-bānjāng à ɔ̀dɨ̀-ī à rō-í à gāng bānjɨ̄. If the saliva of a small grasshopper touches you, you'll catch leprosy. VT cross. m̄-gāng bāa kɨ̀ tòo. I crossed the river with a pirogue. VI cut {through a place}. Ngōn gāng kàm ndɔ̀ɔ̄ tɨ́ lò-ḿ. The boy cut across my field. m̄-gāng dɔ̀ ɗóbɨ́. I cut across the road. VI be raspy, rough (voice). ɓó-làā ndī-ḿ gāng. My voice is hoarse today. Expr: kòō gāng [dèē] -not be able to breathe, have difficulty breathing; lose consciousness Ngōn sō dɔ̀ mángò-tɨ́ lā kòō gāng-á yé.The child fell from the mango tree and lost consciousness. Expr: ndà [lòo] gāng -break through [place] Bḭ̄yā̰ ndà ndògɨ̄ lò-ḿ gāng.The goat broke through my grass fencing. Expr: gāng dɔ̀ [dèē] -pay fine for [s.o.] Hɔ̀-m̄-n̄ dàngá̰ỳ tɨ́ àdɨ̄ ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ lā ɗèē gāng dɔ̀-ḿ yé.They put in me prison and so my brother came and paid the fine for me to release me. Expr: gāng dɔ̀ [dèē] -behead [s.o.] Expr: gāng-n̄ [dèē] dàn-á (=là-n̄ [dèē] dàn-á -encircle [s.o.], surround Ngán-bà̰y-gɨ̄ àw̄-n̄ gāng-n̄-á dàn-á.The girls being initiated went and encircled him. Expr: gāng tà [dèē] -meet [s.o.] ī-gāng tà-ḿ kɨ̄ ɗóo-ó kɨ́ bòo àdɨ̄ j-àw̄ súkɨ̄-ú.Meet me on the main road and we'll go to the market. Expr: gāng ndɔ̄ɔ̄ -get up very early m̄-gāng ndɔ̄ɔ̄ kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ ɓó-nèē m-āw bāa là kùӯ tɨ́.I get very early this morning and went fishing at the river. Expr: gāng kɔ̄r -disappear, go away for good, go off on adventure Ngōn-ḿ gāng kɔ̄r àsɨ̀ ɓāl jōó.My son disappeared two years ago. Expr: gāng gír -finish, complete Ngán-gɨ̄ gāng-n̄ gír kɨ̀là lò-dɨ́.The children finished their work. Expr: gāng tàa dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -accuse [s.o.] ī-gāng tàa dɔ̀ màdɨ̄-ɓēe-í tɨ́ àĺ.Don't accuse your neighbor. Expr: gāng sèrīi lò [dèē-gɨ̄] -make a settlement between [people] Ngār̀ gāng sèrīi lò ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ kɨ̀ nḛ̄ḛ́-ǹ.The king made a settlement between my brother and his wife. Expr: gāng-n̄ nà̰ā̰ -separate, go separate ways; break off relations Kɔ̄l-n̄ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ kó̰o̰-ǹ àdɨ̄ gāng-n̄ nà̰ā̰.He had an argument with his mother and they broke off relations with each other. Expr: gír gāng tā. -it's all over now. Expr: gāng gātɨ̄ [yá̰a̰] dà (=gāng gātɨ̄ [yá̰a̰]) -set a price for [s.t.] Gāng gātɨ̄ bḭ̄yā̰ dà ngá̰y ngá̰y àdɨ̄ dèē ndūgō àĺ.He set a very high price for the goat and nobody bought it. Expr: ngè-jī-gāng -person with an amputated arm Expr: ɓōĺ gāng dūn [dèē] (=kàm [dèē] gāng màn̄) -[s.o.] to be overtaken by fear Expr: gāng nō̰o̰ [dèē] tɨ́ -console [s.o.] Kó̰o̰ ngōn gāng nō̰o̰ ngōn-ǹ tɨ́ kɨ̀ mbàa.The child's mother consoled him giving him milk. Expr: gāng ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ -stop a fight, separate fighters Ngè gāng ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ à ngà dòo dɔ̀-ǹ tɨ́.A person who breaks up a fight will end up with a wound on his head. Expr: gāng mò̰y [dèē] -hospitalize [s.o.] Expr: gāng wá̰a̰ -have the nerve to Sà gúsɨ̀ lò-ḿ nà̰ gāng wá̰a̰ tájɨ̄-m̄ kɨ̄ dɔ̀ tɨ́.He wastes my money and then he has the nerve to insult me on top of it. Expr: gāng dɔ̀ [dèē] jī [dèē màdɨ̄] tɨ́ -save [s.o.] from [s.o. else] Gāng dɔ̀-ḿ jī ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ tɨ́ nà̰-tâ tɔ̄l-m̄-n̄.He saved me from the soldiers who were going to beat me to death. Expr: jà tá̰a̰ gāng -'cut' sauce with pinkie so that it doesn't drip when eating 'boule' Expr: gāng kɨ̀ [yá̰a̰/dèē] -take [s.t./s.o.] across/through Expr: gāng [dèē] lòpìtál̀ tɨ́ -hospitalize [s.o.] Kàm-á tōo-á àdɨ̄ gāng-n̄-á nèē lòpìtāl tɨ́.His stomach was hurting and so they hospitalized him here. Expr: gāng tàa dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -judge [s.o.], pass judgement on [s.o.] Ngār̀ gāng tàa dɔ̀ ɓògɨ̀ tɨ́.The king passed judgement on the thief. Expr: gāng gír [dèē] -cut off [s.o's] escape Ngán-gɨ̄ gāng-n̄ gír ɓètɨ̄-gɨ̄ kɨ́ dò̰ó̰ mángò-ó.The children cut off the monkeys' escape in the mango tree. Expr: gāng wōng [dèē] -calm [s.o.] down Expr: gāng gúsɨ̀ dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -to fine [s.o.] Expr: gāng gɔ̄r (=ɗāa gɔ̄r) -make a dike or dam Expr: ndà dà-jī-ɗóbɨ́ gāng -cross road cross to other side of road Ndà dà-jī-ɗóbɨ́ gāng kō mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ nà yà̰ ɗóo àdɨ̄ púsɨ̄-màn̄g gɨ̄.He crossed to the other side of the road into the grass to leave the road to the oxcarts. Expr: gāng [dèē] nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ kɨ̀ [dèē màdɨ̄] -divorce [s.o.] from [s.o. else], grant divorce to Ngè-gāng-sèrī gāng ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ kɨ̀ nḛ̄ḛ́-ǹ.The judge granted a divorce to my brother and his wife. Expr: (dèē) gāng ɓōo -(s.o.) stops hunger (by eating) ī-sá kàndɨ̄ kɨ́-kūtɨ̄ à ī-gāng-ň ɓōo dɔ̀-í tɨ́.If you eat the fruit of the 'ku-kute' tree it will end your hunger. Expr: gāng-n̄ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ [ngàw-ǹ/nḛ̄ḛ́-ǹ] -to get divorced from [husband/wife] Ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ gāng-n̄ nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ nḛ̄ḛ́-ǹ.My brother got divorced from his wife.
gáng [gá̰ŋ] NI type of large drum (see kɔ̀dɨ̀, kɔ̀dɨ̀). Gáng kōo tɔ̀ӯ dàlì. The large standing drum resounds more than the small one played between the legs. à ɗāa-n̄ gáng kɨ̀ ngɔ̀ɔ̀. The large drum is made from the wood of dead trees. Gáng lā ì kɔ̀dɨ̀ kɨ́ ngāl nò. ____ is a tall drum. Expr: mbī gáng -decorative sticks protruding at top of ^MB^ drum Mbī gáng yé tètɨ̀ àdɨ̄ gáng yé kōo àĺ.The sticks of the drum broke and it doesn't make much noise. Expr: ɓòō-gáng -center of ^MB^ drum Expr: gáng-njà-ɓēe (=gáng) -drum put in hut for fetishes, said to play itself {used in traditional healing} Ngōn-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ń yá̰a̰ hán̄-á nò àw̄ gír gáng-njà-ɓēe tɨ́ àdɨ̄ dám̄-n̄-á.The young girl who'd gone crazy went to the fetish drum to be cured.
78
gán̄g [gán̄] VTF cut through {in sev. places}. VTF winnow [flour]. VTF break through {in sev. places}. VI be broken {divided in several places}. Pár-pàr tà-kújɨ́ lò-ḿ gán̄g kɔ̄ɔ́. The reed curtain over my door is completely broken. VT criticize. Ngōn ngè-ndòō àsɨ̀ gán̄g ngè-yá̰a̰ àĺ. The son of a poor man can't criticize a rich man. VI be all torn up, in shreds. Kūbɨ̄ gán̄g júm-júm. The cloth was torn to shreds. VI stop (rain), break off. Ndīi gán̄g. The rain stopped. Expr: lòo gán̄g (=lòo gán̄g ròy-ròy) -the day breaks m̄-gèe kɨ̀ lòo gán̄g tā̰á̰ lā m-āw mbāa yé.I want the day to break so I can start my trip. Expr: ɓīi gán̄g kùm [dèē] tɨ́ -[s.o.] to wake up completely Expr: gán̄g ɓál (=tɨ́lā ɓál) -be spotted, multi-colored Nèl̄-m̄ kɨ̀ kūbɨ̄ kɨ́ gán̄g ɓál ngá̰y.I love multi-colored clothing. Expr: gán̄g rō-ǹ dɔ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -slander Ngōn ngè-yá̰a̰ gán̄g rō-ǹ dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́.The rich man's son slandered me.
gáng [gá̰ŋ] ID tightly (stuff). Kūbɨ̄ ɓà sùndɨ́ gáng-gáng. The suitcase is stuffed with clothes.
gàng-gàng [gà̰ŋggà̰ŋ] AV all about {in a lost or desperate fashion}. Ngōn hàl àw̄ gàng-gàng. The orphan goes about with desperation.
gàng-gāng Arabic NI type of small drum consisting of two small drums attached together.
gāng-kāl-kɨ̄-mbōó [gā̰ŋgkālkɨ̄mbōó] NP April.
gàngɨ́r̄ [gà̰ŋgɨ́r̄] NT interior of hibiscus fruit. Gàngɨ́r̄ yír-kɨ́-ndàa dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ nà̰ ḭ̀ḭ̄ kɨ́ kìrē à sà-n̄ àĺ. The interior of white hibiscus is eaten but that of the red one isn't. Gàngɨ́r̄ màjɨ̀ ndīr kɨ̀ dā̰a̰ ngá̰y. Hubiscus fruit is delicious when cooked with meat. Expr: tá̰a̰-gàngɨ́r̄ -sauce made from hibiscus and peanut butter Tá̰a̰ gàngɨ́r̄ màjɨ̀ kò̰o̰ ngàrì.Sauce made from hibiscus is delicious with manioc.
gángɨ̀ŕ-kàdɨ̀ [gá̰ŋgɨ̀ŕkádɨ̀] NT back [of cooked chicken]. Gángɨ̀ŕ-kàdɨ̀ kɨ̄njá ì kɨ̄ngā yá̰a̰, dā̰a̰ gòtóo tɨ́. The back of the chicken is very bony, it has no meat.
gángɨ̀ŕ-ndàa [gá̰ŋgɨ̀ŕndáà] (Syn: gángɨ̀ŕ-ngà-téjɨ́) AV upside down. Kàmyō̰o̰ sō gángɨ̀ŕ-ndàa. The truck fell upside down. AV on one's back. Dèē kɨ́ ndān à tò gángɨ̀ŕ-ndàa. A person who is full lies on his back.
gánjáng [gá̰njá̰ŋ] ID hard to the ground (knock down). ɔ̀sɨ̀ lā-á gánjáng. He threw him down hard to the ground.
gànjàng-gànjàng [gà̰njà̰ŋggà̰njà̰ŋ] (Syn: gùjɨ̀-gùjɨ̀) IDS quickly, suddenly (snatch) (desc. of nār).
gápàrà Arabic (Syn: =gáfàrà) NI pardon. ī-ɗāa-m gápàrà. Pardon me.
gàr NT stalk [of pumpkin or squash]. Kàtɨ̄-ndàa à gèe kádɨ́ yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ gír bɨ̀là: kádɨ́ nɨ́má, kádɨ̄ tā̰y hō gàr wàsɨ̄ hō. Indigenous salt requires many different type of stalk: okra stalk, 'small millet' stalk, and pumpkin stalk. Expr: gàr wàsɨ̄/rūwā -pumpkin/squash stalk Ngán-gɨ̄ à ndóō-n̄ kà̰ӯ máng kɨ̀ gàr wàsɨ̄.Children learn to smoke using pumpkin stalk.
gàr (Syn: =kújɨ́-gàr) NI kitchen, one room grass house used for cooking. Kújɨ́ gàr kɨ́ dūlō dɔ̀ kɨ̀ bùndḭ̄ màjɨ̀ ngá̰y. A kitchen whose roof is thatched of ^^ grass is a good one.
gàr (Syn: =gàrà) NI fortune telling, divining cause of diseases or spells ( ndā gàr 'tell fortune'). M-āw m̄-ndā gàr kɨ̀ m-ōo-ň gír mò̰y ń ndì ɗāa ngōn-ḿ nò I'm going to have my fortune read so that I can find out about the sickness that has attacked my child. {i.e. who has put a spell on him, etc.} Expr: ngè-ndā-gàr -fortune teller Ngè-ndā-gàr ì dèē kɨ́ ɔ̀r̄ gír yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ ń ɗāa-n̄ dèē-gɨ̄ nò.A fortune teller is a person who explains the cause of things which happen to people.
gár AV really, actually. Rō-tàa m-ā m-ɗāa gár. In truth I'm really going to do it. AV nevertheless; anyway, overcoming every obstacle. àw̄ gár òō kám-tā̰á̰ lā tél yé. He overcame all obstacles to go and only then returned. Kàdɨ̀ ɔ̀sɨ̀ ngá̰y nà̰ m-ā m-āw Kūmráa gár. It's very hot but I'm going to Koumra anyway.
79
gár PRP by, next to, at one's side. āw gár kó̰o̰-í tɨ́ nà̰ kàmyō̰o̰ à ndà-ī. Go by your mother lest the truck hit you.
gār-gājɨ̄ NI grilled ground nuts. Gār-gājɨ̄ ì wúl̄-sàr̄ kɨ́ ndàw̄. They're grilled groundnuts. Ngár̄ bāa màjɨ̀ ndàw̄ gār-gājɨ̄. River sand is good for grilling groundnuts.
gàŕ-gàŕ NI type of 'long' sauce made of beans without pods. Gàŕ-gàŕ ì tá̰a̰ kɨ́ à ndīr-n̄ kɨ̀ mùnjò; ì tá̰a̰ kò̰o̰ bɨ̀rà-kɔ̀sɨ̀-gɨ̄. ____ is a sauce made with beans; it's the sauce preferred by farmers.
gār-gár AV difficult. Kɨ̄rā̰ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ lòo kàl̄-á gār-gár. The cotton tree is a tree that is very difficult to climb. [lit: cotton tree is tree that way climbing-its difficult]
gár-gár ID obligatorily. Ngōn lòkól̀ kɨ́rā à àw̄ kɨ̀ mbētē gár-gár. Each child must have paper. [lit: child school one AUX go with paper obligatorily]
gàr-gásɨ̀ NI food prepared in large quantities {for soldiers, hospital, etc.}. Lòo-ń m̄-ɗà m̄-ɗāa lòkól̀ Sár̀ tɨ́ nò ([or] Sár̀ nò) m-ā m-ó̰o̰ gàr-gásɨ̀ kɨ̀ ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄. When I was going to school in Sarh I ate food with the soldiers.
gár-gō NT nape, back of the neck. Ndābɨ́ ngàn̄g àĺ, ā ī ndá-á gár-gō-á tɨ́ ànḛ̄ à òy. Ducks are not very strong, if you hit one in the back of the neck it will die.
gàrà (Syn: =gàr) NI fortune telling. Ngè-kàdɨ̀-rō-tàa à ndā gàrà àĺ. A Christian doesn't participate in fortune telling.
gáràtɨ̀ Arabic NI type of tree. Gáràtɨ̀ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ à jà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á à nàjɨ̀-n̄ àdɨ̄ tùtɨ̀ nà à ndīr-n̄ kɨ̀ kàndɨ̄ màsɨ̄ kɨ̀tɔ̄ késɨ̄-bém̄. à ndòm̄-n̄-nèé dòo hō. ____ is a tree the pod of which is cut and dried and cooked with tamarind fruit for tuberculosis. It's also used for wrapping wounds.
gàrnádɨ̀ French NI grenade, hand grenade. Gàrnádɨ̀ ndūu tɔ̄l dèē-gɨ̄ ngá̰y. The hand grenade exploded and killed a lot of people.
gàrsísɨ̀ French NI military formation. ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ ɗà ɗāa-n̄ gàrsísɨ̀. The soldiers are getting in formation {once a day before superiors}.
gàsásɨ̀ Arabic NI bottle. Màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ḿ àdɨ̄-m̄ yìbɨ̄ gàsásɨ̀ kɨ́rā. My neighbor gave me a bottle of oil.
gàsɨ̀ AV anyway, in spite of all (in expression mà̰r gàsɨ̀ 'to insist in spite of all'). M-él-á sétɨ́ lā mà̰r gàsɨ̀ ɗāa yé. I spoke to him in vain, he insisted on doing it anyway. AV categorically [refuse]. ɔ̀gɨ̄-m̄ gàsɨ̀. He categorically refused my request.
gàsɨ̀ AV quietly, still (in expression ɗāa gàsɨ̀ 'be/stay calm'). ī-ndì gàsɨ̀ nà̰ m-ā m̄-ndūgō kūbɨ̄ m-ādɨ̄-ī. Sit still and I'll buy clothes for you.
gàsɨ̄ NT legs [of insect] (see also njà). Gàsɨ̄ kɨ́-gōng ngāl tɔ̀ӯ gàsɨ̄ kɨ́-bḭ̀ḭ́. The legs of the praying mantis are longer than those of the dung beetle.
gásɨ̀ AV in spite of it, anyway (in expression hɔ̀ à 'do it anyway, stick to it'). Ndīi èdɨ̀ ngá̰y nà̰ m̄-hɔ́ gásɨ̀ m̄-ɗèē-ň. It rained hard but I insisted on coming anyway.
gásɨ̀ Arabic (Syn: ngàn̄g) VIA be difficult. Lòo ngà kɨ̀là sìī gásɨ̀ ngá̰y. It's very difficult to become a civil servant. [lit: way find work civil-servant difficult very]
gásɨ́ (Syn: ndɨ́gá) NT rest of, remainder of. Tɔ̄l-n̄-dɨ́ mɨ̀tá nà gásɨ́ màdɨ̄-gɨ̄ à̰ӯ-n̄ túu-bè. They killed three of them but the rest of them all escaped. Expr: gásɨ́ màdɨ̄-gɨ̄ -the rest, the others m̄-tītɨ̄ gásɨ́ màdɨ̄-gɨ̄ àĺ.I am not like the others.
gásɨ́r (Syn: gósə́r) ID perfectly (ripe).
80
gàsɨ́rà Arabic (Syn: =ɗóbɨ́-gàsɨ́rà) NI road accessible to cars. Gàsɨ́rà ì ɗóbɨ́ tɨ̄ɓā kàmyō̰o̰-gɨ̄. The main road is the one taken by trucks.
gàtɨ̀ NI squatting, hunkering down. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ùdɨ̀ gàtɨ̀ ndì ndīr tá̰a̰. The woman sat in a squatting position cooking the sauce. Expr: ùdɨ̀ gàtɨ̀ -squat, sit in squatting position ɗà dò̰ó̰ njà-ǹ mbá̰a̰ nà tél ùdɨ̀ gàtɨ̀ ndɨ̀ bèŕ.He stood for a long time then squatted down on the ground.
gātɨ̄ NT price. NI commerce ( ɗāa gātɨ̄ 'to make commerce, do business'). Dāng kɨ́ kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄ dá tɔ̀ӯ dɔ̀-m̄ àdɨ̄ m̄-ɗāa gātɨ̄ lā m̄-tō-ň ngán-ḿ-gɨ̄ yé. The poverty of this year has been too much for me, I'm having to do business to support my children. NI sale, business ( gātɨ̄ gòtóo 'there is no business'). Expr: m̄-ɗāa gātɨ̄-í. -I desire the honor of talking with you (to a woman you wish to court). m̄-ɗāa gātɨ̄-í, dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́, ī-nèl̄-m̄ ngá̰y.I would like to court you, woman, you please me a lot. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ gātɨ̄ -lower the price ɔ̄r gātɨ̄ ngúl̄ lò-í sḭ́ḭ ādɨ̄ m̄-ndūgō sè-í.Lower the price of your yams a little so I can buy from you. Expr: gāng gātɨ̄ [yá̰a̰] (=gāng gātɨ̄ yá̰a̰ dà) -set a price for [s.t.] Expr: dà gātɨ̄ [yá̰a̰] -give the price for [s.t.] Dà gātɨ̄ màn̄g ngá̰y.He gave a very high price for the cow. Expr: gātɨ̄ [yá̰a̰] ɓày ngá̰y -to be in great demand, sought after Kònī-làā yé gātɨ̄ yá̰a̰-kōo ɓày ngá̰y súkūú.This year millet is in great demand in the market. Expr: ɗāa gātɨ̄ [dèē] -praise [s.o.], be very interested in [s.o.] Ngán-kɨ́-bàsá-gɨ̄ ɗà ɗāa-n̄ gātɨ̄ ngán-kɨ́-màndɨ̀-gɨ̄ lòo ndōm tɨ́.The young men were praising the young women at the place they were dancing. Expr: yòo gātɨ̄ -a fetish to help sales Músō gɨ̄ ɗāa-n̄ yòo-gātɨ̄ kɨ̀ ǹ-ngà-n̄-nèé gātɨ̄ ngá̰y.Small vendors perform rites to help then make a lot of sales. Expr: ngà gātɨ̄ ngá̰y -do a lot of business Ngè-ɗāa-gātɨ̄ à lā gúsɨ̀ kàm kújɨ́ mòjɨ̀ tɨ́ lā-ň gír yá̰a̰-gātɨ̄-gɨ̄ tɨ́ lò-ǹ ànḛ̄ à ngà gātɨ̄ ngá̰y.If a merchant puts money in a flycatcher's nest and places it under his merchandise then he'll do a lot of business. Expr: yá̰a̰-gātɨ̄ (=yá̰a̰-gātɨ̄-gɨ̄) -merchandise
gàtóò French (Syn: pàngàsóò,bènyéè) NI fried dough, donut. Ngán-gɨ̄ à gèe-n̄ gàtóò ngá̰y. Children love fried millet dough.
gàw NI old and worn down [hoe] (complement is always kɔ̀sɨ̀). ā ndɔ̀ɔ̄ kɨ̀ kɔ̀sɨ̀ ɓāl jōó ànḛ̄ à tél gàw-á. If you use a hoe for two years then it will become old and worn out.
gáw NI fallow field. Gáw ì kɔ̄r kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ ndɔ̀ɔ̄-n̄ ɓāl kósɨ̄ lā yà̰-n̄ kɨ̀ tàā kòō yé. A fallow field is one that people work for many years and then let rest. Expr: ndɔ̀ɔ̄ gáw -work a field that has been left fallow Ngè-ngḛ̀ḛ à ndɔ̀ɔ̄ gáw lò bɔ̀ɔ̄-ǹ àĺ.A lazy man will not work his father's field that has been left fallow.
gáw̄ VT catch [s.t. in air]. Sḭ́ḭ-bè kàdɨ̄ wér̀ sō tɔ̄ɔ̄ nà m̄-gáw̄-á dò̰ó̰. The glass was about to fall but I caught it. VT steal, take [souls] {fig.}. Kɨ̀mā gáw̄ ndíl ngōn. The sorcerer stole the child's soul. VT catch {meaning of} [words]. m̄-gáw̄ tàa lò-á ń ɗà èl nò. I catch the meaning of what he's saying.
gàw-gà̰a̰ (Syn: njā̰a̰-gùrɨ̀m-gṵ́y) NI type of civet cat.
gàwàgɨ̄ Bagirmi (Syn: ==gàbàgɨ̄) NI type of thick cloth formerly handwoven on loom.
gáӯ NI dum palm tree [Hyphaene thebaica]. Gáӯ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ màr bè nà̰ ngāl ngá̰y àĺ hō kàndɨ̄-á yīkɨ̄ ngá̰y àĺ hō. ____ is a tree similar to the palm tree but it's not as tall and its fruit is not as sweet.
gáӯ-būr NI type of bush. Gáӯ-būr ì kám kɨ́ à ùr-n̄ gír-á nàjɨ̀-n̄ àdɨ̄ tùtɨ̀, à ùr-n̄ ndùjɨ̄-á ṵ̀ṵ̄-n̄ tòŕ tɨ́ à̰ӯ-n̄ kɨ̀tɔ̄ késɨ̄-bém̄. ____ is a bush the root of which is dug up and dried and then pounded into a powder which is put in a pipe and smoked for tuberculosis.
gáytɨ́-gáytɨ́ IDS desc. of bowlegged walking. Ngè-gál à ndīyā gáytɨ́-gáytɨ́. A bowlegged person walks quickly in a bowlegged fashion.
gà̰a̰ ID wide (open). Tà-ɗóbɨ́ ɗà tàgɨ̀ gà̰a̰a̰. The door is wide open.
gà̰a̰ ID rotten (smell). Bà̰ý há̰ ótɨ́ gà̰a̰a̰ tītɨ̄-bè wà? How is it that you smell so bad?
81
gà̰a̰ NT round part of. Expr: gà̰a̰-kèē -round top part of square-bottomed basket used for winnowing Gà̰a̰-kèē gòtóo tā ànḛ̄ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ìbɨ̀-n̄-nèé yá̰a̰ sétɨ́.If the round structure of the winnowing basket is missing, women can't winnow anything. Expr: gà̰a̰-ndà-yèl̄ -round wooden part of slingshot Expr: gà̰a̰-kìndè -curved part of harp to which strings are attached Expr: gà̰a̰-kújɨ́ -cone-shaped top of roof, right below bÆlà-kújÉ Expr: gà̰a̰-kòr̄ -round part of small fish net Expr: gà̰a̰-sùlúm -round part of filter
gá̰à̰-gá̰à̰ AV caw {sound of crow}. Kágà̰á̰ à kōo gá̰à̰-gá̰à̰. The crow cries caw caw.
gà̰a̰-tà NT inside of mouth. ūtɨ̄ gà̰a̰-tà-í nà̰ wétɨ́ à òtɨ̀-m̄. Close your trap or it'll smell bad to me.
gá̰mḛ̄ Arabic (Syn: =gḛ́mḛ̄) NI spaghetti. Gá̰mḛ̄ màjɨ̀ ndīr kɨ̀ dā̰a̰ ngá̰y. Spaghetti is very good cooked with meat.
-gē (Syn: ==-gɨ̄) NAF particle marking plural of noun phrase (rare variant of -gɨ̄ used only in songs and chants).
gèe VT want, desire, wish. J-àw̄-n̄ lòo tɨ́ ń ī-gèe. We'll go wherever you want. M-ā m̄-gèe tíngā wōó sà. I want to grill some tilpia fish to eat. NI desire, wish. VT require, demand that one has. Ndōm bàng gèe kɔ̀dɨ̀ hō jī hō pāa hō kòo-ń. The 'bang' dance requires only a drum, clapping and singing. VT like, enjoy. Ngán-gɨ̄ gèe-n̄ kìníǹ kɨ́ àtɨ̄ àĺ. Children don't like bitter medicine. Expr: kàm gèe lò-í. -as you wish. [lit: the heart of your desire] ī-ɗāa yá̰a̰ kɨ́ kàm gèe lò-í nà ōtɨ́ gāa dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́.Do as you wish, and don't think about me. Expr: gèe dɔ̀ tàa tɨ́ lò [dèē] -to come to an agreement with [s.o.] Ngè-jà-kāgɨ̄ gèe dɔ̀ tàa tɨ́ lò-ḿ ń m-él-á kɨ̀tɔ̄ tɨ̄rá ń m̄-ndèē-á nò.The carpenter came to an agreement with me about the bed I commissioned from him. Expr: gèe tàa -want trouble Kàn ī-gèe tàa dá m-ā m̄-ndá-ī.If you want trouble I'll hit you. Expr: gèe tàa lò [dèē] -esteem, have affection for Nān-ḿ gèe tàa lò-ḿ ngá̰y.My maternal uncle has a great deal of affection for me.
gèdɨ̄ VI get down; squat down; crouch down. ī-gèdɨ̄ ādɨ̄ m-ún màn̄ dɔ̀-í tɨ́. Crouch down so I can take the water on your head. {i.e. water being carried in bucket or pot}
gēdɨ̄ (Syn: ==gētɨ̄) VT support [s.t.] {with s.t.}. Ngè-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ gēdɨ̄ tà ngúl̄ lò-ǹ kɨ̀ kɨ̀ngā. The farmer supported his yam plant with a stake.
gējɨ́ (Syn: ɗēgɨ́) VT allow to settle [liquid]. ādɨ̄ màn̄ dá gējɨ́ kám-tā̰á̰ lā ā̰y yé, nà ɓétɨ́ kùr̄-gɨ̄ à àā-n̄ kàm-í tɨ́. Let the water settle first and then drink it or else you'll get worms in your stomach. VI settle to bottom. VT decant, pour {leaving sediment on bottom}. ī-gējɨ́ sáӯ nò ādɨ̄ j-à̰ӯ nà̰ ī-yá̰ bìsɨ̄-á ī-ndā-á. Pour the tea leaving the leaves behind so we can drink it, and save the leaves for him. Expr: kùm [dèē] gējɨ́ nō̰o̰ -[s.o.'s] eyes be filled with tears, be ready to cry. Expr: (dèē) gējɨ́ nō̰o̰ -(s.o.) is ready to cry Ngōn-í ndì gējɨ́ nō̰o̰.Your child's eyes filled with tears.
gèl NI left side, the left. kō dà gèl tɨ́ (=kōkɨ̄ dà gèl tɨ́) towards the left, to the left NI left-handed person. Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ ì gèl. My father is left-handed. Expr: jī kɨ́ gèl-ḿ/jī gèl-ḿ/jī-ḿ kō gèl-ḿ/jī-ḿ kɨ́ gèl-ḿ -my left hand Jī kò̰o̰-ḿ ì dòo àdɨ̄ m-ā m̄-sá yá̰a̰ kɨ̀ jī-ḿ kō gèl-ḿ.My right hand is hurt so I eat with my left hand.
gèl NI type of yam. Gèl ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ ɓɔ̀l bè nà̰ dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄. ____ is a plant like the ^^ squash and people eat it. Expr: gèl-yòo -^MB^ squash used for spells or fetishes Gèl-yòo ì ɓɔ̀l kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à tūwā-n̄-nèé gō gídɨ́ yòo-gɨ̄.____ is a small squash used by people to find spells.
gèl-kàtɨ̄-ngílē [gèlkàtɨ̄ŋgɨ́lə̄] NI black natron used as medicine. à lā-n̄ gèl-kàtɨ̄-ngílē màn̄ tɨ́ à̰ӯ-n̄ kɨ̀tɔ̄ kàm-tōo. Black natron is put in water and drunk as a medicine for stomach ailments.
gèl-mbàa-kàtɨ̄ NI plant - fruit used as medicine (for breast-milk ailment mbàa-kàtɨ̄). Gèl-mbàa-kàtɨ̄ ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ à dùbɨ̄-n̄; dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ ń mbàa-kàtɨ̄ ɗāa-dɨ́ ànḛ̄ à jà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á ndīr sà-n̄. ____ is a plant people grow; women who are attacked by the ailment called "bitter milk" are given its fruit to eat.
82
gèl-ndìngā-gɨ̄ [gèlndḭ̀ŋgāgɨ̄] NI plant use for twin rites. Gèl-ndìngā-gɨ̄ ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ dùbɨ̄-n̄ kɨ̀tɔ̄ ndɔ̄ɔ̄ tɨ́ dèē òjɨ̀ ndìngā-gɨ̄. Nà ɓàr-dɨ́ àĺ nà mò̰y-á ɓày sì-á ànḛ̄ à-jà ndīr-n̄ àdɨ̄-n̄-dɨ́ sà-n̄. ____ is something people plant for the day on which someone gives birth to twins and fails to perform the rites for twins and then catches the resulting disease, then this plant is cut and cooked for them to eat.
gémḛ̄ (Syn: ==gámḛ̄, ==gḛ́mḛ̄) NI spaghetti. Dèē kɨ́ sìī-gɨ̄ gèe-n̄ sà gémḛ̄ ngá̰y. Bureaucrats love to eat spaghetti.
gépɨ̄ (Syn: ɗàn̄g) NI anvil.
gèr̄ VT know. ī-gèr̄-á wà? Do you know him? VT meet {for the first time}. m̄-gèr̄-á Sár̀ tɨ́. I met him {for the first time} in Sarh. VT admit. m̄-hɨ́wá-á dà ɓògɨ̀ tɨ́ nà̰ ḭ̀ḭ̄ kíyē gèr̄ màjàĺ lò-ǹ. I caught him stealing, he himself admits having done it. NI knowledge; acquaintance. ī-gèr̄-á tɔ̀ӯ gèr̄ lò-ḿ. (=ī-gèr̄-á ī-tɔ̀ӯ-m̄) You know him better than I do. [lit: you-know-him it-surpasses knowing of-me] VT learn, come to know. m̄-ndóō yá̰a̰ ngá̰y nà̰ m̄-gèr̄ àĺ. I studied a lot but I didn't learn it. Expr: gèr̄ kùm [dèē] -recognize [s.o.], know [s.o.] ḭ̄ḭ ngōn kɨ́ dūú dá, ōo dèē kɨ́ ī-gèr̄ kùm-á àĺ à ī-ɓōĺ-á.You are a small child, if you see someone whom you don't recognize, you must respect him. Expr: gèr̄ yá̰a̰ ngá̰y -be intelligent, know a lot Expr: òō gèr̄ -to know, realize J-ɔ̀sɨ̀ tà dàm kɨ́ dò̰ó̰ j-ɔ̀y wúl̄ tītɨ́, nà j-ùtɨ̄ nà kíyā-á ɗèē à òō gèr̄.We lifted the top of the granary to take some peanuts inside, and then we closed lest the owner realize (that we had stolen some). Expr: gèr̄ tàa ngá̰y -be wise Sépɨ̀-dɨ̀-kàrēè lò-jɨ́ gèr̄ tàa ngá̰y.The chief of our neighborhood is very wise.
gèr̄ NI wooden spoon used for stirring (made from branches of kɨ̀mā-dà-kɨ́-dīí tree). ún gèr̄ ādɨ̄ m̄-kūrō-ň mbùr̄. Grab the wooden spoon for me so I can stir the 'boule' with it.
gèr-gèr AV aimlessly (wander). Ngōn ń ɓògɨ̀ gúsɨ̀ lò bɔ̀ɔ̄-ǹ nò lā gìdɨ̀ ndògɨ̄ gèr-gèr. The child who stole his father's money wandered aimlessly outside the compound.
gér-gér IDS round and well-formed (head) (desc. of kūrō). Dɔ̀-á kūrō gér-gér. His head is round and well-formed.
gérgèré NI military camp. ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ ndīyā-n̄ gō nà̰ā̰ tɨ́ àw̄-n̄ kɨ̄ gérgèré. The soldiers walked one after another towards the camp.
gérɨ́r (Syn: mbḭ́ḭ-mbḭ́ḭ) ID terribly (insult) (desc. of ùy). M-él-á tàa kɨ́ kàrī lā òō tà kùm nām-ǹ-gɨ̄ à ùy-m̄ gérɨ́rɨ́r nà̰ tɔ̀ӯ sè-dɨ́ yé. I was talking to him in a normal fashion but when he realized his friends were present he insulted me terribly and left with them.
gētɨ̄ (Syn: =gēdɨ̄) VT support [s.t.] {with s.t.}. m̄-gētɨ̄ ndògɨ̄ kɨ̀ kāgɨ̄. I support the grass fencing with poles. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gētɨ̄ jóo dɔ̀-ǹ tɨ́. The woman supported the pot on her head [with her hands].
gèw AV in the pot {for gambling} (always with àw̄). Ngé ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ mbàrà-gɨ̄ àw̄-n̄ gèw. The card players put money in the pot.
gèw AV popular, in vogue (in expression ùn à 'be in vogue'). Pāa lò-á lā ùn gèw tà-jī-gɨ̄-nḛ̀ḛ̄ yé. His song is in vogue now.
géw̄ (Syn: bél̄) VI mooch, hang around waiting for food to be served. m̄-ɗèē kɨ̀ m̄-géw̄-ī. I've come to mooch food from you. VNI freeloading, mooching. Expr: ngè-géw̄ -freeloader Ngè-géw̄ à òō yá̰a̰ à à tɔ̀ӯ àĺ.If a freeloader sees food he won't leave.
gḛ́mḛ̄ Arabic (Syn: ==gá̰mḛ̄) NI spaghetti.
83
gìdɨ̀ [gÌdɨ̀] NT back. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ dɔ̀ɔ̄ ngōn-ǹ gìdɨ̀-ǹ tɨ́. The woman tied the baby to her back. Gìdɨ̀ màrkóbɨ̀ lò-í yé hɔ̀ yūró ngá̰y. (The exterior of) your shoes is very dirty. NT exterior of. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ò̰o̰ gìdɨ̀ hīl kɨ̀ màn̄ àdɨ̄ kɨ̀ ò̰o̰ tó̰rḭ-tó̰rḭ́. The woman polished the exterior of the hearthstones with water so that they were perfectly smoothe. Expr: lā gìdɨ̀ [lòo] -wander about behind [a place] Ngōn ń tújɨ́ sɨ́ndá lò bɔ̀ɔ̄-ǹ nò lā gìdɨ̀ kújɨ́ gèr-gèr.The boy who broke his father's bike wandered aimlessly behind the house. Expr: gìdɨ̀ jī/njà -back of hand/top of foot Màn̄ kɨ́ tíngā ò̰o̰ gìdɨ̀ jī-ḿ tɨ́.Hot water burned the back of my hand.
gìdɨ̀ [gÌdɨ̀] PRP behind, on the other side. gìdɨ̀ bāa tɨ́ on the other side of the river M-ún ndúr tàgɨ́-bè gìdɨ̀ kújɨ́-tɨ́ lò-jɨ́. I caught a hedgehog yesterday behind our house. gìdɨ̀ kújɨ́ tɨ́ behind the house PRP on; around. m̄-ɓìr̄ kɨ̀lā gìdɨ̀ kāgɨ̄ tɨ́. I wound up the rope on the stick. Expr: kō gìdɨ̀ [dèē] tɨ́ -from behind à ndīyā dāy-gɨ̄ àdɨ̄ ndà-n̄-á kɨ̀ kāgɨ̄ kō gìdɨ̀-á tɨ́.He walked unaware and they hit him from behind.
gídɨ́ [gɨ́dɨ́] NT heel. Līi dò̰o̰ gídɨ́-ḿ. A snake bit me in the heel. Expr: gídɨ́-màrkópɨ̀ -soles of one's shoes Expr: ndōm gídɨ́ ɓìr̄ -dance without drums Ngé-kàsɨ̀-ɗāa-gɨ̄ ndōm-n̄ gídɨ́ ɓìr̄ tà kàsɨ̀ tɨ́.The drunkards are dancing without drums in front of their drinks. Expr: gō gídɨ́ [yá̰a̰] -the explanation for [s.t.]; how to make [s.t.] ī-dá-m̄ gō gídɨ́ ɗāa màndàwá.Show me how to make grilled peanuts.
gìdɨ̀-bɨ̀là [gÌdɨ̀bɨ̀là] (Syn: dà-búu-bḭ̄yā̰) NI locally produced tobacco (normally used in pipes) (see máng 'tobacco'). Gìdɨ̀-bɨ̀là ì máng kóo-ɓēe kɨ́ à à̰ӯ-n̄ kɨ̀ tòŕ. Local tobacco is native tobacco that is smoked in a pipe.
gìdɨ̀-bùtò [gÌdɨ̀bùtò] NI type of frog with large legs. Gìdɨ̀-bùtò ì kà̰r̄ kɨ́ à ùr bùtò gìdɨ̀-ǹ tɨ́. ____ is a frog with a white milky substance on its back.
gídɨ́-gàl̄ [gɨ́dɨ́gàl̄] NI type of plant [Cissampelos mucronata]. Gídɨ́-gàl̄ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ à àl bèŕ; dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à gāng ndīr-n̄ ngɨ̀rà-á àdɨ̄-n̄ ngán kɨ́ dūú-gɨ̄ kɨ́ kàm-dɨ́ tōo-dɨ́ à̰ӯ-n̄. ì kḭ̄ḭ sùm-kɨ̀rí hō. ____ is a plant that grows on the ground; women break off the root and cook it for children whose stomachs are bothering them. It's also a medicine for hepatitis.
gìdɨ̀-lòo [gÌdɨ̀lòo] NE toilet, wc. M-āw gìdɨ̀-lòo tɨ́. I'm going to the WC.
gídɨ̀r Arabic (Syn: =gítɨ̀r) NI large aluminum pot. Gídɨ̀r ì tàwá kɨ́ bòo; kúm-á ì jōó. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à mbél̄-n̄ kàsɨ̀ tɨ́ ɗáw̄-n̄. ____ is a large pot; it has two handles. Women pour beer into it for selling.
gīgɨ̄ NI stump [of tree]. m̄-gá njà-ḿ gīgɨ̄ tɨ́. I hit my foot against a stump.
gīgɨ̄-ngàrì [gīgɨ̄ŋgàrì] NI part of manioc near stem. Gīgɨ̄-ngàrì màjɨ̀ sà àĺ. The part of manioc near the stem is not good to eat.
gìjè VI burp (see also bɔ̀ɔ̀). Ngè-ndān lā à gìjè yé. A full person will burp. VT make burp. Wúl̄ à gìjè-m̄ ngá̰y. Peanuts make me burp a lot.
gìjè-bɔ̀ɔ̀ NI type of small bird {barbet and/or tinker bird}. Gìjè-bɔ̀ɔ̀ ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ bòo tɔ̀ӯ gà-gɔ̀ĺ; kɨ̄ngā-tà-á bòo kùryùuu. à sà kàndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ yīkɨ̄-gɨ̄. à ɓà bḭ̀ḭ̄ gír kɨ̄ngā-tà-ǹ tɨ́. ____ is a small bird that is larger than the bird called ^^; its beak is very fat. It eats sweet fruit. It has hair under its beak.
gíkɨ́ ID with force (pierce, stab, etc,).
gìlè NI type of tree. Gìlè ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ bòo, dèē-kɨ́-bòo-gɨ̄ à ndì-n̄ ndíl-á tɨ́ ɓāl-á dà-n̄ nà̰ā̰ gōsɨ̄-tàa. Ngōn yèl̄-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ kàndɨ̄-á kɨ̀tɔ̄ yīkɨ̄-á. ____ is a large tree, and the elders sit in its shade in the dry season and tell proverbs. Birds eat its fruit because of its sweetness.
gīlē [gɨ̄lə̄] NT side, part above hip. J-ɔ̀sɨ̀ gīlē-á. Let's poke him in the side.
84
gílé NT inner recess of, deep corner of, bottom of. ī-lá jī-í gílé jóo-tɨ́ àĺ nà līi dò̰o̰-ī. Don't stick your hand in the bottom of the water pot lest a snake bite you. ī-ndā kāgɨ̄-tɨ̄rá gílé kújɨ́ tɨ́. Put the stick bed in a far corner of the house. NT inside part of, interior of. ī-lá górō gílé-í tɨ́. Stick the kola nut inside your mouth. [lit: you put kola interior-your LOC] Expr: gílé kàm/gílé mbóo -inside of stomach/inside cheek Expr: gílé lòo -a spot hidden inside
gìlìng [gìlḭ̀ŋ] ID with large flames (burn). Hòr tò ùnjɨ̄ jóo tɨ́ gìlìng-gìlìng. The fire burned under the pot with large flames.
gìlìng [gìlḭ̀ŋ] ID extremely (bright). Tàgéè lò ngār̀ ndúlō gìlìng-gìlìng. The chief's hat is extremely bright.
gìmmm (Syn: =gìmmm) ID rising up in unison. Pāa lò-dɨ́ ɓày gìmmm. Their song rose up in unison. Ndìgɨ̀-n̄-á pāa gìmmm. They answered in song in unison.
gìmmm ID very (short) {something horizontal, around 2 feet long}. Mṵ̀ṵ̄ ì līi kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀ gìmmm. The 'muu' snake is around 2 feet long.
gìndɨ̄ [gḭ̀ndɨ̄] (Syn: hāndɨ̄) NI iron, metal. Kɔ̀dɨ̄ à òo kɔ̀sɨ̀ kɨ̀ gìndɨ̄. The blacksmith makes hoes with iron. NI piece of metal. Gìndɨ̄ rīgɨ̄jɨ̄ ngōn-jī-ḿ. The piece of metal crushed my finger. Expr: bēl gìndɨ̄ -broken piece of metal
gìndɨ̄ [gḭ̀ndɨ̄] NI rectal worms. Gìndɨ̄ ì mò̰y kɨ́ à sà tà-gír ngán-gɨ̄ àdɨ̄ gír-dɨ́ à ndò̰ō̰-dɨ́. Rectal worms is a disease that attacks children's anuses so that they itch.
gīndɨ̄ NT piece of [s.t. hard and long]. ādɨ̄-m̄ gīndɨ̄ kɨ̀lā m̄-dɔ̀ɔ̄-ň ndògɨ̄. Give me a piece of rope so I can tie the grass fencing with it. Expr: gīndɨ̄-gòy -old beat up pestle Expr: gīndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ -a stick Gɔ̀l ì gīndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ kūrō.A club is a piece of carved wood. Expr: gīndɨ̄ mápà -piece of bread {broken off from loaf} ādɨ̄-m̄ gīndɨ̄ mápà m̄-sá.Give me a piece of bread to eat. Expr: gīndɨ̄-máng -cigarette butt ā ī-ɗāa kɨ̀là àĺ à ā ī-ndégɨ̄ gīndɨ̄-máng lò nām-í-gɨ̄ bèŕ.If you don't work you'll be picking up the cigarette butts of your friends off the ground.
gīndɨ̄-dèē NI dwarf, short person. Gīndɨ̄-dèē ì dèē kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀ ngá̰y. A dwarf is a very short person.
gìng [gḭ̀ŋ] ID extremely (fat).
gíng [gḭ́ŋ] (Syn: ==díkɨ́,dɨ́ríng,díng) ID tightly (stuff {in single motion}).
gír PRP under. Ndògɨ̄-bɔ̀r ń-tèń ngàn̄g àĺ, ngán-gɨ̄, ōtɨ́ tèē-n̄ gír tɨ́ nà ɓétɨ́ à sō dɔ̀-sɨ́ tɨ́. This mud wall isn't strong, children, so don't stand under it lest it fall on you. Kānjɨ̄ tɔ̀ӯ kɨ̀-ngɔ̄dɨ̄-gɨ̄ gír màn̄ tɨ́. The fish swam away quickly under the water. Bɔ̀r ndògɨ̄ ń-tèn ngàn̄g-àĺ, ngán-gɨ̄ ōtɨ́ ndìn gír tɨ́ nà ɓétɨ́ tètɨ̀ sō dɔ̀-sɨ̀ tɨ́. The mud of that wall is not strong, children, don't sit under it lest it break and fall on you. PRP at the bottom of. Ndégɨ́ màn̄ nà̰y gír jóo tɨ́. There is a little water left at the bottom of the pot.
85
gír N rump. NT lower part of trunk of body. Ngōn-bḭ̄yā̰ tèē tà gír kó̰o̰-ǹ tɨ́. The baby sheep came out of its mother's vagina. NT cause. NT origin. Ngàrwày hō būr hō kɨ́-bɔ̀ɔ́ hō ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ gír-dɨ́ ì kɨ́rā. The large river lizard, the large land lizard, and the red headed lizard are three things with the same origin. NT pile, group. NT bottom, lower part. Mbùr̄ ngàrì làw̄ gír tàwá tɨ́. The manioc 'boule' stuck to the bottom of the pot. NT roots of tree. Expr: yā gír (=là gír) -start, begin m̄-yā gír kɨ̀là lò-ḿ ɗāa nā̰a̰ jōó.I started my work two months ago. Expr: gír tà ɗí -for what reason? Gír tà ɗí há̰ bɔ̀ɔ̄-í ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄-nèé nà̰ā̰ kɨ̀ kó̰o̰-í?For what reason are your parents fighting? Expr: là-gír -beginning lòo là-gír-á tɨ́at the beginning [of it] Expr: kɨ̀ gír-dɨ́-gɨ̄ bè -all {with movement} J-àw̄-n̄ Njàménà tɨ́ kɨ̀ gír-jɨ́-gɨ̄ bè.We're all going to N'djamena. Expr: gír kāgɨ̄ nō̰o̰ -funeral place M-āw gír kāgɨ̄ nō̰o̰ tɨ́.I'm going to the funeral place. Expr: ndā gír [yá̰a̰] hòr-ó -reheat [s.t.] Ndā gír kānjɨ̄ hòr-ó kɨ̀-sḭ́ḭ nḛ̀ḛ̄.He reheated the fish this morning. Expr: tɔ̄ɔ̄ gír-ǹ bèŕ -sit all the way down ī-tɔ̄ɔ̄ gír-í bèŕ.Sit all the way down. Expr: gír-dèē-gɨ̄ -team Expr: tél tà gír [yá̰a̰] -turn [s.t.] over Expr: gāng gír -finish, complete Ngán-gɨ̄ gāng-n̄ gír kɨ̀là lò-dɨ́.The children have finished their work. Expr: kɨ̀ gír-ǹ kàrī -naked Expr: tél gír dà-nàng -turn soil over (to plant) Bɨ̀rà-kɔ̀sɨ̀ tél gír dà-nàng àdɨ̄ yá̰a̰ sà tèē tɨ́.The farmer turned the soil over so a crop could be produced. Expr: kɨ̀ gír-á-gɨ̄ bè -by its roots Nél-māĺ ɔ̀r̄ kāgɨ̄ kɨ̄rā̰ kɨ̀ gír-á-gɨ̄ bè.The tornado tore up the cotton tree by its roots.
gír-á-gír-á NE groups of same type (in expression kɨ̀ à 'in groups of same type'). M-ṵ̄ṵ líbɨ̀r-gɨ̄ kɨ̀ gír-á-gír-á. I organized the books into groups according to their type.
gír-bògɨ̀ [gírbógɨ̀] (Syn: =bògɨ̀) NT chin. Gír-bògɨ̀ nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ tíī àdɨ̄ òō lòo lā rō-ǹ àĺ. My wife's chin is swollen and she is in great discomfort.
gír-ɓēe (Syn: =yá̰a̰-gír-ɓēe) NI traditions, customs. Ndōm kɨ̄lá-gɨ̄ ì ndōm gír-ɓēe Mbáӯ. The marriage dance is a traditional Mbay dance.
gír-ɓēe NP east. Kàdɨ̀ à ɓà kōkɨ̄ gír-ɓēe tɨ́. The sun rises in the east.
gír-ɓōdɨ̄-bāa NI break of day. Gír-ɓōdɨ̄-bāa ndì ɓày. The day is breaking.
gír-ɓōdɨ̄-kúm NT lower stomach. ásɨ̀gàr-gɨ̄ ndà gír-ɓōdɨ̄-kúm nḛ̄ḛ́-ǹ tɔ̄l-á. The policeman hit his wife in the lower stomach and killed her.
gìr-gḭ̀ḭ AV intensely hot. Hòr kɨ́ gìr-gḭ̀ḭ A fire with hot coals AV thick (clouds). Ndīi ìl̄ gìr-gḭ̀ḭ. The clouds are extremely thick.
gír-kàa [gírkáà] NI custom, tradition. Gír-kàa tɨ́ lò-jɨ́ ngōn-kɨ́-màndɨ̀ à sà kɨ̄njá àĺ. According to our customs young women don't eat chicken.
gír-kāgɨ̄-nō̰o̰ NI funeral, funeral site. Tàa kɨ́ tōo tītɨ̄ bè à ì gír-kāgɨ̄-nō̰o̰ tɨ́ àdɨ̄ ī-nō̰o̰-ň yé-lā. Words that hurt like that should be (spoken) at a funeral site so that you can cry as a result. M-āw gír-kāgɨ̄-nō̰o̰ tɨ́. I'm going to the funeral.
gír-kɨ́-ngà-kɨ̄lā [gírkɨ́ŋgàkɨ̄lā] NT under-tongue. Kɨ̄ngā kānjɨ̄ ɔ̀sɨ̀ gír-kɨ́-ngà-kɨ̄lā náw. A fishbone got stuck under the tongue of the fisherman.
gír-kɔ́ɔ́ (Syn: =màsól) NT armpit. àmsótɨ̀n ɓà gír-kɔ́ɔ́-ḿ tɨ́. I have a painful cyst in my armpit.
gír-nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ AVE at times, from time to time ( à-nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ and à-nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ also possible). AVE successively, day after day. Ndīi kɨ́ ɓūĺ-bòo tɨ́ ɗà gír-nà̰ā̰-tɨ́ ɗṵ̀yyy. The rains of August come day after day.
gír-ngúl̄ [gírŋgúl̄] NI bitter part of yam near stem. NI yams from second harvest. Dèē-gɨ̄ à ùr-n̄ gír-ngúl̄ ɓāl-á. People dig up yams from the second harvest in the dry season.
86
gìrè [gɨ̀rə̀] NI type of long fish net with round opening. Náw-gɨ̄ à hɨ̀wà-n̄ kānjɨ̄ kɨ̀ gìrè. Fishermen use the woven net to catch fish. Expr: jō gìrè -make the woven fish net
gìrè [gɨ̀rə̀] NI carving tool for engraving gourds. Gìrè ì yá̰a̰ tɔ̄l gìdɨ̀ ngóo. ____ is a tool for carving the exterior of gourds.
gīrē [gɨ̄rə̄] NI stick {use to throw}. Ngōn lā mángò kɨ̀ gīrē lā nàl-á yé. The boy threw the stick at the mango but he missed. ā ī-lā gīrē ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́ ànḛ̄ ā ī-lā ngè-tár-í. {Proverb} If you throw a stick at night you will hit someone who loves you.
gīrē [gɨ̄rə̄] NI type of bush. Gīrē ì kám kɨ́ à ɓà gìdɨ̀ ɓēe lā ngá̰y yé. ____ is a bush that grows like mad outside the village.
gírē [gɨ́rə̄] NI thicket; area covered with bushes and trees. Gírē-gɨ̄ ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ dūú-gɨ̄ kɨ́ à ɗà-n̄ gìdɨ̀ ɓēe tɨ́. A thicket is {a group of} small trees growing behind the village. M-āw kɨ̀ m-gá gírē bùĺ lò-ḿ. I'm going to cut down the bushes to plant cotton.
gìrè-gìrè INJ I'm next! {person who wants to tell next story cries " súu-súu"; person who wants to go after him cries " súu-súu".
gìsɨ̀r ID extremely (bitter).
gīsɨ̄r V residue of ashes left when making traditional salt {used in making natron and soap}. Expr: gīsɨ̄r kàtɨ̄-ngílē -natron made from residue of ashes from salt process Gīsɨ̄r kàtɨ̄-ngílē à là-n̄ nà̰ā̰ tɨ́ kɨ̀ bɨ̀nā àdɨ̄-n̄ màn̄g-gɨ̄ sà-n̄Natron made from ashes is mixed with bran and given to the cows to eat. Expr: sàbō̰o̰-gīsɨ̄r -soap made from residue of ashes from salt process Expr: màn̄-gīsɨ̄r -water with ash residue Kḭ̀ḭ ndò̰ō̰ njà-á àdɨ̄ là njà-ǹ màn̄-gīsɨ̄r tɨ́.He had foot sores from having stepped on excrement and so he soaked his foot in water with the ash residue in it
gìtè [gÌtè] NI mourning dove ( =dér-gìtè is also common). Gìtè ì ngōn há̰ à sà ngór gɔ̀jɨ̀ wà? {Song of ^^ dove} Is the mourning dove a child that he eats unripe sorghum?
gítɨ̀r [gɨ́tɨ̀r] (Syn: =gídɨ̀r) NI large aluminum pot. Gítɨ̀r ì tàwá kɨ́ bòo kɨ́ dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à ɗáw̄-n̄-nèé kàsɨ̀. ____ is a large pot used by the women to sell beer.
gìyā-gìyā NI type of small bird. Gìyā-gìyā ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ ɓòng-á ngāl, à sà ngán kùr̄-gɨ̄ hō hútɨ̄ kāgɨ̄-gɨ̄ hō. ɓōĺ ngá̰y. ____ is a small bird with a long tail. It eats insects and flowers. It's very skittish.
-gɨ̄ NAF particle marking plural of noun phrase. AF approximately. Expr: kɨ́rā/jōó/mɨ̀tá-gɨ̄ bè -approximately one/two/three/etc. ɗèē àsɨ̀ nā̰a̰ mɨ̀tá-gɨ̄ bè.He came about three months ago.
gɨ̄jā NI african civet. Bḭ̀yà̰ gɨ̄jā òtɨ̀ ngá̰y. The spray of the civet smells terrible. Ndīi ndà tùbò tél gɨ̄jā. The rain struck the lion and it turned into a civet. {Proverb: the great can be made small by unexpected events}
gɨ̀lā NT space between lower legs (see also mbāa). Bísɨ́ ùdɨ̀ gɨ̀lā-ḿ tɨ́ kɨ̀ ǹ-lā-m̄. The dog went between my legs and knocked me over.
gɨ́lá NI cyst, external cyst. m̄-ɓá gɨ́lá nò̰-ḿ tɨ́. I have a cyst on my forehead.
gɨ́lá NI type of tree. Gɨ́lá ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́. Màn̄g-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ mbī-á ngá̰y. Kó̰o̰ màn̄g kɨ́ ndēn ngōn à sà gɨ́lá ngá̰y ànḛ̄ à ɔ̀r̄ ngōn. ____ is a wild tree. Cows love to eat its leaves. If a pregnant cow eats too much of it, it will have a miscarriage.
gɨ̀lásɨ̀ French NI ice. Gɨ̀lásɨ̀ tètɨ̀ màn̄. The ice melted.
87
gɨ̀lè-ɓɔ̀l NI type of tree. Gɨ̀lè-ɓɔ̀l ì kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à ndīr-n̄ mbī-á tá̰a̰ tɨ́. Kàndɨ̄-á tátɨ́ tītɨ̄ kàndɨ̄ ɓìtà bè nà̰ dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄ àĺ. ____ is a tree whose leaf is cooked in sauces. Its fruit is wide like that of the ^^ tree, but people don't eat it.
gɨ́lēý NI parakeet. Gɨ́lēý ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ kɨ̄ngā-tà-á tītɨ̄ kɨ̄ngā-tà kókōwárī bè. à sà kàndɨ̄ kāgɨ̄ kɨ́ yīkɨ̄, à ò̰o̰ dà gɔ̀jɨ̀ hō. ɓāl-á à ùdɨ̀-n̄ hólēe ngɔ̀ɔ̀ tɨ́ à tèē-n̄ tígé àĺ. The parakeet is a small bird whose beak is similar to that of the parrot. It eats sweet fruit and sorghum grains as well. In the dry season, it goes into holes in dead trees and doesn't come out.
gɨ̀mbà NI large river frog with yellow stomach [Rane occipitalis]. Gɨ̀mbà ì kà̰r̄ kɨ́ bòo, à ndì gɔ̀w-ɔ́ hō mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ hō. Dèē-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄-á. Rō-á kìrē sò̰o̰o̰. The small river frog lives in ponds or in grass. People eat it. Its body is red. Expr: gɨ̀mbà-tàsòĺ -type of ^MB^ frog
gɨ̀mbā NI mason wasp (see also yētɨ̄,bìrbḭ̀). Gɨ̀mbā tītɨ̄ yētɨ̄ bè nà̰ à ɗāa kújɨ́ lò-ǹ kàdɨ̀ bɔ̀r tɨ́. à hɔ̀ ngán kùr̄-gɨ̄ à àw̄-ň lā kàm kújɨ́ tɨ́ lò-ǹ lā à tél-dɨ́ ngán-ǹ-gɨ̄ tɨ́. The mason wasp is like the yellow wasp only it builds its nest on the sides of mud walls. It seizes small insects and puts them in its nest and then turns them into its children. Gɨ̀mbā à ɗāa kújɨ́-ǹ kɨ̀ bɔ̀r kàdɨ̀ bɔ̀r tɨ́. The mason wasp makes its nest of mud on the sides of walls.
gɨ̀nà [gɨ̀nà̰] (Syn: gɔ́sɨ́) NT upper back. Gɨ̀nà-ḿ tōo-m̄ ngá̰y. My upper back hurts. NT hunch. Expr: ɓà gɨ̀nà -be hunchbacked Expr: ngè-ɓà-gɨ̀nà -hunchback Ngè-ɓà-gɨ̀nà à ndīyā ànḛ̄ à ɔ̀r̄ dɔ̀-á kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ àĺ.When the hunchback walks he doesn't lift up his head.
gɨ́ná [gɨ́ná̰] NI scorpion. Gɨ́ná gà-ī nà̰ dèē à hɨ̀wà lòo-á àĺ dá ā ī-ɓīi ndɔ̄ɔ̄-ɔ́ àĺ. If a scorpion bites you and nobody takes out the poison you won't sleep at night.
gɨ̀nà̰à̰ NI erection. Expr: mɔ̀tɨ̀ [dèē] ɓày ɗāa gɨ̀nà̰a̰ -[s.o.] to have an erection
gɨ̀rā NI type of bird of prey. Gɨ̀rā ì yèl̄ kɨ́ bòo kɨ́ kɨ́-mṵ̄r-njà-á ì ngá̰y. à sà yèl̄ nām-ǹ-gɨ̄, à hɔ̀ tànjɨ̀ hō. ____ is a large bird with many talons. It eats other birds, and catches the guinea hen as well. Ngōn sīŕ kɨ́ àndɨ̄ bèl̄ gɨ̄rā. {Proverb} A little finch that gets into the feathers of the large bird of prey. {i.e. don't judge someone's strength by his size alone.}
gɨ̄rā NI debt. Lòo-ń ùn gúrsɨ̀ dá àw̄ bā gɨ̄rā lò-ǹ. When he received his pay he went and paid his debt. Expr: gɨ̄rā lò [dèē] ì dɔ̀ [dèē màdɨ̄] tɨ́ -[s.o.] be owed by [s.o. else] Dèē màdɨ̄ kɨ́ gɨ̄rā lò-á ì dɔ̀ dèē-gɨ̄ tɨ́ jōó ì nò.There was a man who was owed money by two people.
gɨ̄rā PRP due to, because of. m̄-gèe kàw̄ rō-á tɨ́ àĺ gɨ̄rā kàm-màjàĺ lò-á. I don't want to go near him because of his wickedness. Expr: gɨ̄rā-kàdɨ̄ -because m̄-ndá-á gɨ̄rā-kàdɨ̄ ndà ngōn-ḿ.I hit him because he hit my child.
gɨ̀ráỳ Arabic NI koranic studies. Málɨ̀m ì ngè ndóō gɨ̀ráỳ ngán-gɨ̄ tɨ́. A Koranic teacher is someone who teaches Koranic studies to children. Expr: lòkól̀ gɨ̀ráỳ -koranic school
gɨ́rɔ́ (Syn: lɔ́w) IDS enough, sufficiently (in expression ɔ̀dɨ̀ tà [dèē] à '[s.o.] gets what he/she deserved'). Lòo-ń ī-sáā-m̄ yé ī-ngá-m̄ àdɨ̄ ɔ̀dɨ̀ tà-í gɨ́rɔ́. You looked for me and you found me, so you got what you deserved. {i.e. you were looking for trouble with me and you found it.}
NT way to (shortened form of gōsɨ̄). ī-dá-m̄ gō gídɨ́ ɗāa màndàwá. Show me how to make grilled peanuts. Expr: tītɨ̄-bà̰ý òō gō? -why on earth, how/why in the name of goodness? Sà yá̰a̰ lò-í àĺ yé ā ī-ndá-á tītɨ̄-bà̰ý ōo gō?He didn't take your things so why on earth are you hitting him?
NT nape, back of the neck. Gō dèē gèr̄ gìdɨ̀-á àĺ. {Proverb} One's nape doesn't know what is behind one. {i.e. you don't have eyes behind your head.} NT location of, place of. M-ōo tà gō-í àĺ. (=m-ōo gō-í àĺ.) I didn't know where you were. Expr: gō-kàsɨ̀ (ngàn̄g) -drink (ferments) Expr: gō-ngàn̄g (=kòng) -strong (beer) m̄-gèe kàsɨ̀ kɨ́ gō ngàn̄g.I want a strong beer. Expr: gō [dèē] tɨ́ -in [s.o.'s] room Sákɨ̄ lò-í tò gō-ḿ tɨ́ nò.Your sack is in my room. Expr: ɔ̀sɨ̀ gō jī [dèē] -help [s.o.]
88
PRP behind, after. M-āw gō bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ lòo kɨ̀là tɨ́. I went after my father to the place of work. m̄-yá̰ kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ tà bāa tɨ́, ɓétɨ́ m-ā m̄-āw gō tɨ́. I left my clothes at the river, later I'll go after them. ōtɨ́ ndúlō gō-ḿ. Don't follow me. PRP according to. ī-ɗāa kɨ́ gō kàm-gèe tɨ́ lò-í. Do as you wish. [lit: do in accordance to your wishes] PRP for. ùr̄-n̄ wíy gō-ḿ tɨ́. They cheered for me by ululating. PRP later than, after. Tā̰y à àndɨ̄ gō kɨ́-mbéré tɨ́ nà nò̰ wàā tɨ́. 'Small millet' bears fruit after corn but before ^^ millet. PRP compared with. ḭ̄ḭ ngōn ngá̰y gō-ḿ tɨ́. You're just a child compared with me. Expr: ɗāa gō rō-ǹ -prepare self, get ready ī-ɗāa gō rō-í nà j-àw̄.Get ready and let's go. Expr: ɗāa gō yá̰a̰-gɨ̄ -get things ready Expr: òō gō -learn from, know from Màjɨ̀ kàdɨ̄ ōo gō kɨ̀là ɗāa bɔ̀ɔ̄-í.You must learn from the work done by your father. Expr: là gō [dèē] tɨ́ -send for [s.o.] Là gō màdɨ̄-ɓēe-ǹ tɨ́.He sent for his neighbor.
NI laughter. VI laugh. ī-gō tītɨ̄ màdɨ̀ bè. You laugh like a baboon. Expr: gō òy -laugh one's head off Expr: tò gō -be funny, amusing Tàa lò-á tò gō ngá̰y.What he said is very funny.
gó-ɓóng [góɓó̰ŋ] NI gluttony. m̄-gèe ngōn kɨ́ sà yá̰a̰ gó-ɓóng tɨ́ àĺ. I don't like children who eat gluttonously. NI glutton. Gó-ɓóng à sà yá̰a̰ kɨ̀ dèē àĺ. A glutton never eats with anybody.
gō-jī NT style of doing of [s.o.],. ī-ɗāa gō-jī-ḿ tɨ́. Do it the way I do.
gō-kɨ́rā (Syn: kɔ́ɔ́-kɨ́rā) NI truth, clarity. Tàa kɨ́ kèl gō-kɨ́rā màjɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ ɓògɨ̀. Speaking the truth is better than lying.
gòdɨ̀-gódɨ̀ Hausa (Syn: =gòdò-gódò) NI type of white 'boule' normally eaten in milk, sold by Muslim women. Gòdɨ̀-gódɨ̀ ì túsɨ́ mbùr̄ tā̰y kɨ́ ɓā kɨ̀ sìtā; à sà-n̄ kɨ̀ mbàa. Dèē kɨ́ sà gòdɨ̀-gódɨ̀ ngá̰y à bòo ngá̰y. ____ is 'boule' without sauce mixed with hot pepper; it's eaten with milk. Anyone who eats a lot of it will get very fat.
gógí ID completely (bare,bald). Dɔ̀-á ngɔ̀ɔ̀ gógí. He's completely bald. [lit. head-his bare completely]
gògɨ́ AV back. Mbāa lò-ḿ àw̄ ɓēe-é rátɨ́tɨ́, à ɗèē gògɨ́ àĺ tā. My guest has gone home for good, he's not coming back any more. Kàw̄ lòo gògɨ́ tètɨ̀ kɔ́ɔ́ līi. {Proverb} Going back broke the snake's neck. {i.e. be satisfied with what you have, don't take too many risks.} AV later, afterwards. Gògɨ́ m-ā m-āw m-ōo-á. Later I'll go and see him. Nām-ḿ kɔ́r̄-m̄ kɨ̄ ɓēe-é lò-ǹ àdɨ̄ kɨ̀-sà sì-á yá̰a̰ nà̰ gògɨ́ bè ànḛ̄ ɔ̀sɨ̀-m̄ ɓògɨ̀. My friend invited me to his house to eat with him, but then later he accused me of stealing. AV behind. Ndì gògɨ́ ɓēe-é. He remained behind at home. AV late. AV again, once more. àbìyō̰o̰-gɨ̄ ɓày-n̄ dò̰ó̰ gògɨ́. Airplanes are flying overhead again. Expr: kɨ́ gògɨ́ -next Dɨ̀másɨ̀/nā̰a̰/ɓāl kɨ́ gògɨ́next week/month/year Expr: tél kɨ̄ gògɨ́ -turn around; step back ī-tél kɨ̄ gògɨ́ nà màn̄ kɨ́ tíngā ò̰o̰ rō-í tɨ́.Step back lest the hot water burn you. Expr: tél kɨ̀ [dèē] kɨ̄ gògɨ́ -set [s.o.] back; ridicule ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ tél kɨ̀ dèē-gɨ̄ kɨ̄ gògɨ́ ngá̰y.The war has set people back a lot. Expr: ɓày kɨ̄ gògɨ́ nò -get out of here ī-ɓáy kɨ̄ gògɨ́ nò.Get out of here! Expr: gògɨ́ gō -after Gògɨ́ gō kɨ̀là tɨ́ ā ī-sá yá̰a̰.After work you should eat. Expr: njà kɨ́ gògɨ́ -back legs {of animal}; back tires {of vehicle} Expr: kō gògɨ́ -later, afterwards m̄-ɗèē kō gògɨ́.I came later. Expr: ɗāa [yá̰a̰] gògɨ́ -repair [s.t.] Kɔ̀dɨ̄ ɗāa bèlō lò-ḿ gògɨ́.The blacksmith fixed my bicycle. Expr: gògɨ́ nḛ̀ḛ̄ -later on
gògɨ́-làā (Syn: gògɨ́-nḛ̀ḛ̄) AVE now, since then; from now on {indicates a change from first clause to second clause}. J-ḭ̀ḭ̄ kɨ́ kété dá kɨ̀-ngà yá̰a̰-kɨ́-sà sḭ́ḭ mèy gògɨ́-làā nà yá̰a̰-kɨ́-sà kúlù tōo rō. We from the old days had a little food but now food is very difficult (to find).
gògɨ́-nḛ̀ḛ̄ (Syn: =gògɨ́-làā) AVE now, since then; from now on {indicates a change from first clause to second clause}. Kété m-ā m-ā̰y kàsɨ̀ ngá̰y nà̰ gògɨ́-nḛ̀ḛ̄ m-ōo rō-ḿ kàsɨ̀. I used to drink a lot but later I stopped drinking. ā él tàa ngá̰y nà gògɨ́-nḛ̀ḛ̄ kōtɨ́ kèl tàa kɨ̀-ndāńg-ndāńg. You talk a great deal but from now on let's have no more useless chatter. Lòo-ń āw ɓēe-é nò m̄-ɓīi gògɨ́-nḛ̀ḛ̄. After you went home I fell asleep. [lit: when you went home EC I slept now] AVE recent, recent past. Expr: kɨ́ gògɨ́-nḛ̀ḛ̄ -of the recent past Dúnyà kɨ́ gògɨ́-nḛ̀ḛ̄ ngàn̄g ngá̰y.Life in the recent past has been very difficult.
gógɨ́gɨ́ ID very (strong drink).
89
gógɨ́gɨ́ ID extremely (strong,hot,powerful).
gògɨ̀jɨ̀ (Syn: gṵ́rí) ID energetically (stir [s.t. thick]).
gógɨ́jɨ́ ID be undercooked; extremely (badly cooked). Ngàrì ń ī-ndīr nò ɗāa gōgɨ̄jɨ̄-gógɨ́jɨ́. The manioc you cooked is extremely undercooked.
gógɨ́r ID extremely (rough); be rough. Rō būr ngɨ̀rà gògɨ̀ròoo. The body of the large land lizard is extremely rough. Rō-í ngɔ̀ɔ̀ gògɨ̀ròoo. You have a rough old body.
gógɨ́r ID perfectly (ripe, in shape). Rō-ḿ mbùjɨ̀ gògɨ̀ròoo. I'm in perfectly good shape.
gòjɨ̀ NT knee. Gòjɨ̀ ngōn tōo-á ngá̰y. The child's knee hurt him a lot. Expr: ɔ̀sɨ̀ gòjɨ̀-ǹ bèŕ -kneel, kneel down Pàjā ɗèē ɔ̀sɨ̀ gòjɨ̀-ǹ bèŕ èl-ň tàa ngār̀.The king's servant came and knelt in order to speak with the king. Expr: tètɨ̀ gòjɨ̀-ǹ -sit down on haunch with knees bent in front, crouch Tètɨ̀ gòjɨ̀-ǹ bèŕ ndɨ̀ ndɔ̀ɔ̄-ň kàm ngàrì lò-ǹ.He crouched down and worked his cassava field. Expr: ɔ̀sɨ̀ gòjɨ̀-ǹ bèŕ nò̰ [dèē] tɨ́ -kneel before [s.o.], show respect for [s.o] Bɨ̀rà-kɔ̀sɨ̀ ɗèē ɔ̀sɨ̀ gòjɨ̀-ǹ bèŕ nò̰ ngār̀] tɨ́ ɗāa-n̄-èé sèrīi.The farmer came and knelt before the chef at the trial. Expr: ɔ̀sɨ̄ gòjɨ̀ [dèē] -help [s.o.] Kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄ m-āa ɓēé m-ɔ́sɨ́ gòjɨ̀ ngōn-kó̰o̰-m m-ādɨ̄-á ɗāa-ň kɨ̀là.This year I am going to the village to help my brother do a job.
gòjɨ̀-ngá-ndūu [gòjɨ̀ŋgá̰ndūu] NI type of white-breasted field bird {Senegal coucal}. Gòjɨ̀-ngá-ndūu ì yèl̄ kɨ́ kùkɨ̀rùuu kɨ́ à à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ bèŕ ngá̰y. à tūwā ndòm hɨ̀wà-á tɔ́r̄ kùm-á sà. ____ is a round bird which runs about on the ground a lot. It chases and catches squirrels and pulls their eyes out and eats them.
gól AV not full (container); be half full (subj. is tà [yá̰a̰] 'opening [of container]'). Dàm dá tà-á ì gól. That granary is half empty.
gól̄ VT cajole, play with [a child] (see also ndòo). VT console, rock [a baby]. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gól̄ ngōn-ǹ. The woman rocked her baby. VT fool, trick, deceive. Gól̄-m̄ ɓògɨ̀-m̄ gúsɨ̀ lò-ḿ. He tricked me and stole my money. VT persuade. Bɔ̀ɔ̄ ngōn gól̄ ngōn kàdɨ̄ àndɨ̄ kújɨ́-ú. The boy's father persuaded him to come into the house. VNI persuading; tricking; consoling. Gól̄ ngōn kɨ́ kádɨ́ yá̰a̰ màjɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ ndà ngōn kɨ̀ kádɨ́ yá̰a̰. {Saying} Persuading a child with a stalk is better than hitting him with it. Expr: ngè-gól̄-dèē-gɨ̄ -trickster Expr: kùm [dèē] gól̄-á dɔ̀ [dèē màdɨ̄] tɨ́ -[s.o.] watch out for [s.o. else] ādɨ̄ kùm-í gól̄-ī dɔ̀-ḿ tɨ́.You'd better watch out for me. Expr: gól̄ ndī-ǹ -ready voice Gól̄ ndī-ǹ kɨ̀ n-ɔ̀sɨ̄-ň pāa.He readied his voice to sing.
gòm NI type of okra. Gòm ì nápàr nɨ́má màdɨ̄. ____ is a certain type of okra. Gòm ń m̄-nàjɨ̀ nò tùtɨ̀ túu-bè. The okra I put out in the sun are all dry. Expr: tá̰a̰ gòm -sauce made from this variety of okra
gòm (Syn: ==ngɔ̀m) NI testicles. Bḭ̄yā̰ kɨ́ kɔ̀r̄ gòm-á à bòo ngá̰y. A goat that has its testicles removed will get very fat.
góḿ French NI eraser. Góm̀ à nàl ngōn lòkól̀ àĺ. A child won't fail to have an eraser at school.
gōmɨ̄r (Syn: =gōngɨ̄r) VT curl up [limb,finger]. Lòo-ń kūl à ò̰o̰ ngán-gɨ̄ ànḛ̄ à gōmɨ̄r-n̄ njà-dɨ́. When children are very cold they curl up their legs. VT huddle. VI curled up; withered {fig.}. Hòr tùlò mbī mángò àdɨ̄ gōmɨ̄r. The fire scorched the mango leaves so that they curled up.
gòn [gò̰n] (Syn: =gɔ̀n) NI congratulations (in expression ɔ̀sɨ̀ à 'to congratulate; encourage'). M-ɔ́sɨ́ gòn-á ngá̰y kɨ̀tɔ̄-kàdɨ̄ tàā dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́. I congratulated him for getting married. NI encouragement. Bɔ̀ɔ̄ ngōn ɔ̀sɨ̀ gòn ngōn-ǹ kàdɨ̄ ɗāa kɨ̀là sè-ǹ. The boy's father encouraged him to work with him.
90
gòng [gò̰ŋ] NI area filled with dry reeds (good for hunting in).
gòng [gò̰ŋ] NI fencing made of logs, pen (normally for livestock). Gòng ì lòo ngōm màn̄g-gɨ̄. A fenced-in pen is where cows are kept.
gòng [gò̰ŋ] ID extremely (bent). Kāgɨ̄ nōr gòng. The tree is extremely bent.
gòng [gò̰ŋ] NT male [of certain hoofed animals]. Expr: gòng tòo/jàl̄/kāl -large male tòo/jà£/käl/tòo/jà£/käl/tòo/jà£/käl antelope
gōng [gō̰ŋ] VT avoid, stay away from. Yá̰a̰ lò-í gòtóo à nōjɨ̄-í-gɨ̄ à gōng-ī-n̄. If you don't have anything {i.e. you are poor} your relatives will avoid you.
góǹg [góǹ] AV single, solitary. M-ḭ̄ḭ kɨ̀ bíkɨ̀ kɨ́rā bè góǹg. I only have one single pen.
góng [gó̰ŋ] NT times of, period of. Góng ɓōo tɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à yām-n̄ ngá̰y. In times of hunger people get very thin.
góng-góng [gó̰ŋggó̰ŋ] NI metal cover. Góng-góng lò-ḿ hól̄. My metal container is dented. NI metal container.
gòngɨ̀r [gò̰ŋgɨ̀r] (Syn: wānɨ̄m/=ngòngɨ̀r) NI area not burned in bush fire. Gòngɨ̀r ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ hòr ò̰o̰ àĺ. ____ is brush that hasn't been burned.
gōngɨ̄r [gō̰ŋgɨ̄r] (Syn: ==gōmɨ̄r) VT curl; huddle. VI be curled up; wilted {fig.}. m̄-lā tīw kàm hòr tɨ́ lā gōngɨ̄r túu-bè yé. I put glue into the fire and it all shriveled up.
góngɨ́r [gó̰ŋgɨ́r] ID extremely (curled). Mbī kāgɨ̄ dá gōngɨ̄r góngɨ́r. The leaves of that tree are completely curled up.
góngɨ̀ŕ-bāa [gó̰ŋgɨ̀ŕbāa] (Syn: kɨ́-wōńg-bāa) NI river bank. ōo lòo kɨ́ dà góngɨ̀ŕ-bāa tɨ́ nṵ́ṵ. Look at that spot on the river bank over there.
gòngɨ̀rà̰ [gò̰ŋgɨ̀rà̰] (Syn: ngàrì) NI manioc.
Gōr NP Gor {Sara people living in area around Bodo, more commonly called the ɓōdɨ̄}. Gōr-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ dèē kɨ́ ɓōo-dóo-gɨ̄. The Gor are the inhabitants of Bodo.
gór ID extremely (short). Ngōn nām-ḿ kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀ gór-gór ɗèē tàgɨ́-bè. My short little friend came yesterday.
Gōrēé NP Gore {large town 140 kms. west of Moissala, center for Laka and Kaba}.
górɨ́rɨ́r (Syn: =gɔ́rɨ́rɨ́r) AV round. Ngōn kújɨ́ bàsá lò-ḿ ì górɨ́rɨ́r. The little house of my boyfriend is round.
górō Arabic NI kola nut [Cola nitida]. Bórnò-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ ngé-gātɨ̄ górō-gɨ̄ kɨ́ ngá̰y. The Borno are great sellers of kola nuts.
góróbátɨ́ NI justice; just. Ké ì góróbátɨ́ kàdɨ̄ ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ à sà yá̰a̰ túu-bè wà? Is it just that my brother eat it all? Expr: dèē kɨ́ góróbátɨ́ -just person, fair person Dèē kɨ́ góróbátɨ́ à ɗāa yá̰a̰ kɨ́ gō kɔ́ɔ́ dèē-gɨ̄ túu-bè.A just person does things in accordance with everybody's wishes.
91
gōsɨ̄ NTI artist, expert. NT way to, manner of [doing s.t.]. M-ā m̄-dá-ī gōsɨ̄-á. I'll show you how to do it. Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ dà-m̄ gōsɨ̄ rāa kɨ̀là ndɔ̀ɔ̄. My father showed me how to work the fields. Expr: gōsɨ̄ pāa -singer, musician Gōsɨ̄ pāa Mā̰ysālāá òy.Moissala's great singer has died. Expr: gōsɨ̄ kúndɨ̄/kìndè -expert xylophone/guitar player Expr: òō gōsɨ̄ ɗāa [yá̰a̰] -know how to do [s.t.]; be good at doing [s.t.] M-ōo gōsɨ̄ ndà kɔ̀dɨ̀ ngá̰y.I'm an excellent drum player. Expr: dà [dèē] gōsɨ̄ ɗāa yá̰a̰ -show [s.o.] how to do s.t. Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ dà-m̄ gōsɨ̄ ɗāa kɨ̀là ndɔ̀ɔ̄.My father showed me how to plow. Expr: ngè-gōsɨ̄ -artist, musician
gósɨ́-bāa (Syn: bɔ̄gɨ̄-bāa) NI river bank.
Gōsɨ̄-pāa NP male name. EMP artist, singer.
gōsɨ̄-tàa (Syn: tèr-tàa) NI proverb; wise talk. Expr: dà gōsɨ̄-tàa -tell proverbs
gósɨ́r (Syn: =gásɨ́r) ID perfectly (ripe). Gɔ̀jɨ̀ mbùjɨ̀ gósɨ́r. The sorghum is completely ripe. Rō-ḿ mbùjɨ̀ gósɨ́r. I've completely regained my health.
gòtɨ̀ NI molded clay stand for water pot. ī-sáā gòtɨ̀ ī-ndā jóo-màn̄ dɔ̀ tɨ́. Look for a molded clay stand and put the water pot on it.
gòtɨ̀ NT hole where bird or fish lays eggs. Wōó ṵ̀ṵ̄ kàw gòtɨ̀-ǹ tɨ́. Carp lay their eggs in fish holes. NT rest [of s.t.]; remains, trace of. ɓāl ndɔ̄ɔ̄ tɨ́ dá màn̄ à ìī túu-bè nà̰ yà̰ gòtɨ̀-ǹ. In the dry season the water all dries up and leaves only its remains. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ gòtɨ̀ -be bald (one's head) Dɔ̀ bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ ɔ̀r̄ gòtɨ̀.My father is bald.
gōtɨ́ AV correct. ì gōtɨ́. That's right. You do what's not right.
gótɨ́ NT absence of. Ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ ɗèē kɨ̀ ǹ-òō-m̄ gótɨ́-ḿ tɨ́. My brother came to see me in my absence. Hòr ò̰o̰ kújɨ́ lò-ḿ gótɨ́-ḿ tɨ́, lòo-ń m-āa ndɔ̀ɔ̄ ngán mṵ̀ṵ-gɨ̄ tɨ́ nò. A fire burnt my house down in my absence while I was out ploughing in the country. NT place where [s.t.] belongs. NT trace, tracks of. Gótɨ́ dòo ń ndì rō Tàbɨ̀rā tɨ́ à lā ndɨ̀nā. The place where the sore was on Tabera is leaving a thick scar. gótɨ́ njà-ḿ my tracks Súu dɨ̀bà gótɨ́-ǹ tɨ́. Suu stopped in his tracks. Expr: gà gótɨ́ -replace Bíkɨ̀ lò-ḿ nà̰y nà̰ m-ā m̄-ngá màdɨ̄ m̄-gá-ň gótɨ́-á àĺ.I've lost my pen and I can't find another to replace it. Expr: gótɨ́ ɓēe -place where a village used to be Gótɨ́ ɓēe ń-há̰ kɨ̀-ndā márí lā ndìn.Here sits the place of the village we built a long time ago.
gōtɨ́-gògɨ́ (Syn: ==gōtɨ́-làā) AV later, after. èl-m̄ àn kɨ̀ m-āw Sár̀ tɨ́ nà̰ gōtɨ́-gògɨ́ tél àn kɨ̀ ngōn-kó̰o̰-ǹ lā kɨ̀ àw̄ yé. He told me to go to Sarh but then later he told his brother to go instead.
gōtɨ́-làā (Syn: gōtɨ́-gògɨ́) AVE behind. ī-ndā túkɨ̄ gōtɨ́-làā, ī-ndā nò̰ tɨ́ àĺ. Put the barrel behind, don't put it in front. AV later, after.
gòtóo VI not be any. Yá̰a̰-kɨ́-sà gòtóo. There's nothing to eat. Kūbɨ̄ lò-ḿ lā gòtóo lā-m̄ ndìn. It's that I don't have any clothes. Expr: m̄-gòtóo tɨ́. -I want nothing to do with it Yá̰a̰ lò-sɨ́ ń ɗà ī-ɗāa-n̄-ň nò m̄-gòtóo tɨ́. Expr: yá̰a̰ dèē gòtóo -there's nobody {who} Yá̰a̰ dèē gòtóo lā ɗāa-m̄ yé.There's nobody to help me. Expr: yá̰a̰ kɨ̀tɔ̄-tɔ̄ɔ-ḿ gòtóo -I have nothing to my name, I'm penniless
gòwúr̄ NI type of large inedible squash [Citrullus lanatus] whose seeds are used for making oil. Expr: gòwúr̄-kɨ́-tátɨ́ -type of squash used especially for treating the interior of gourds Expr: gòwúr̄-kɨ́-kídɨ̄ -type of squash most commonly used in sauces Expr: gòwúr̄-kɨ́-sɔ̀l̄ -a fruit of squash plant which can be eaten in its entirety {not a separate species} Expr: gòwúr̄-kɨ́-kàtɨ̄ -a fruit of squash plant which cannot be eaten due to its bitterness Expr: yìbɨ̄-gòwúr̄ -oil made from this squash
gòy NIN pestle (normally carved ( tɔ́sɨ̄) from wood of tɔ́sɨ̄, tɔ́sɨ̄ or tɔ́sɨ̄ trees). Gòy ì yá̰a̰ kɨ́ à sòō-n̄-nèé yá̰a̰-kōo kàm bìī tɨ́. A pestle is a tool used to pound millet in a mortar.
92
gòy (Syn: ==gòy-ngōn) NI type of plant used to treat diarrhea in children.
góy (Syn: bìn̄g) NT thigh. Ngāró sō dɔ̀ sɨ́ndá tɨ́ àdɨ̄ góy-á tètɨ̀. Ngaro fell off the horse and broke his thigh. Expr: ngè-góy-kòy -paralyzed person Dèē kɨ́ ngè-góy-kòy ì dèē kɨ́ à ndīyā sétɨ́.A paralyzed person is someone who cannot walk.
gòy-ɓòng [gòyɓò̰ŋ] NI upper part of tail [of large land lizard būr] (lit: pestle of the tail). M-ā̰y súpɨ̀ gòy-ɓòng màn̄g sḭ́ḭ làā. I had ox tail soup this morning.
gōý-gɨ̄ NI type of small bird {bishop}. Gōý-gɨ̄ ì ngōn yèl̄ kɨ́ à àw̄-n̄ kósɨ̄-n̄. ɓàr-á lā à ɗèē-n̄ ngá̰y yé à ò̰o̰-n̄ kùm mṵ̀ṵ kɨ̀ kùm tā̰y-gɨ̄. à tɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ ngán-gɨ̄ ɓàr-á nà ɓāl ndɔ̄ɔ̄ à à ì-n̄ kàm kùu tɨ́. ____ is a small bird that flies in large flocks. In the rainy season a lot of them come and they eat grass seeds and millet grains. It hatches its young in the rainy season and in the dry season it lives in forests.
gòy-góỳ NI forest fairy, tree dwarf. Gòy-góỳ ì gír yòo màdɨ̄ kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀ kɨ́ sùmbā àĺ nà̰ à ɔ̀r̄-n̄ dèē-gɨ̄ àw̄-n̄ sè-dɨ́ dāng kɔ̄r tɨ́ yà̰-dɨ́ tītɨ́. Tree dwarves are a type of spirit which are excessively short and they take people out in the middle of nowhere and leave them there.
góỳ-góỳ IDS quickly (run) with feet slapping on ground (desc. of à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄). Ngōn à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ góỳ-góỳ. The boy ran quickly, his feet slapping against the ground.
gòy-ngōn [gòyŋgō̰n] (Syn: =gòy) NI type of plant. Gòy-ngōn ì kám kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à ùr-n̄ ngɨ̀rà-á ɗāa-n̄ kḭ̄ḭ màn̄-ngōn tɨ́. ____ is a bush whose root is dug up and used to make a remedy for children's diarrhea.
góy-rō NI partridge {stone partridge}. Góy-rō ì yèl̄ kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀, à ndīyā bèŕ ngá̰y. à sà yá̰a̰-kōo. à ṵ̀ṵ̄ kàw nà̰ ī-tūwā dɔ̀ tɨ́ à à àw̄ sá̰y àĺ. ā ī-yā gūm dɔ̀ kàw-á tɨ́ à ā ī-ɓá-á ndéré bè. ____ is a short bird, it likes to walk about on the ground. It eats millet. If it has laid its eggs and you chase it away, it won't go far. If you set a trap for it by its eggs, you'll catch it quickly.
gò̰o̰ NI phlegm. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ gò̰o̰ -spit up phlegm Ngé-kà̰ӯ máng-gɨ̄ à ɔ̀r̄-n̄ gò̰o̰ kɨ̀-ndāńg-ndāńg.Smokers spit up a lot of phlegm.
gò̰o̰ NTI champion, brave one. Expr: gò̰o̰-tɔ̄l-dā̰a̰-gɨ̄ -great hunter Gò̰o̰-tɔ̄l-dā̰a̰-gɨ̄ ì dèē kɨ́ jī-á àtɨ̀ ngá̰y; à ndà búndɨ́ à à nàl àĺ.A great hunter is someone who is a great shot; if he shoots a rifle he won't miss. Expr: gò̰o̰-kàsɨ̀ -great drinker Gò̰o̰-kàsɨ̀ ń-tèń à̰ӯ kàsɨ̀ mbá̰a̰ àdɨ̄ tɔ̄l-á tā.That great drinker drinks until it kills him. Expr: dèē kɨ́ gò̰o̰ -valiant person Dèē kɨ́ gò̰o̰ ì dèē kɨ́ tɔ́gɨ́-á ì ngá̰y.A valiant person is a person with great strength. Expr: gò̰o̰-tàa -chatter-box, someone who talks a lot Ngè gò̰o̰-tàa ń-ɗàn ngà nām-ǹ kɨ́ ngè-tàa ɓo-nèē tā.Today that chatterbox there met her match. Expr: gò̰o̰ pāa/ngɔ̄dɨ̄ -great singer/runner Gò̰o̰ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ à à̰ӯ ngɔ̄dɨ̄ ngá̰y, à ndà bál̀ ngá̰y.A champion runner is someone who runs fast, he will play a lot of football.
gò̰o̰ NI heron. Gò̰o̰ ì yèl̄ kɨ́ tītɨ̄ gò̰o̰-kádɨ́-ndɔ̀ɔ̄ bè nà̰ rō-á dūú tɔ̀ӯ-á. à sà yá̰a̰ kɨ́ kɨ́rā kɨ̀ gò̰o̰-kádɨ́-ndɔ̀ɔ̄. ____ is a bird like the Goliath heron but its body is smaller. It eats the same things as the Goliath heron.
gò̰ō̰ VT examine carefully, check. ī-gò̰ō̰ gúsɨ̀ lò-í màjɨ̀ ōo. Check to make sure all your money is there. [lit: you-examine money of-you well you-see] VT stare at. Ngōn-í ì ndè gò̰ō̰ ngón-kɨ́-màndɨ̀-gɨ̄. Your son is someone who stares at the pretty girls. VT visit. Màdɨ̄-kɨ́rá-ḿ àw̄ gò̰ō̰ kó̰o̰-ǹ tɨ́. My friend went to visit his mother.
gò̰o̰-kālā-gɨ̄ NI type of grasshopper with a pointed head. Gò̰o̰-kālā-gɨ̄ à sà mṵ̀ṵ kòo-ń, à sà yá̰a̰-kōo àĺ. The pointy-headed grasshopper only eats grass, it doesn't eat millet.
93
gò̰rḭ̀ NI type of plant with reddish color and tuber which is similar to tapioca. Gò̰rḭ̀ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ mbī-á ndúlō; kāgɨ̄-á kìrē yúrɨ́r nà ngɨ̀rà-gír-á tītɨ̄ kàndɨ̄ ndēr bè. ____ is a plant with a somewhat shiny leaf; its stalk is bright red and its root is similar to tapioca.
gò̰ý (Syn: dīw) VI become dark, be dark. Lòo gò̰ý ngá̰y. It's very dark out. VT become night to. Lòo gò̰ý-m̄ kɔ̄ŕ tàgɨ́-bè. It got dark on me in the field yesterday.
gó̰y NI panties ( gà gó̰y 'put on panties'). Lòo-ń kàn kàm dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ tōo-á dá à gà gó̰y. When a woman has her period she wears panties.
gɔ̄ɔ̄ VT hesitate [to do s.t.] (takes obj. yá̰a̰ 'thing'). ḭ̄ḭ dèē-kɨ́-dìngá, ōtɨ́ gɔ̄ɔ̄ yá̰a̰ nà̰ rō-í sɔ̀l̄-ī. You're a man, don't be hesitant lest you be ashamed. VT hesitate to do something for [s.o.]. M-ā m̄-gɔ̄ɔ̄-ī àĺ. I won't hesitate [to do this for] you.
gɔ̀gɨ̀ French NI government (shortened form of gɔ̀gɨ̀rnɨ́mà). kàmyō̰o̰ lò gɔ̀gɨ̀ government truck or vehicle Gɔ̀gɨ̀ àn kɨ̀ ī-bā làmbóò. The government says that you must pay taxes. Expr: pàr gɔ̀gɨ̀ -by force Tàā-n yá̰a̰ lò-jɨ́ pàr gɔ̀gɨ̀.They took our things by force.
gɔ̀gɨ̀ (Syn: =gɔ̀gɨ̀r/kárwày) NI type of grass {used in making grass fencing}. Gɔ̀gɨ̀ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ dèē-gɨ̄ à jō-n̄-nèé ndògɨ̄. ____ is a grass used for weaving grass fencing.
gɔ́gɨ́jɨ́-gɔ́gɨ́jɨ́ (Syn: tó̰rí-tó̰rí) IDS perfectly (smooth) (desc. of ò̰ō̰). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ɗāa kàm jóo àdɨ̄ ò̰ō̰ gɔ́gɨ́jɨ́-gɔ́gɨ́jɨ́. The woman prepared the inside of the pot so that it was perfectly smooth.
gɔ̀gɨ̀r NT chest [of animal]. ī-ndá gɔ̀gɨ̀r bísɨ́ ń tél kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ nò. Hit that dog lying upside down on its chest. NT carcass, chest of [s.t. dead]. Bísɨ́-gɨ̄ sà-n̄ gɔ̀gɨ̀r bḭ̄yā̰. The dogs are eating the carcass of the goat.
gɔ̀gɨ̀r ID suddenly (appear, come out). m̄-ɓɔ̄ɔ̄ rō-ḿ kújɨ́-ú nà̰ kàn ɗèē dá m̄-tèē gɔ̀gɨ̀rɔ̀ɔ̀ɔ̀ kɨ̄ rō-á tɨ́. I hid in the house and when he came I jumped out next to him suddenly.
gɔ́gɨ́r ID extremely (thick); be very thick. Bíyā ɓɔ̀w gɔ́gɨ́r. The porridge is very thick.
gɔ́gɨ́r-gɔ́gɨ́r IDS excessively short {insult}. ì ngōn dèē kɨ́ gɔ́gɨ́r-gɔ́gɨ́r bè, ngāl ngá̰y àĺ. He's a short little fellow, he's not very tall.
gɔ̀gɨ̀rnɨ́mà French (Syn: gɔ̀gɨ̀) NI government. Gɔ̀gɨ̀rnɨ́mà àdɨ̄ làmbóò dèē-gɨ̄. The government puts taxes on the people.
gɔ̀jɨ̀ VIA be short. Bɨ́gá bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ ì dèē kɨ́ gɔ̀jɨ̀. My old father is a short person. VI speak briefly. M-ā m̄-gɔ̀jɨ̀ dèpɨ̀. I'll speak very briefly. VT be short for. Njālā gɔ̀jɨ̀-m̄. The pants are too short for me. Expr: gɔ̀jɨ̀ mɨ̀là ngòy -crouch down tensely in preparation for activity
gɔ̀jɨ̀ NI type of sorghum [Sorghum caudatum] (see also wàā, tā̰y). Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ ndòr gɔ̀jɨ̀ ɗāa-ň mbùr̄. The woman pounded the millet to make 'boule'. Expr: gɔ̀jɨ̀ dìngàm -type of sorghum with dark reddish brown grains; recently introduced in area from Central Africa Expr: gɔ̀jɨ̀-tùníyà -type of millet, light reddish grains growing on light colored strings Gɔ̀jɨ̀-tùníyà-gɨ̄ à ɗāa-n̄-èé mbùr̄ à ɗāa-n̄-èé bíl̄-bìl hō.This type of millet is used to make boule and millet beer. Expr: gɔ̀jɨ̀-ngār̀-ɓār-m̄ -type of sorghum harvested twice in a single year
gɔ̀jɨ̀-kángà Sango NI bread made from manioc flour. Gɔ̀jɨ̀-kángà ì ndùjɨ̄ ngàrì kɨ́ ɗāa kɨ̀ màn̄ nà̰ ɓā tītɨ̄ mápà bè nà̰ à ndòm̄-n̄ gìdɨ̀-á kɨ̀ mbī yá̰a̰-kōo. ____ is manioc flour prepared with water and molded like bread and its exterior is then wrapped in millet leaf.
gɔ́kɔ̄ NI sickness caused by cold weather. Gɔ́kɔ̄ ɗāa kɨ̄njá lò-ḿ àdɨ̄ ɗà gɔ̀kɔ̀ɔ̀ɔ̀. My chicken has caught this disease and it's standing about listlessly. Gɔ́kɔ̄ ì mò̰y kɨ́ màjàĺ, à tɔ̄l kɨ̄njá-gɨ̄ ngá̰y. The chicken disease is a bad disease, it kills a lot of chickens.
94
gɔ́kɔ́ɔ́ɔ́ AV listlessly, in a sickly manner (used with ɗà, ɗà, ɗà). Kɨ̄njá ì mò̰y àdɨ̄ ɗà gɔ̀kɔ̀ɔ̀ɔ̀ kàdɨ̀ kújɨ́ tɨ́ kànjɨ́ ndɔ́tɨ̄. The chicken is sick and it's standing listlessly next to the house without moving.
gɔ̀l NI club. ādɨ̄-m̄ gɔ̀l lò-ḿ m̄-ndā bɔ̄gɨ̄-ḿ tɨ́. Give me my club so I can carry it over my shoulder. ī ngōn lò-á há̰ ā ī-ndīyā kɨ̀ gɔ̀l jī-í tɨ́ wà? Are you his child that you walk about with a club in your hand? Expr: gɔ̀l-ndà-kānjɨ̄ (gɔ̀l-tɔ̄l-kānjɨ̄) -fish club Expr: gɔ̀l-ndòo -club used in initiation ceremony Gɔ̀l-ndòo ì yá̰a̰ kɔ̀dɨ̀ kɔ̀ӯ àĺ.The initiation club is something that the uninitiated aren't supposed to touch. Expr: gɔ̀l ndà dɔ̀ [dèē] -[s.o.] to get nasal hemorrhage Gɔ̀l ndà dɔ̀-í ànḛ̄ yḭ̀r yá̰a̰-kɨ́-sà à ò̰o̰-ī àĺ.If you get a nasal hemorrhage, you won't have any appetite.
gɔ̀ĺ VIA be twisted, curved, twisty, crooked. Tà hátɨ́ gɔ̀ĺ ngá̰y. The mouth of the ^^ fish is extremely twisted. ɗóbɨ́ kɨ̀ gɔ̀ĺ a twisty road Kɔ́n-á gɔ̀ĺ gúǹg. His nose is terribly crooked.
gɔ́l̄ VT empty. VT clean, take out dirt from. Dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ gɔ́l̄ rísɨ̄ ndīr àdɨ̄ ngàw-ǹ. The women cleaned the rice and cooked it and gave it to her husband. m̄-ɗà m̄-gɔ́l̄ jíngá kɨ̀ m̄-ndīr m̄-sá. I'm taking the dirt out of the crushed millet grain so I can cook and eat them.
gɔ̀l-kɨ́-ndà-dɔ̀ [gɔ̀lkɨ́ndádɔ̀] (Syn: =gɔ̀l-ndà-dɔ̀-dèē) NI nasal hemorrhage. Gɔ̀l-kɨ́-ndà-dɔ̀ ì mò̰y kɨ́ à ɗāa-ī ànḛ̄ kɔ́n-í à à̰ӯ mósɨ́. ____ is a disease that if it strikes you your nose will bleed.
gɔ̀l-ndà-dɔ̀-dèē (Syn: ==gɔ̀l-kɨ́-ndà-dɔ̀-dèē) NI disease causing constant bloody noses.
gɔ̀m (Syn: =ngòm) NT testicles. Gɔ̀m bḭ̄yā̰ màjɨ̀ tíngā ngá̰y. Grilled goat testicles are very good grilled.
gɔ̀n (Syn: ==gòn) NI congratulations; encouragement; praise. M-ɔ́sɨ́ gɔ̀n álà ngá̰y. I praise God greatly. Bɔ̀ɔ̄ ngōn ɔ̀sɨ̀ gɔ̀n ngōn-ǹ kɨ̀ ɗāa kɨ̀là màjɨ̀. The boy's father encouraged him to work hard.
gɔ̀n NT part of grain where sprout will come out. gɔ̀n mùnjò/wúl̄ Part of bean/peanut grain where sprout comes out.
gɔ̄ndɨ̄r VI shrink, become tight. Kàdɨ̀ ɔ̀sɨ̀ ngɨ̄rā à gɔ̄ndɨ̄r. The sun beat down on the skin and it shrunk.
gɔ̄pɨ̄ NI type of millet {like gɔ̀jɨ̀, its bran is not removed before grinding into flour}. Mbùr̄ gɔ̄pɨ̄ à tò kàm dèē tɨ́ ɓàr-á àĺ. 'Boule' made of this type of millet won't keep one satisfied for very long when it's not fresh {by the time the rainy season arrives}. [lit: boule of-^^ will remain stomach person LOC rainy-season-in not] Expr: gɔ̄pɨ̄-ndàa -type of white millet Gɔ̄pɨ̄-ndàa ì ngá̰y Tákāwāá tā kɨ̄ wàá kònī-nḛ̀ḛ̄.There has been a lot of white millet grown in Takawa this year.
gɔ́r NI part of trap. Expr: là gɔ́r dɔ̀ yá̰a̰ tɨ́ lò [dèē] -take s.t. from [s.o.] and refuse to give it back Ngè-mbɨ́rā̰ là gɔ́r dɔ̀ yá̰a̰ tɨ́ lò nām-ǹ nà tɔ̀ӯ.The bully took stuff from his friend and refused to give it back. Expr: ɔ̀r̄ gɔ́r dɔ̀ [yá̰a̰] tɨ́ lò [dèē] -refuse to give [s.t.] belonging to [s.o] Nām-ḿ ɔ̀r̄ gɔ́r dɔ̀ gúsɨ̀ tɨ́ lò-ḿ.My friend refused to give me my money.
gɔ̀r̄ NI counsel, advice. Gɔ̀r̄ lò bɨ́gá-gɨ̄ màjɨ̀ tɔ̀ӯ lò ngán-gɨ̄. Advice from the old is better than that from the young. VT counsel, advise. m̄-gɔ̀r̄ ngōn-ḿ dà tàa tɨ́. I counseled my son about the problem. EMP .
gɔ̄r NT pubic area, lower stomach. ɓà bḭ̀ḭ̄ ngá̰y dɔ̀ gɔ̄r-ǹ tɨ́. He has a lot of hair in his pubic area.
gɔ̄r NI dike, dam. ɗāa-n gɔ̄r kɨ̀ ǹ-hɨ̀wà-n̄-nèé kānjɨ̄-gɨ̄. They made a dike to catch fish. Expr: gāng gɔ̄r (=ɗāa gɔ̄r) -make a dike or dam
95
gɔ̄ŕ (Syn: =gɔ̄ríī/gɔ̄ríyɔ̄) VT reconcile [people who are disputing]. VT resolve [dispute, problem]. Expr: ngè-gɔ̄ŕ-tàa -negotiator, judge {in a dispute}
gɔ́r AV a long time (in expression gà à 'remain a long time'). Gà gɔ́r tà dàm-nàr tɨ́ ɓó-nèē kɨ̀tɔ̄ gúsɨ̀ lò-ǹ. He wait a long time today before the treasury to be paid.
gɔ̀r-gɔ̀jɔ̄-gɨ̄ NI round thing (can be abbreviated to gɔ̀r-gɔ̀jɔ̄). Kújɨ́ kɨ́ dà gɔ̀r-gɔ̀jɔ̄-gɨ̄ round house NI circle. Ngán-gɨ̄ ɗāa-n̄ kɨ́ dà gɔ̀r-gɔ̀jɔ̄-gɨ̄. The children formed a circle.
gɔ́r-gɔ́r IDS perfectly (round) (desc. of kɨ́-dà-gɔ̀r-gɔ̀jɔ̄-gɨ̄). Ngóo kɨ́ dà gɔ̀r-gɔ̀jɔ̄-gɨ̄ gɔ́r-gɔ́r. A perfectly round gourd.
gɔ̄ríī (Syn: ==gɔ̄ŕ) VT resolve; reconcile. Ngōn-kó̰o̰-ḿ gɔ̄ríī-jɨ̀ kɨ̀ nḛ̄ḛ́-ḿ. My brother reconciled me with my wife.
gɔ̄ríyɔ̄ (Syn: =gɔ̄ŕ) VT resolve; reconcile. Ngār̀ gɔ̄ríyɔ̄ tàa lò ngé-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄. (ngār̀ gɔ̄ríyɔ̄ ngé-ɗɔ̄ɔ̄-gɨ̄.) The chief resolved the problem between the people who were fighting. (The king reconciled the people who were fighting.)
gɔ́rɨ́rɨ́r (Syn: =górɨ́rɨ́r) AV small and round. m̄-gèe kɨ̀ m̄-ɗāa ngōn kújɨ́ kɨ́ gɔ́rɨ́rɨ́r kɨ̀ m-ādɨ̄ bḭ̄yā̰ lò-ḿ. I want to make a small round house for my goats.
gɔ́ryɔ́ɔ́ AV tiny. Ngōn kújɨ́ kɨ́ gɔ́ryɔ́ɔ́ a tiny house AV a tiny bit. Ngōn ndɔ̀ɔ̄ gɔ́ryɔ́ɔ́. The child hoed a little bit.
gɔ́sɨ́ (Syn: gɨ̀nà) NT upper back. NT hunch. NT hump [cow, camel]. Gɔ́sɨ́ màn̄g ì lòo kɨ́ gìdɨ̀ màn̄g tɨ́ nà̰ à ɓày kɨ̄ dò̰ó̰ nà. A cow's hump is the place on its back that rises up. Expr: ndà gɔ́sɨ́ [dèē] -pat [s.o.] on the back Bɔ̀ɔ̄ ngōn ndà gɔ́sɨ́ ngōn-ǹ hítɨ̄-á-ň ngá̰y.The boy's father pat him on the back and congratulated him. Expr: ɓà gɔ́sɨ́ -be hunchbacked Expr: ngè-ɓà-gɔ́sɨ́ -hunchback Expr: gɔ́sɨ́-kɔ́ɔ́ [dèē] -[s.o.'s] lower neck Expr: gɔ́sɨ́-bāa (=bɔ̄gɨ̄-bāa) -riverside
gɔ́sɨ́r ID be old and short.
gɔ̀w NI pond, body of stagnant water. Màn̄ gɔ̀w à nṵ̄ṵ àĺ. The water in a pond doesn't flow. Ngán kānjɨ̄-gɨ̄ ì-n̄ ngá̰y kàm gɔ̀w tɨ́. Small fishes abound in ponds.
gɔ́y NT thick part of [liquid]. ādɨ̄-m̄ gɔ́y bíyā nò ādɨ̄ m-ā̰y m-ōo ké ɓōo à yà̰-m̄ wà. Give me the thick bottom part of the porridge to drink and I'll see if it satisfies my hunger.
gɔ́ylɔ́ɔ́ NI sauce made from beans. Gɔ́ylɔ́ɔ́ ì mùnjò kɨ́ à ɔ̀r̄-n̄ ngɔ́ɔ́-á kɔ̄ɔ́ nà̰ ndīr-n̄ tá̰a̰ tɨ́. ____ is beans with the pod removed and cooked in a sauce.
gùu,gúù (Syn: gɔ̀gɨ̀) NI force (in expression pàr à 'by force'). Ngār̀ hɔ̀ bḭ̄yā̰ lò ngōn kɨ̀ gúù. The chief took the goat from the boy by force.
gūdɨ̄m-gṵ̀ӯ Sar NI dried ground nuts cooked in water and then in oil. Wúl̄-sàr kɨ́ tùtɨ̀ kɨ́ ndīr lā à kɔ́r̄-n̄-á gūdɨ̄m-gṵ̀ӯ yé. Dried round peanuts that are cooked are called 'gudem guy'.
gūgɨ̄ VT encircle, go around. Ndògɨ̄ gūgɨ̄ gìdɨ̀ kújɨ́ lò-ḿ. The grass fencing goes around my house. VT crowd about. Ngán-gɨ̄ gūgɨ̄-n̄ gìdɨ̀-á. The children crowded about him. VI walk about, wander around. Dèē kɨ́ ngè ɗāa kɨ̀là àĺ à gūgɨ̄ kàm ɓēe tɨ́ mbìr-mbìr. A person who doesn't do any work will walk about town aimlessly. Expr: gūgɨ̄ dɔ̀ -around m̄-lā ndògɨ̄ gūgɨ̄ dɔ̀ kújɨ́ lò-ḿ.I put up grass fencing around my house.
gúgɨ̄ VI hang around doing nothing. Ndì m̄-gúgɨ̄ kàrī. I'm just hanging around.
gùgɨ̀gɨ̀ ID in abundance.
96
gúgɨ́r (Syn: nígɨ́r) ID extremely (cloudy,dirty,thick). Bíl̄-bìl kɨ́ ɓɔ̀w gùgɨ̀rùuu very thick millet beer
gújɨ́ NI bunch of small fish. M-úgɨ́ gújɨ́ kɨ̀ bándɨ́. I caught a bunch of small fish with a net.
gújɨ́-bàĺ NI large sardine. Gújɨ́-bàĺ ì bàĺ kɨ́ bòo ngá̰y. ____ is a huge sardine.
gùjɨ̀-gùjɨ̀ (Syn: gànjàng-gànjàng) IDS suddenly (snatch) (desc. of nār). Ngé-ndà-bál̀-gɨ̄ à nāl bál̀ gùjɨ̀-gùjɨ̀. The soccer players get the ball with sudden quick movements.
gúkɨ̀ ID the wrong way (go down {liquid}. Màn̄ ɔ̀sɨ̀ kàdɨ̀-ḿ gúkɨ̀. The water went down the wrong way on me.
gūkɨ̄m Arabic (Syn: =gūkɨ̄m) NI type of large hen that doesn't lay many eggs. Gūkɨ̄m ì kɨ̄njá kɨ́ à ṵ̀ṵ̄ kàw ngá̰y àĺ. This type of hen does not lay many eggs.
gùl ID with gurgling noise(pour out {liquid}). Màn̄ kɨ̀jā kàm gàl̄ tɨ́ gùl-gùl. The water came gurgling out of the gourd. Màn̄ kɨ̀jā kɨ̄ kɔ̄ɔ́ gùl-gùl. The water poured quickly out.
gūĺ NT herniated belly button. Gūĺ-í bòo ngá̰y. Your herniated belly button is very large. Expr: ɓà gūĺ -have a herniated belly button Expr: ngè-gūĺ -someone with an herniated belly button
gūĺ-ɓɔ̀l [gūĺɓɔ́l̀] NI type of bush. Gūĺ-ɓɔ̀l ì kám kɨ́ màn̄g-gɨ̄ à sà-n̄. ____ is a bush that cows eat.
Gùlày NP Gulay {Sara people living in area north of Koumra, centered around Donamanga}; language of these people. ɓēe lò Gùlày ì Kūmráa hō Dānā-māngāá hō. The Gulay country is Koumra and Danamanga.
gúlí ID extremely (twisty, twisted). ɗóbɨ́ kɨ́ ɗùgɨ̀ gúlí-gúlí. An extremely twisty road. Rō līi ɗúgɨ̄ gúlí-gúlí. A snake's body is very curved.
gùm̄ NI pot for beer. Jóo-gùm̄ dá dèē-gɨ̄ à ṵ̀ṵ̄-n̄ kàsɨ̀ tɨ́ nà̰ bòo tɔ̀ӯ jóo-màn̄. The beer pot is used for millet beer and it's larger than a water pot.
gùm̄ NI type of plant [Urena lobata]. Gùm̄ ì mṵ̀ṵ kɨ́ à tɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ kɨ̀lā sɨ̀rò-n̄ gà-n̄-nèé màn̄ hō ɗāa-n̄-nèé kújɨ́ hō jō-n̄-nèé bándɨ́ hō. ____ is a plant which is used to make rope; it's twisted so you can fetch water with it or make roofs or nets with it.
gūm NI trap. Gūm lò-ḿ kɨ̄lā kɨ̀ yèl̄. My trap went off on a bird. m̄-yā gūm kɨ̀ m̄-ɓá-ň yèl̄-gɨ̄. I set a trap to catch birds. [Lit: I-set trap to catch-with.it birds] Expr: gūm-tàa -indirect speech, the meaning of which is hard to understand Bɔ̀ɔ̄-ḿ yā-m̄ gūm-tàa lā m̄-sáā kàm-á kɨ̀ m-ōo nà̰ m-ōo àĺ bátɨ́ yé.My father spoke to me in riddles, and although I tried to figure out what he meant I couldn't. Expr: gūm-kɨ́-njà-á-gɨ̄ -type of trap consisting of noose held by sticks Expr: gūm-kújɨ́ -type of trap consisting of noose within circle of sticks Expr: gūm-ndògɨ̄ -type of trap consisting of noose in tight circle of sticks Expr: yā gūm -set a trap Ngán-gɨ̄ yā-n̄ gūm kɨ̀ ǹ-ɓà-n̄-nèé ngán yèl̄-gɨ̄.The children set traps to catch small birds. Expr: gūm hɔ̀ [dā̰a̰] -a trap catches [s.t.] Gūm lò-ḿ hɔ̀ tànjɨ̀.My trap caught a guinea hen.
gūm NT pit [of fruit]. Gūm mángò ɓà kɔ́ɔ́ màn̄g. The mango pit got caught in the cow's throat.
97
gúm NI type of tree, used in making 'long sauce' [Grewia venusta]. Gúm ì kám sà bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄. Dèē-gɨ̄ à tɔ̄ɔ̄-n̄ ngàr-kàm-á kúl̄-n̄-nèé tá̰a̰. ī-ngá dòo nà̰ mósɨ́-í à̰ӯ ngá̰y ànḛ̄ ā ī-sá ī-ndā tà tɨ́ ànḛ̄ à dɨ̀bà. ____ is a bush the leaf of which is eaten by goats. People cut out its center and cook it into a sauce. If you have a wound and it's bleeding a lot and you chew it and put it on the opening of the wound it will stop bleeding. M-āw mṵ̀ṵ tɨ́ m̄-sán̄g mbī kāgɨ̄ gúm m-ādɨ̄ bḭ̄yā̰-gɨ̄ lò-ḿ. I went into the countryside to find leaves of this plant for my goats. NT slime, gummy substance. Gúm ndèl̄ ì ngá̰y. Catfish are very slimy. Expr: gúm hàng -slime used by river sorcerer Gúm hàng ì ndɔ̀l kɨ́ ɔ̀r̄ ngá̰y ń-há̰ hàng-dā̰a̰ à ndɔ́r̄-ň dèē-gɨ̄ àdɨ̄ à̰ӯ-n̄ màn̄-bāa òy-ň nò.____ is a very slimy gummy substance used by the river sorcerer to pull people into the river so that they drown. Expr: ngōn-ngè-gúm -person who presses interior of gúm tree Expr: tètɨ̀ njà-ǹ ngán-ngé-gúm -kneel down
gūm-kíl NT point of elbow. Dèē-kɨ́-dìngá ɔ̀sɨ̀ kùm nḛ̄ḛ́-ǹ kɨ̀ gūm-kíl-ǹ. The man poked his wife in the eye with his elbow.
gūm-kōo (Syn: =gūmā yá̰a̰-kōo) NI broken up grains of millet. Gūm-kōo ń túr̄ ùn nò ɓà tà ɓēe-á. The piece of grain the ant took got stuck in the entrance to its hole.
gùmár̀ Arabic (Syn: mbàrà/=gùmbár̀) NI card game. Sà-n̄ bèlō lò nān-ḿ gùmár̀ tɨ́. My uncle lost his bicycle in a card game. [they.ate-PL bicycle of uncle-my card.game LOC]
gùmíyà̰,gṵ̀mḭ́yà̰ NI aide to chief (see also ngār̀). Gùmíyà̰ lò ngār̀ ì ngōn ngè-kɨ̀là lò-á. The aide to the chief is his messenger.
gūmsɨ̄ (Syn: =gūwsɨ̄) NI type of sauce made of beans. Gūmsɨ̄ ì tá̰a̰ kɨ́ ā ó̰o̰ ànḛ̄ ā ī-nàl kà̰ӯ màn̄ àĺ. It's a sauce which makes you thirsty after eating it. [lit: It is sauce which AUX you-drink then AUX you-fail to-drink water not]
gùmbár̀ Arabic (Syn: mbàrà) NI card game ( gùmár̀ also possible). Gùmbár̀ ì ɗɔ̄ɔ̄ kártē kɨ́ kɨ̀ gúsɨ̀. ____ is a card game played for money.
Gùndīí NP Gundi {Tumak capital, north of Koumra}. Ndòm kɨ̀ Túmàkɨ̀-gɨ̄ lā ì-n̄ ngé-ɓēe kɨ́ Gùndīí yé. The Ndam and the Tumak are the inhabitants of Gundi.
gúndī NI bracelet. Kété dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́-gɨ̄ à là-n̄ gúndī kùr̄-kɔ́ɔ́-jī-dɨ́ tɨ́ nà̰ ásà à là-n̄ àĺ. In the past women used to wear bracelets on their wrists but now they don't.
gúndí (Syn: =gúrí) ID with a jerk (roll).
gúǹg [gúǹ] ID extremely (twisted,crooked,etc.).
gùr ID very large and flat. Mbī wàsɨ̄ tátɨ́ gùr-gùr. The pumpkin leaf is extremely large and flat.
gùr ID loudly (burp).
gùr-gùr AV grouped in circle. Tànjɨ̀-gɨ̄ ɗà-n̄ gùr-gùr hól-ó lā mɨ̀là tɔ́y kɨ́ màdɨ̄ hɨ̀wà-á yé. The guinea hens were grouped in a circle and the wildcat crept up to one and seized it.
gúr̀-wìý (Syn: =ndā-ndīi-kɨ̀-sīŕ) AV cry of bird ( ndā-ndīi-kɨ̀-sīŕ). NI children's name for this bird.
Gùráǹ NP Toubou. NP northerners from desert, including Toubou, Kanembou, and Zaghawa.
gùrì ID large and round. Kūbɨ̄ lò-á lā ɓál kɨ́ kìrē gùrì-gùrì. His clothes have large red circles on them.
gúrí (Syn: =gúndí) ID wiggling about (roll). Kón̄g ndūr rō-ǹ gúrí-gúrí kàm dùndō súu tɨ́. The fly wiggled about in the spider's web.
98
gúrḭ́ (Syn: ==gṵ́rḭ́) ID energetically (stir).
gūrō VT decorate (obj. normally gìdɨ̀ [yá̰a̰] 'exterior of [s.t.]'). Ndì m̄-gūrō gìdɨ̀ jóo lò-ḿ. I'm decorating the exterior of my pot.
gúrsɨ̀ Arabic (Syn: nàr) NI money; pay. Lā gúrsɨ̀ kɔ̄ɔ́ nà̰ tél ɗà nō̰o wìy-wìy. He lost the money and returned crying boo hoo. Expr: ɔ̀sɨ̀ dɔ̀ gúrsɨ̀ nà̰ā̰ tɨ́ -pool resources, put money together
gūrūm (Syn: =jóo-gūrūm) NI large clay pot, partially buried in ground, formerly used as beer container (currently replaced by gídɨ̀r). ūtɨ̄ kàsɨ̀ ngōn gūrūm tɨ́. Pour the drink into the small clay pot.
gúsɨ̀ [gúsɨ̀,gúsɨ̄] Arabic (Syn: nàr) NI money (short form for gúrsɨ̀). m̄-sá pàr gɔ̀gɨ̀, m-ā m-ādɨ̄-ī gúsɨ̀ àĺ. I'm taking this food to eat by force, I'm not giving you any money for it. NI unit of money (5 CFA) ( gúsɨ̀ jōó '2 units' = 10 CFA, etc.). NI salary, pay. Expr: gúsɨ̀ gír dèē-kɨ́-dḛ̀ḛ́ -bride price Expr: ùn gúsɨ̀ (=ngà gúsɨ̀) -earn a salary; get one's salary Ngāró ùn gúsɨ̀ nā̰a̰ lò-ǹ nà à̰ӯ-ň kàsɨ̀ túu-bè.Ngaro got his salary but he drank it all away.
gùsùuu IDS bushy (tail) (in expression ndūu à 'be bushy'). ɓòng ndòm ndūu gùsùuu. The squirrel has a bushy tail.
gùtíyà Arabic (Syn: =gùtíì) NI long tuft of hair left on shaved head. Dùm-gɨ̄ à ngìsɨ̄-n̄ dɔ̀ ngán-dɨ́-gɨ̄ à à yà̰-n̄ gùtíyà tà-kɔ́n dɔ̀-dɨ́ tɨ́. When Muslims shave the hair of their children they leave a tuft on the top of their head.
gūwsɨ̄ (Syn: ==gūmsɨ̄) NI sauce - beans. Gɔ́ylɔ́ɔ́ ì kɨ́-mbītɨ̄ mùnjò nà gūwsɨ̄ ì tá̰a̰ mùnjò kɨ́ kúl̄. 'Goylo' sauce is made of beans cooked with flour while 'guwse' is beans cooked in 'long sauce'.
gùý NI heavy part of beer (see dùmā). Gùý dɨ̀mà à ɗāa dèē-gɨ̄ ndéré tɔ̀ӯ màn̄-dɔ̀-á. The heavy bottom part of honey beer gets people intoxicated faster than the light upper part.
gùý-gùý, gùý-gùý-gùý IDS rum-a-tum-tum {sound of drum} (use only with dàlì drum). Dàlì à kōo gùý-gùý-gùý. The ^^ drum goes rum-a-tum-tum.
gùyùng [gùyùŋ] ID loudly (pop, explode).
gṵ́ṵ (Syn: ngòsɨ̀) NT chest. Expr: hɔ̀ [dèē] kɨ̄ gṵ́ṵ-ǹ tɨ́ -embrace [s.o.] Expr: ɔ̀sɨ̀ [yá̰a̰] kɨ̀ gṵ́ṵ-ǹ -have an abundance of [s.t.] Jímɨ̀ ɔ̀sɨ̀ yá̰a̰-kōo kɨ̀ gṵ́ṵ-ǹ.Djimet has an abundance of millet.
gṵ́ṵ̀ NI force (in expression kɨ̀ à 'by force'). ásɨ̀gàr hɨ̀wà-á kɨ̀ gṵ́ṵ̀ kàdɨ̄ kɨ̀ ndūgō pál̄ lò-ǹ. The soldier forced him to buy his mat.
gṵ́rḭ́ (Syn: gògɨ̀jɨ̀) ID energetically (stir [s.t. thick]).
INJ so! well, well! {menacing}. Hà! ɓó-làā m̄-hɔ́-ī dɔ̀ ɓògɨ̀ tɨ́! Well, well, so now I've caught you stealing!
hàbɨ̀lày (Syn: =àbɨ̀lày) NI whip made of leather. Gṵ̀mḭ́yà̰-gɨ̄ lò ngār̀ ndà-n̄ hàbɨ̀lày ngá̰y. The king's aides know how to use the leather whip very well.
Hàjàráỳ Arabic NP Hajaray, people from mountainous area around Mongo {Kenga, Dajo, etc.}. Móngō ì ɓēe lò Hàjàráỳ-gɨ̄. Mongo is the city of the Hajaray.
hàl NI orphan (normally ngōn hàl). Ngōn hàl ì dèē kɨ́ ngé kòjɨ̀-á-gɨ̄ òy-n̄ túu-bè. An orphan is a child whose parents have all died.
hál Arabic NT character. Expr: tél hál-ǹ -change one's character Ngōn-ḿ tél hál-ǹ máràwày.My son has completely changed his character.
hālābā NI baldness ( ɔ̀r̄ hālābā 'be bald'). Dɔ̀-á ɔ̀r̄ hālābā. His head is bald.
99